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8. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis mastitis in Egyptian dairy goats
A. M. Nabih, Hany A. Hussein, Safaa A. El-Wakeel, Khaled A. Abd El-Razik and A. M. Gomaa
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1574-1580
Background and Aim: Mastitis is an important threat facing goat milk industry and is the most common cause of culling. Efficient control of mastitis, based on efficient diagnosis of diseased animals, would improve milk production and reproductive efficiency. In subclinical mastitis (SCM), infected goats demonstrate neither udder symptoms nor abnormal milk. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is an infectious causative agent of mastitis, mostly results as an extension of infection from the supramammary lymph node, and causes financial losses in the goat industry. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of SCM with emphasis on C. pseudotuberculosis mastitis in Egyptian dairy goats in the selected farms.
Materials and Methods: A total of 336 half milk samples were collected from 177 dairy goats of various crossbreeds, in mid-to-late lactation period, after clinical examination. All samples were examined bacteriologically, while somatic cell count (SCC) was determined only in 180 half milk samples of the clinically healthy milk samples. The isolated and identified C. pseudotuberculosis was examined for evidence of virulence genes (Phospholipase D [pld] and β-subunit of RNA polymerase [rpoB]) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: The prevalence of clinical mastitis was 30.5%, while 69.5% of animals were apparently healthy and secreted milk was normal. Of those 180 clinically healthy half milk samples, 96 milk samples (53.33%) showed SCM as detected by SCC (SCC ≥1,000,000 cells/ml). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most prevalent bacteria (41.96%), then Staphylococcus aureus (37.5%) and C. pseudotuberculosis (7.14%). Molecular diagnosis of virulence genes revealed evidence of pld gene in 16 isolates (66.66%), and rpoB gene in 6 samples (25%) of the 24 bacteriologically isolated C. pseudotuberculosis. Here, we describe, for the 1st time, isolation and identification of C. pseudotuberculosis from milk of does suffering from SCM in Egypt.
Conclusion:C. pseudotuberculosis must be considered for routine bacteriological examination of milk from dairy goats, particularly herds with a history of caseous lymphadenitis. Pld gene-based PCR is more reliable than rpoB gene-based ones for the diagnosis of C. pseudotuberculosis.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of rabbit coccidiosis (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in North Algeria.
Materials and Methods: During the study, 40 rabbit farms were investigated. The farms are located in the provinces of Tizi Ouzou, Medea, and Djelfa which distributed, respectively, into three regions: East Tell Atlas Mountains, Central Tell Atlas Mountains, and High Plateaus. The number of oocyst per gram of feces (OPG) was determined by McMaster technique, and the Eimeria species were identified using morphological criteria.
Results: In the farms investigated, the prevalence of coccidian infection was estimated to 90% (80.7-99.3%) in rabbits after weaning. The classification of the farms according to their parasite load allowed us to show that 37.5% of the prospective farms have an oocyst excretion between 104 and 5×104 oocysts per gram and 22.5% excrete >5×104 oocysts per gram. Excretion levels by region show that the region of East Tel Atlas Mountains ranks first with 79% of farms with a parasitic load >104 coccidians compared to the regions of Central Tel Atlas Mountains and High Plateaus. In total, eight species of Eimeria were identified from oocyst-positive samples. Mixed infections with four Eimeria species were common. E. magna is the dominant species in comparison with E. media and E. irresidua with respective frequencies of 42.5% and 17.6% and 14.9% (p<0.001). Our results showed that the farms using anticoccidial drugs for their rabbits were low (25%) and the percentage of farms with poor hygienic conditions was 65%. There was a significant association between increased oocysts excretion and control measures of coccidian infection.
Conclusion: The study revealed an overall prevalence of 90% in the three Algerian regions. A strong association was observed between Eimeria infection and hygienic status and preventional chemotherapy.
6. Epizootiological observations on canine microfilaremia in Gujarat state, India
J. R. Patel, S. Devi, J. P. Varshney and K. M. Jadhav
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1564-1568
Aim: The present investigation was conducted to study the prevalence of microfilaremia in dogs in Gujarat.
Materials and Methods: A total of 418 adult dogs aged between 2 and 14 years with signs of weakness and non-specified complaints, presented at TVCC, Deesa (North Gujarat), Nandini Veterinary Hospital, Surat (South Gujarat), and Private Clinics, Ahmedabad (Central Gujarat), were included in the present investigation for studying the prevalence of microfilaremia from July 2016 to May 2017.
Results: A total of 418 dogs were screened, of which 33 were found positive for circulating microfilariae with the prevalence rate of 7.89% in the population. Among microfilaremic dogs, the finding of microfilariae of Dipetalonema (Acanthocheilonema) reconditum was more common (23 cases; 69.69%) than Dirofilaria immitis (10 cases; 30.30%) making their prevalence in the population of 418 dogs as 5.50% and 2.39%, respectively. Breed-wise distribution of microfilaremic dogs revealed that 12 (36.36%), 8 (24.24%), 5 (15.15%), 4 (12.12%), 2 (6.06%), 1 (3.03%), and 1 (3.03%) cases were observed in Pomeranian, non-descript, German Shepherd, Labrador, Great Dane, Lhasa Apso, and Pug dogs, respectively. Of 10 cases of D. immitis, 5, 2, 2, and 1 were observed in Pomeranian, Labrador, non-descript, and Great Dane dogs, respectively. Cases of Dipetalonema reconditum were highest in Pomeranian (7), followed by non-descript (6), German Shepherd (5), Labrador (2), Great Dane (1), Lhasa Apso (1), and Pug (1). Age-wise distribution recorded significantly (p≤0.01) higher number of cases in adult dogs (4-14 years) for D. immitis (30.30%) and D. reconditum (39.39%). Sex-wise distribution of microfilaremic dogs showed that male (22/33, 66.66%) was more predisposed to microfilaremia rather than females (11/33, 33.34%). It is apparent from the study that the number of dogs with microfilaremia due to D. reconditum was significantly (p≤0.01) higher than that of D. immitis.
Conclusion: The present study revealed that microfilaremia due to D. immitis and D. reconditum is prevalent in the state of Gujarat. The infection with D. immitis was associated with severe lung and cardiac pathological manifestations.
5. Risk factors of a viral nervous necrosis disease in grouper (Epinephelus spp.) cultured in Bintan district, Indonesia
Eka Juniar, Kurniasih Kurniasih and Bambang Sumiarto
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1558-1563
Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in tiger grouper cultured in the floating net cage in Bintan district, Indonesia.
Materials and Methods: Sampling used multiple stages with ponds as interest units. The selection conducted by systematic random sampling from the entire net cage in Bintan district. The fish samples were selected based on the appearance of clinical signs of infected fish. The risk factors investigated in this study included net cage, technical, and sample fish information, culture, water quality, and feed management. A total of 195 fishes pooled to the 39 net cages and tested using the nested polymerase chain reaction technique to determine the VNN status. The brain and eye processed for histopathology.
Results: The prevalence rate of VNN on the net cage was 38% (15/39). The risk factors affecting VNN using bivariate analysis was cleaning the net (χ2=9.80; p=0.002), replacement of net cage (χ2=5.20; p=0.0226), and floating net cage technicians knowledge (χ2=4.13; p=0.042). The variables of positive risk factors affecting VNN by multivariate analysis were the juvenile source and the level of mid-weather changes (technician experience and dissolved oxygen [DO]). Seven variables associated to the VNN outbreak have detected. The positive multiplier factors were the source of juveniles, mid weather changes, technician experience, and the DO, while the negative factors were salinity, mixed feed, and the low weather changes. Histopathologically, the grouper fish showed the brain, eye, and muscle vacuolization and kidney necrosis.
Conclusion: It proves that the Bintan waters contaminated by VNN had a prevalence rate of 38% from the total sample based on bivariate method, net cleaning, net replacement, and knowledge on the VNN outbreak. Natural infection of VNN in grouper leads to vacuolization of the brain, the eye, and muscles nearby the eye as well the kidney necrosis.
4. The role of E3 ubiquitin ligase seven in absentia homolog in the innate immune system: An overview
Ferbian Milas Siswanto, I. Made Jawi and Bambang Hadi Kartiko
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1551-1557
The innate immune system has been considered as an ancient system and less important than the adaptive immune system. However, the interest in innate immunity has grown significantly in the past few years marked by the identification of Toll-like receptors, a member of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The PRRs are crucial for the identification of self- and non-self-antigen and play a role in the initiation of signaling events that activate the effective immune response. These sensor signals through interweaving signaling cascades which result in the production of interferons and cytokines as the effector of immune system. Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) actively mediate the rapid and versatile regulatory processes that initiate the activation of the innate immune system cascade. The seven in absentia homolog (SIAH) is a potent RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase that is known to involve in several stress responses, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, DNA damage stress, and inflammation. In this review, the role of SIAH will be discussed as an E3 ubiquitin ligase on the regulation of innate immune.
Keywords: E3 ligase, innate immunity, regulation, seven in absentia homolog.
3. Yields, chemical composition, and antimicrobial activity of two Algerian essential oils against 40 avian multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains
Narimene Mansouri, Leila Aoun, Nabila Dalichaouche and Douniazed Hadri
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1539-1550
Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate, in vitro, a possible antibacterial activity of Algerian essential oils (EOs) of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and that of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) against multidrug-resistant avian Escherichia coli strains and this in a perspective of their future use as a substitute for antibiotics (ATBs).
Materials and Methods: In addition to the reference strain of E. coli ATCC 25922, 40 strains of avian E. coli have been isolated (24 strains of broilers and 16 of turkeys), their antimicrobial resistance profile was determined by antibiogram tests against 21 ATBs whereupon they were subjected to the action of two Algerian EOs; the EO of Thyme (T. vulgaris L.) and that of Coriander (C. sativum L.), which oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and this for the determination of their chemical composition. The antibacterial activity, resulting in zones of inhibition, was evaluated by carrying out, in triplicate, aromatograms for both pure EO and that which has been diluted to 15% in Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), while the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the two EOs were highlighted by the method of liquid macrodilution.
Results: Antibiogram performance demonstrated an alarming state of antimicrobial resistance, the multidrug resistance rate was estimated at 100% for the broilers chicken strains and at 81.25% for strains isolated from turkeys, hydrodistillation allowed to obtained EOs with yields estimated at 1.22±0.26% for Thyme EO and 0.23±0.15% for the essence of Coriander, the GC-MS analysis identified 19 main compounds and showed that the majority chemical components were Carvacrol (73.03%) for Thyme volatile oil and Linalool (60.91%) for Coriander EO, aromatograms and the determination of MIC concluded that the EO of Thyme showed a greater antibacterial activity with an average of the zones of inhibition estimated at 26.75±0.426 mm and MIC ranging from 0.07 to 0.93 mg/ml against an average of the inhibition zones evaluated at 17.05±0.383 mm and MICs evaluated between 0.6 and 10 mg/ml for the EO of Coriander.
Conclusion: In aviculture, these results seem to be very promising in the case where we think about the replacement of ATBs by EOs, in vivo studies would be very interesting to confirm or invalidate this hypothesis.
2. Impact of the flour of Jerusalem artichoke on the production of methane and carbon dioxide and growth performance in calves
Sintija Jonova, Aija Ilgaza, Inga Grinfelde and Maksims Zolovs
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1532-1538
Aim: The aim of the research was to evaluate the growth performance, to measure the amount of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in calves' rumen, and to compare the obtained results between the control group (CoG) and the experimental group (Pre12) which received the additional supplement of the prebiotic inulin.
Materials and Methods: The research was conducted with ten Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus L.) crossbreed calves with an average age of 33±6 days. Calves were split into two groups: 5 calves that were fed with the control non-supplemented diet (CoG) and 5 calves that were fed with the same diet further supplemented with 12 g of flour of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) containing 6 g of prebiotic inulin per 0.5 kg of barley flour diet (Pre12). The duration of the experiment was 56 days. CH4 and CO2 were measured using cavity ringdown spectroscopy device Picarro G2508. The weight and samples from calves' rumen were evaluated 3 times during the experimental period - on the 1st, 28th, and 56th days. Samples were obtained by puncturing the calf rumen.
Results: The weight gain (kg) during the whole experimental period was higher in the Pre12 (65.8±6.57) compared to CoG (36.8±7.98) calves (p<0.001). The daily weight gain was also increased in the Pre12 (1.2±0.12) than CoG (0.7±0.14) calves (p<0.001). There was no difference in the levels of CH4 and CO2 produced in the rumen of CoG and Pre12 calves (p>0.05).
Conclusion: The main results showed that the prebiotic inulin can promote weight gain in calves, without affecting the mean concentration of CH4 and CO2 in calves' rumen.
1. The profiling of pre- and post-warming DNA in mouse embryos with microsatellite method
Widjiati Widjiati, Soeharsono Soeharsono and Yeni Dhamayanti
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1526-1531
Aim: This research aimed to identify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profile and changes of post-warming embryo after being frozen with vitrification method using microsatellite method.
Materials and Methods: This research examined the mouse embryo blastocysts that were divided into four groups: Post-warming living blastocyst, post-warming living blastocyst with half fragmented cell, post-warming dead blastocyst, and pre-freezing living blastocyst. The isolation sample applied phenol-chloroform method. After obtaining polymerase chain reaction results, all the samples of pre-freezing fresh embryo, post-warming living embryo, dead embryo, and degenerated embryo were then examined by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP).
Results: The amplification with D18mit14 primer was 100 bp and 150bp with D18mit87 primer, 150bp with D7mit22, and 300bp with D7mit25. The result of SSCP with D18mit14 primer showed that the blastocysts were fragmented and dead after warming process and formed into two DNA strand fragments, while the fresh embryos which passed freezing process did not form any fragment. D18mit87 primer SSCP indicated different fragments for each treatment. The result of SSCP using D7mit22 formed two different fragments for each treatment. While using D7mit25, the SSCP result formed some different fragments for each sample. Post-warming living embryo had similar ribbon to pre-freezing fresh embryo.
Conclusion: D7mit222, D7mit25, and D18mit87 primers could be used as the aneuploidy marker on mouse embryos that were induced by post-warming process. The profile of living blastocyst, dead blastocyst, and post-warming fragmented blastocyst had different DNA tapes.
Keywords: blastocyst, DNA mutation, single-strand conformation polymorphism, vitrification.
9. Preliminary field survey on Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle herds using caudal fold intradermal tuberculin test in two Northeastern States of Nigeria
Salisu Ibrahim, Bello Abubakar Usman, Danbirni Samaila and Adamu Saleh Saidu
International Journal of One Health, 4: 52-58
Aim: A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in two states of Northeastern Nigeria, namely Bauchi and Gombe States, between February 2010 and November 2014 using caudal fold tuberculin (CFT) skin test.
Materials and Methods: A total of 5489 cattle were screened using single CFT in Bauchi and Gombe States. Of the 5489 cattle, 2116 cattle were from 189 herds in five testing areas in Bauchi State and 3373 cattle in 217 herds from five testing areas from Gombe State.
Results: On the basis of the CFT, herd prevalence obtained was 56.08% in Bauchi and 55.29% in Gombe State, while the individual animal prevalence was 10.96% in Bauchi and 13.73% obtained in Gombe State. The prevalence based on the testing areas in Bauchi State, Alamari had the highest prevalence with 19.4 % and Disina the lowest with 9.0 %, while in Gombe State, Wakaltu had the highest prevalence with 20.9 % and Poshereng the lowest with 8.0 %. Cows were more likely to have tuberculosis lesions than bulls (p=0.0035) in Bauchi State, but there was no significant difference in Gombe State (p=0.166). However, a statistically significant association (p<0.05) was observed among the cattle age groups with cattle ≥4 years having higher odds for tuberculin reactivity compared to those below the age of 4 years in Bauchi State only.
Conclusion: There is the need to strengthen routine meat inspection and public health awareness programs on the zoonotic nature of bTB among the abattoir workers and the herdsmen.