Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
19. Antibody immunoglobulin G1 and immunoglobulin G2a responses against some cystic fluid proteins of Cysticercus bovis in Balb/c mice
I Nyoman Mantik Astawa, Ida Bagus Made Oka and I Made Dwinata
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1641-1647
Background and Aim: Immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 and IgG2a are the surrogate markers respectively for humoral and cellular immune responses of hosts against antigens including cystic fluid proteins of Cysticercus bovis. A study was conducted to investigate the IgG1 and IgG2a responses of Balb/c mice against some individual cystic fluid proteins of C. bovis in an effort to determine the roles of each protein in inducing the humoral and cellular immune responses in host.
Materials and Methods: Individual p71, p31, and p14 proteins of C. bovis were purified by separation of the proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and elution of individual proteins from the gel. Six female Balb/c mice were immunized 4 times at 10-day intervals with the crude cystic fluid proteins, and sera were collected for the measurement of IgG1 and IgG2a levels against the individual proteins. Sera samples collected before the first immunization were used as negative antibody control, sera samples collected after the fourth immunization were used as positive antibody control, and crude cystic fluid protein was used as positive antigen control.
Results: All immunized mice were immune to p71, p31, p14, and crude cystic fluid proteins of C. bovis. The crude cystic fluid proteins of C. bovis induced a higher IgG2a than IgG1 level following the first and the second immunizations but switched into a higher IgG1 than IgG2a level following the fourth immunization. Protein 71 kDa (p71) induced a higher IgG2a than IgG1 level following the fourth immunization. In contrast, p14 induced a higher IgG1 than IgG2a level following the fourth immunization. Low and balance IgG1 and IgG2a levels against p31 were observed following the first to the fourth immunizations.
Conclusion: Using IgG1 and IgG2a levels as the surrogate markers, it appears that cystic fluid antigens of C. bovis induce both humoral and cellular immune responses in Balb/c mice. The p71 appears to be a better inducer of cellular immune response, whereas p14 is a better inducer of humoral immune response of mice.
18. Potential and safety tests of egg drop syndrome candidate vaccine from Medan isolate, Indonesia
Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana, Nyoman Suartha, I Made Kardena, Gusti Ayu Mayani Kristina Dewi, Arini Nurhandayani, Syamsidar and Kadek Karang Agustina
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1637-1640
Aim: The study was aimed to prepare and examine the potential and safety concerns of egg drop syndrome (EDS) vaccine candidate seed. The potential and safety trials of EDS Medan isolate vaccine need to be done before commercial scale of EDS vaccines are made.
Materials and Methods: The safety test of EDS candidate vaccine was tested on 4-week-old specified pathogen-free chickens in an experimentally isolated enclosure.
Results: The result of the safety test obtained 27.3 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) unit of geometric mean titer antibody post-vaccination. However, the potency test of the EDS candidate vaccine was conducted on 17-week-old laying hens. Test results of the EDS potency vaccine in layer obtained antibody titer increased in every week of blood taking with average titer of antibody: Before vaccinated was 22.9 HI unit, 1 week after vaccination was 23.7 HI unit, 2 weeks post-vaccination was 25 HI unit, and 3 weeks after vaccination was 27.3 HI units. In contrast, decreasing trend was observed in control group (unvaccinated chicken).
Conclusion: Serologically, the seed vaccine of EDS virus isolates from Medan was able to produce protective antibody titers starting in the 2nd and 3rd weeks post-vaccination.
Keywords: hemagglutination, inhibition test, Medan isolate, safety and potential test, seed of egg drop syndrome vaccine.
17. The first evidence of a new genotype of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus circulating in vaccinated and unvaccinated broiler flocks in Algeria
A. Lounas, K. Oumouna-Benachour, H. Medkour and M. Oumouna
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1630-1636
Background and Aim: Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) frequently infects broilers and is responsible for severe economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. It has also been associated with kidney damage in the broiler flocks. The aim of the present study is to determine the presence of IBV and its possible involvement in kidney damage of broiler chicks.
Materials and Methods: 14 clinically diseased broiler flocks from Western and Central Algeria were sampled and analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by phylogenic analysis.
Results: The QX (100%) and 4/91 (60%) IBV serotypes were the most prevalent in the kidney damaged broilers regardless of vaccination status. The molecular detection of avian IBV by RT-PCR identified six samples as positive, of which only two isolates were typable by sequencing. We identified a novel IBDZ13a genotype which showed 93% sequence homology to the partial-S1 gene sequence of the IB 4/91 commercial vaccine strain. Sequencing analysis characterized this virus as a novel and divergent IB 4/91 field virus with eight amino acid substitutions that might have resulted in altered immunogenicity.
Conclusion: The isolation of a new IBV strain (IBDZ13a) from vaccinated broiler flocks may explain the failure of the vaccination programs against IBV field strains. Combination of the HI test and RT-PCR indicated that the nephropathogenic IB outbreaks in broilers are related to this novel strain.
16. Effects of Artemisia herba-alba or olive leaf (Olea europaea) powder supplementation on growth performance, carcass yield, and blood biochemical parameters in broilers
Asma Ait-Kaki, Mamadou Tandiang Diaw, Fikremariam Geda and Nassim Moula
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1624-1629
Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Artemisia herba-alba (white wormwood) or olive leaf (Olea europaea) powder supplementation on growth performance, carcass yield, and serum biochemical parameters in broilers.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from April to May 2017 in Chemini region, Northern Algeria. A total of 60 1-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were divided into three groups consisted of 10 chicks, in each of two replications. The chicks in Group 1 were fed with a standard commercial diet (SCD); Group 2 received the same SCD with 2% supplementation of A. herba-alba powder; and Group 3 received the same SCD with 2% supplementation of O. europaea powder. Growth performance was measured with body weights every 2 weeks, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and carcass yield at the end of 42 days of rearing. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, and total protein levels.
Results: Results showed that, at 42 days of rearing, supplementation of O. europaea and A. herba-alba significantly increased (p<0.001) mean body weight (2230.10±26.38 g and 2117.42±26.38 g, respectively, vs. 2336.66±27.88 g in chicks of Group 1), but there was no significant difference (p≥0.05) among the three diets for FCR or percentage carcass yield. Among the serum biochemical parameters, glucose was significantly affected (p<0.01) by supplementation of olive leaf powder (1.90 g/L: Group 3), compared to the SCD (2.24 g/L: Group 1) or Artemisia powder (2.05 g/L: Group 2). Moreover, the supplementation of olive leaf powder in Group 3 broilers significantly affected (p<0.05) the serum cholesterol level (0.95 g/L), compared to the control diet (1.13 g/L). There was no significant difference (p≥0.05) for the other selected serum biochemical concentrations, namely triglycerides, urea, and total protein.
Conclusion: The supplementation of Artemisia or olive leaf powder into the diet for broilers improved body weight by about 5% or 10%, respectively, at slaughter with moderate changes in blood biochemical parameters.
Flagellar navigation along the genital tract of male and female in spermatozoa is accomplished through a number of biological, physiological, biochemical, and electrophysiological alterations in spermatozoa. These alterations are highly precise, dynamic, and regulated through a number of ion channels along with their associated pathways. Beating of flagella along with intracellular metabolism of spermatozoa is associated with fluxing of Ca++ as well as release of Ca++ from different sources. Calcium fluxing through the spermatozoa is mediated through sperm-specific calcium channel and also through transient receptor potential (TRP) channels which are diversified multifamily of ion channels which are activated through a number of extracellular agents such as pH, temperature, chemicals, and pathogens. Research has shown the dynamic role of TRP channels in regulating sperm functions such as sperm chemotaxis, rheotaxis, thermotaxis, and eventually fertilization. Diversified forms of TRP and their involvement in regulation of sperm function opens new horizons of understanding of the sperm function and, in specific, issues related to infertility. This mini-review is an attempt to draw some insights into the action of TRP channels in regulating sperm fertility competence through both calcium-dependent and calcium-independent mechanisms.
14. Metabolic and morphometric changes in Indonesian cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) fed an atherogenic diet composed of locally sourced ingredients
Sri Rahmatul Laila, Dewi Apri Astuti, Irma Herawati Suparto, Ekowati Handharyani and Dondin Sajuthi
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1609-1617
Background and Aim: This study was designed to determine the effects of a new atherogenic diet formulated at Institut Pertanian Bogor (IPB) (Bogor, Indonesia) on metabolic, morphometric, and carotid artery imaging of cynomolgus monkeys.
Materials and Methods: A total of 20 adult male cynomolgus monkeys fed IPB-1 atherogenic diet for 1 year. Total plasma cholesterol (TPC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, and morphometric measurements were evaluated at baseline and monthly during the study. Carotid plaques and intima-media thickness (IMT) were measured using ultrasonography at baseline and after 8 months of treatment.
Results: This diet increased TPC, LDL, and TPC/HDL ratio and induced carotid atherosclerosis in this model. The TPC, LDL, and TPC/HDL ratio were positively associated; however, HDL was negatively associated with carotid plaques and IMT.
Conclusion: The IPB-1 atherogenic diet formulated with locally and readily available ingredients provides an economically and scientifically feasible monkey model to study atherosclerosis in Indonesia and Southeast Asia.
13. Association between milk urea nitrogen and first service conception in smallholder dairy farms under heat and humidity stress
Suppada Kananub, John A. VanLeeuwen and Pipat Arunvipas
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1604-1608
Aim: The study was to evaluate the relationship between the first service conception (FSC) and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) in smallholder dairy farms under heat and humidity stress.
Materials and Methods: Dairy cows from 43 dairy farms giving birth between November 2014 and April 2015 (n=295) contributed to the study. All cows were sampled monthly to measure milk compositions, and we collected additional farm data from farmers through a questionnaire. The first service during the first 120 days of lactation was the outcome of interest in this study. Multivariable logistic regression determined significant associations with FSC.
Results: The overall FSC was 22% and the mean MUN concentration was 11.55 mg/dl. The final FSC model included MUN concentration, the season of breeding, and protein energy ratio (PE ratio) in the diet. The odds of FSC were reduced by approximately 10% for each mg/dl higher MUN on the day of the milk sample that was nearest to the artificial insemination (AI) day. The odds of FSC were nearly 3 times higher when the first insemination occurred in winter compared to summer first services. Taking into account the nutritional factors, the odds of FSC were nearly 70% higher with an increase in PE ratio of 10 g of crude protein/Mcal from the mean of 35.90 g.
Conclusion: This study of smallholder dairy farmers in the hot and humid climate of Thailand confirmed that season, nutritional management, and MUN concentration were associated with FSC. MUN appears to be a useful indicator to monitor the effects of diet on reproductive performance from this study.
Keywords: first service conception, milk urea nitrogen, smallholder farm.
12. Validation of real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction to detect virus titer and thermostability of Newcastle disease live virus vaccine
Pangkaj Kumar Dhar, Avijit Dutta, Avijit Das, Mohammad Shah Jalal, Himel Barua and Paritosh Kumar Biswas
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1597-1603
Background and Aim: Newcastle disease is one of the most common diseases affecting poultry in Bangladesh. The disease can cause up to 100% mortality but is preventable if birds are timely and properly vaccinated with a vaccine of standard virus titer. Different live vaccines are commercially available in the country - most, if not all, are produced using lentogenic strains of the virus with variable virulence. One of the disadvantages of these vaccines is that they are not stable at high environmental temperature, and therefore, a proper cold chain must be maintained during transportation and storage. Information on how long these vaccine viruses can withstand environmental temperature, which is near the vicinity of 37°C in the summer season in Bangladesh, is scanty. The aim of this research was to measure the effect of temperature on virus titer of live ND virus vaccines and to develop a real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) standard curve to indirectly determine hemagglutination (HA) titer of virus by this highly sensitive method.
Materials and Methods: In this study, thermostability of five commercial live vaccines containing LaSota, F, Clone 30, and B1 type LaSota strains was observed for up to 35 days keeping them at 37°C. From the most thermostability yielding sample, two rRT-PCR standard curves were developed: (1) By plotting the cycle threshold (CT) values as obtained from 10-fold serial dilutions up to 10-3 against their corresponding log (to the base 10) dilutions and (2) by plotting the CT values obtained from serial HA dilutions up to 2-4 against their corresponding HA titer dilutions. The PCR efficiencies based on which the graphs were fitted were also evaluated.
Results: The vaccine from the LaSota strain withstood 37°C for 35 days with a gradual declination of HA titer over time, and this vaccine also had the highest initial HA titer, which was 211. The vaccine made from F strain was inactivated quickly, and it had the lowest HA titer at the beginning of the study. The first standard curve developed can be used to assess the level of virus titer in a diluted sample compared with the titer in the original undiluted vaccine preparation by plotting the CT value obtained from the dilution by rRT-PCR. The second standard curve can be used to calculate the HA titer of a vaccine dilution by plotting the CT value as obtained from the dilution by rRT-PCR.
Conclusion: The regression equations for the first and second graphs were y=–3.535x+14.365 and y=–1.081x+13.703, respectively, suggesting that, for every 3.53 cycles, the PCR product would have increased 10 times and 2 times for every 1.08 cycles, respectively, indicating nearly (but not exactly) 100% PCR efficiency.
11. Effect of feeding rice based distillers dried grains with solubles and gluten meal on nutrient transporter genes and immunity in broiler chickens
Om Prakash Dinani, Pramod Kumar Tyagi, Asit Baran Mandal, Praveen Kumar Tyagi, Dukare Sagar Popat and Sita Prasad Tiwari
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1592-1596
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding rice based distillers dried grains with solubles (rDDGS) and gluten meal on nutrient transporter genes and immunity in broiler chickens.
Materials and Methods: A 2×3 factorial design resulted in six experimental diets, namely T1 (no rDDGS/rice gluten meal [RGM]/enzyme), T2 (no rDDGS/RGM, with multienzymes), T3 (12.5% rDDGS, 15% RGM, no enzyme), T4 (12.5% rDDGS, 15% RGM, with protease enzyme), T5 (10% rDDGS, 12.5% RGM, no enzyme), and T6 (10% rDDGS, 12.5% RGM, with protease enzyme). Each treatment was allocated five replicates of chicks, with eight birds in each. Nutrient transporter genes such as Mucin (MUC 2), excitatory amino acid transporter 3 (EAAT3), and peptide transporter (PepT1) and immunity were estimated using standard procedures.
Results: Feeding rDDGS and RGM combination improved humoral immunity, while cell-mediated immunity did not show any significant (p>0.05) effect on broiler chickens. MUC and PepT1 genes showed significantly (p<0.01) decreased relative fold expression in 12.5% rDDGS +15% RGM combination, while EAAT3 gene showed significantly (p<0.01) decreased relative fold expression in both rDDGS and RGM combination levels.
Conclusion: Thus, it may be concluded that feeding rDDGS and RGM combination improved humoral immunity but had an adverse effect on nutrient transporter gene in broiler chickens.
10. Detection of gastrointestinal parasites in small-scale poultry layer farms in Leyte, Philippines
Rochelle Haidee D. Ybañez, Kurt Jimwell G. Resuelo, Ara Patrice M. Kintanar and Adrian P. Ybañez
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1587-1591
Background: Gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites can affect poultry productivity by compromising its health. It is well studied in other countries, but the documented reports in the Philippines have been limited.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the presence of GIT parasites in selected small-scale poultry layer farms in Leyte, Philippines.
Materials and Methods: A total of 243 stool samples from eight small-scale poultry layer farms in Leyte, Philippines, were examined for GIT parasites using floatation and sedimentation technique. Profile parameters were also obtained. Fecal samples were collected and analyzed using floatation and sedimentation techniques. Statistical significance between GIT parasite positivity and profile parameters was determined using Chi-square test.
Results: GIT parasites were detected in 92.2% of the samples (24.7% with single infection, 42.0% with 2-3 parasites, and 25.5% with three or more parasites). The common parasites detected were Ascaridia spp. (41.2%), Heterakis spp. (59.3%), Capillaria spp. (10.7%), Eimeria spp. (43.2%), and Strongyloides spp. (74.1%). Some profile parameters, including farm location, years in business, number of workers, nearby water system, the practice of fecal cleaning, and presence of other animals, were found to be significantly associated with GIT positivity.
Conclusion: GIT parasites were detected in the poultry of small-scale layer farms in selected areas in Leyte, Philippines. This finding calls for the importance of routine GIT parasite monitoring and the implied need for regular deworming or dewormer rotation in the area.
9. Molecular detection of genes encoding resistance to tetracycline and determination of plasmid-mediated resistance to quinolones in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli in Sukabumi, Indonesia
Ryan Septa Kurnia, Agustin Indrawati, Ni Luh Putu Ika Mayasari and Adin Priadi
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1581-1586
Aim: This study aimed to identify genes encoding resistance to tetracycline (TE) and plasmid-mediated resistance to quinolones in Escherichia coli isolates from clinical cases of avian colibacillosis in Sukabumi, Indonesia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 25 E. coli archive isolates were collected in 2013-2017 from clinical cases of avian colibacillosis in Sukabumi, Indonesia. All isolates were tested for TE and quinolone resistance using the disk diffusion method. TE -resistant E. coli isolates were screened for the presence of tet(A) and tet(B) genes by single polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The qnr(A), qnr(B), and qnr(S) genes were detected by multiplex PCR in quinolone-resistant E. coli isolates.
Results: Result of this study shows that 19 of 25 (76%) E. coli isolates are resistant to oxytetracycline and 64% are resistant to TE; among them, 63.2% and 31.5% were positive tet(A) and tet(B), respectively. 13 out of 25 (52%) are resistant to ciprofloxacin and 36% are resistant to enrofloxacin either norfloxacin; among them, 61.6% were positive qnr(A), 7.7% were positive qnr(B), 23% were positive qnr(S), and 7.7% were positive both of qnr(A) and qnr(S).
Conclusion: This study shows that a few pathogens of E. coli are resistant to TE and quinolone. The frequency of tet and qnr genes that are responsible for this resistance among avian pathogenic E. coli isolates in Sukabumi, Indonesia, was high.
8. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis mastitis in Egyptian dairy goats
A. M. Nabih, Hany A. Hussein, Safaa A. El-Wakeel, Khaled A. Abd El-Razik and A. M. Gomaa
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1574-1580
Background and Aim: Mastitis is an important threat facing goat milk industry and is the most common cause of culling. Efficient control of mastitis, based on efficient diagnosis of diseased animals, would improve milk production and reproductive efficiency. In subclinical mastitis (SCM), infected goats demonstrate neither udder symptoms nor abnormal milk. Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is an infectious causative agent of mastitis, mostly results as an extension of infection from the supramammary lymph node, and causes financial losses in the goat industry. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of SCM with emphasis on C. pseudotuberculosis mastitis in Egyptian dairy goats in the selected farms.
Materials and Methods: A total of 336 half milk samples were collected from 177 dairy goats of various crossbreeds, in mid-to-late lactation period, after clinical examination. All samples were examined bacteriologically, while somatic cell count (SCC) was determined only in 180 half milk samples of the clinically healthy milk samples. The isolated and identified C. pseudotuberculosis was examined for evidence of virulence genes (Phospholipase D [pld] and β-subunit of RNA polymerase [rpoB]) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: The prevalence of clinical mastitis was 30.5%, while 69.5% of animals were apparently healthy and secreted milk was normal. Of those 180 clinically healthy half milk samples, 96 milk samples (53.33%) showed SCM as detected by SCC (SCC ≥1,000,000 cells/ml). Coagulase-negative staphylococci were the most prevalent bacteria (41.96%), then Staphylococcus aureus (37.5%) and C. pseudotuberculosis (7.14%). Molecular diagnosis of virulence genes revealed evidence of pld gene in 16 isolates (66.66%), and rpoB gene in 6 samples (25%) of the 24 bacteriologically isolated C. pseudotuberculosis. Here, we describe, for the 1st time, isolation and identification of C. pseudotuberculosis from milk of does suffering from SCM in Egypt.
Conclusion:C. pseudotuberculosis must be considered for routine bacteriological examination of milk from dairy goats, particularly herds with a history of caseous lymphadenitis. Pld gene-based PCR is more reliable than rpoB gene-based ones for the diagnosis of C. pseudotuberculosis.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence and intensity of rabbit coccidiosis (Oryctolagus cuniculus) in North Algeria.
Materials and Methods: During the study, 40 rabbit farms were investigated. The farms are located in the provinces of Tizi Ouzou, Medea, and Djelfa which distributed, respectively, into three regions: East Tell Atlas Mountains, Central Tell Atlas Mountains, and High Plateaus. The number of oocyst per gram of feces (OPG) was determined by McMaster technique, and the Eimeria species were identified using morphological criteria.
Results: In the farms investigated, the prevalence of coccidian infection was estimated to 90% (80.7-99.3%) in rabbits after weaning. The classification of the farms according to their parasite load allowed us to show that 37.5% of the prospective farms have an oocyst excretion between 104 and 5×104 oocysts per gram and 22.5% excrete >5×104 oocysts per gram. Excretion levels by region show that the region of East Tel Atlas Mountains ranks first with 79% of farms with a parasitic load >104 coccidians compared to the regions of Central Tel Atlas Mountains and High Plateaus. In total, eight species of Eimeria were identified from oocyst-positive samples. Mixed infections with four Eimeria species were common. E. magna is the dominant species in comparison with E. media and E. irresidua with respective frequencies of 42.5% and 17.6% and 14.9% (p<0.001). Our results showed that the farms using anticoccidial drugs for their rabbits were low (25%) and the percentage of farms with poor hygienic conditions was 65%. There was a significant association between increased oocysts excretion and control measures of coccidian infection.
Conclusion: The study revealed an overall prevalence of 90% in the three Algerian regions. A strong association was observed between Eimeria infection and hygienic status and preventional chemotherapy.
6. Epizootiological observations on canine microfilaremia in Gujarat state, India
J. R. Patel, S. Devi, J. P. Varshney and K. M. Jadhav
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1564-1568
Aim: The present investigation was conducted to study the prevalence of microfilaremia in dogs in Gujarat.
Materials and Methods: A total of 418 adult dogs aged between 2 and 14 years with signs of weakness and non-specified complaints, presented at TVCC, Deesa (North Gujarat), Nandini Veterinary Hospital, Surat (South Gujarat), and Private Clinics, Ahmedabad (Central Gujarat), were included in the present investigation for studying the prevalence of microfilaremia from July 2016 to May 2017.
Results: A total of 418 dogs were screened, of which 33 were found positive for circulating microfilariae with the prevalence rate of 7.89% in the population. Among microfilaremic dogs, the finding of microfilariae of Dipetalonema (Acanthocheilonema) reconditum was more common (23 cases; 69.69%) than Dirofilaria immitis (10 cases; 30.30%) making their prevalence in the population of 418 dogs as 5.50% and 2.39%, respectively. Breed-wise distribution of microfilaremic dogs revealed that 12 (36.36%), 8 (24.24%), 5 (15.15%), 4 (12.12%), 2 (6.06%), 1 (3.03%), and 1 (3.03%) cases were observed in Pomeranian, non-descript, German Shepherd, Labrador, Great Dane, Lhasa Apso, and Pug dogs, respectively. Of 10 cases of D. immitis, 5, 2, 2, and 1 were observed in Pomeranian, Labrador, non-descript, and Great Dane dogs, respectively. Cases of Dipetalonema reconditum were highest in Pomeranian (7), followed by non-descript (6), German Shepherd (5), Labrador (2), Great Dane (1), Lhasa Apso (1), and Pug (1). Age-wise distribution recorded significantly (p≤0.01) higher number of cases in adult dogs (4-14 years) for D. immitis (30.30%) and D. reconditum (39.39%). Sex-wise distribution of microfilaremic dogs showed that male (22/33, 66.66%) was more predisposed to microfilaremia rather than females (11/33, 33.34%). It is apparent from the study that the number of dogs with microfilaremia due to D. reconditum was significantly (p≤0.01) higher than that of D. immitis.
Conclusion: The present study revealed that microfilaremia due to D. immitis and D. reconditum is prevalent in the state of Gujarat. The infection with D. immitis was associated with severe lung and cardiac pathological manifestations.
5. Risk factors of a viral nervous necrosis disease in grouper (Epinephelus spp.) cultured in Bintan district, Indonesia
Eka Juniar, Kurniasih Kurniasih and Bambang Sumiarto
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1558-1563
Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in tiger grouper cultured in the floating net cage in Bintan district, Indonesia.
Materials and Methods: Sampling used multiple stages with ponds as interest units. The selection conducted by systematic random sampling from the entire net cage in Bintan district. The fish samples were selected based on the appearance of clinical signs of infected fish. The risk factors investigated in this study included net cage, technical, and sample fish information, culture, water quality, and feed management. A total of 195 fishes pooled to the 39 net cages and tested using the nested polymerase chain reaction technique to determine the VNN status. The brain and eye processed for histopathology.
Results: The prevalence rate of VNN on the net cage was 38% (15/39). The risk factors affecting VNN using bivariate analysis was cleaning the net (χ2=9.80; p=0.002), replacement of net cage (χ2=5.20; p=0.0226), and floating net cage technicians knowledge (χ2=4.13; p=0.042). The variables of positive risk factors affecting VNN by multivariate analysis were the juvenile source and the level of mid-weather changes (technician experience and dissolved oxygen [DO]). Seven variables associated to the VNN outbreak have detected. The positive multiplier factors were the source of juveniles, mid weather changes, technician experience, and the DO, while the negative factors were salinity, mixed feed, and the low weather changes. Histopathologically, the grouper fish showed the brain, eye, and muscle vacuolization and kidney necrosis.
Conclusion: It proves that the Bintan waters contaminated by VNN had a prevalence rate of 38% from the total sample based on bivariate method, net cleaning, net replacement, and knowledge on the VNN outbreak. Natural infection of VNN in grouper leads to vacuolization of the brain, the eye, and muscles nearby the eye as well the kidney necrosis.
4. The role of E3 ubiquitin ligase seven in absentia homolog in the innate immune system: An overview
Ferbian Milas Siswanto, I. Made Jawi and Bambang Hadi Kartiko
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1551-1557
The innate immune system has been considered as an ancient system and less important than the adaptive immune system. However, the interest in innate immunity has grown significantly in the past few years marked by the identification of Toll-like receptors, a member of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). The PRRs are crucial for the identification of self- and non-self-antigen and play a role in the initiation of signaling events that activate the effective immune response. These sensor signals through interweaving signaling cascades which result in the production of interferons and cytokines as the effector of immune system. Ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like modifiers (UBLs) actively mediate the rapid and versatile regulatory processes that initiate the activation of the innate immune system cascade. The seven in absentia homolog (SIAH) is a potent RING finger E3 ubiquitin ligase that is known to involve in several stress responses, including hypoxia, oxidative stress, DNA damage stress, and inflammation. In this review, the role of SIAH will be discussed as an E3 ubiquitin ligase on the regulation of innate immune.
Keywords: E3 ligase, innate immunity, regulation, seven in absentia homolog.
3. Yields, chemical composition, and antimicrobial activity of two Algerian essential oils against 40 avian multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains
Narimene Mansouri, Leila Aoun, Nabila Dalichaouche and Douniazed Hadri
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1539-1550
Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate, in vitro, a possible antibacterial activity of Algerian essential oils (EOs) of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and that of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) against multidrug-resistant avian Escherichia coli strains and this in a perspective of their future use as a substitute for antibiotics (ATBs).
Materials and Methods: In addition to the reference strain of E. coli ATCC 25922, 40 strains of avian E. coli have been isolated (24 strains of broilers and 16 of turkeys), their antimicrobial resistance profile was determined by antibiogram tests against 21 ATBs whereupon they were subjected to the action of two Algerian EOs; the EO of Thyme (T. vulgaris L.) and that of Coriander (C. sativum L.), which oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and this for the determination of their chemical composition. The antibacterial activity, resulting in zones of inhibition, was evaluated by carrying out, in triplicate, aromatograms for both pure EO and that which has been diluted to 15% in Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), while the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the two EOs were highlighted by the method of liquid macrodilution.
Results: Antibiogram performance demonstrated an alarming state of antimicrobial resistance, the multidrug resistance rate was estimated at 100% for the broilers chicken strains and at 81.25% for strains isolated from turkeys, hydrodistillation allowed to obtained EOs with yields estimated at 1.22±0.26% for Thyme EO and 0.23±0.15% for the essence of Coriander, the GC-MS analysis identified 19 main compounds and showed that the majority chemical components were Carvacrol (73.03%) for Thyme volatile oil and Linalool (60.91%) for Coriander EO, aromatograms and the determination of MIC concluded that the EO of Thyme showed a greater antibacterial activity with an average of the zones of inhibition estimated at 26.75±0.426 mm and MIC ranging from 0.07 to 0.93 mg/ml against an average of the inhibition zones evaluated at 17.05±0.383 mm and MICs evaluated between 0.6 and 10 mg/ml for the EO of Coriander.
Conclusion: In aviculture, these results seem to be very promising in the case where we think about the replacement of ATBs by EOs, in vivo studies would be very interesting to confirm or invalidate this hypothesis.
2. Impact of the flour of Jerusalem artichoke on the production of methane and carbon dioxide and growth performance in calves
Sintija Jonova, Aija Ilgaza, Inga Grinfelde and Maksims Zolovs
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1532-1538
Aim: The aim of the research was to evaluate the growth performance, to measure the amount of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) in calves' rumen, and to compare the obtained results between the control group (CoG) and the experimental group (Pre12) which received the additional supplement of the prebiotic inulin.
Materials and Methods: The research was conducted with ten Holstein Friesian (Bos taurus L.) crossbreed calves with an average age of 33±6 days. Calves were split into two groups: 5 calves that were fed with the control non-supplemented diet (CoG) and 5 calves that were fed with the same diet further supplemented with 12 g of flour of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) containing 6 g of prebiotic inulin per 0.5 kg of barley flour diet (Pre12). The duration of the experiment was 56 days. CH4 and CO2 were measured using cavity ringdown spectroscopy device Picarro G2508. The weight and samples from calves' rumen were evaluated 3 times during the experimental period - on the 1st, 28th, and 56th days. Samples were obtained by puncturing the calf rumen.
Results: The weight gain (kg) during the whole experimental period was higher in the Pre12 (65.8±6.57) compared to CoG (36.8±7.98) calves (p<0.001). The daily weight gain was also increased in the Pre12 (1.2±0.12) than CoG (0.7±0.14) calves (p<0.001). There was no difference in the levels of CH4 and CO2 produced in the rumen of CoG and Pre12 calves (p>0.05).
Conclusion: The main results showed that the prebiotic inulin can promote weight gain in calves, without affecting the mean concentration of CH4 and CO2 in calves' rumen.
1. The profiling of pre- and post-warming DNA in mouse embryos with microsatellite method
Widjiati Widjiati, Soeharsono Soeharsono and Yeni Dhamayanti
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1526-1531
Aim: This research aimed to identify the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) profile and changes of post-warming embryo after being frozen with vitrification method using microsatellite method.
Materials and Methods: This research examined the mouse embryo blastocysts that were divided into four groups: Post-warming living blastocyst, post-warming living blastocyst with half fragmented cell, post-warming dead blastocyst, and pre-freezing living blastocyst. The isolation sample applied phenol-chloroform method. After obtaining polymerase chain reaction results, all the samples of pre-freezing fresh embryo, post-warming living embryo, dead embryo, and degenerated embryo were then examined by single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP).
Results: The amplification with D18mit14 primer was 100 bp and 150bp with D18mit87 primer, 150bp with D7mit22, and 300bp with D7mit25. The result of SSCP with D18mit14 primer showed that the blastocysts were fragmented and dead after warming process and formed into two DNA strand fragments, while the fresh embryos which passed freezing process did not form any fragment. D18mit87 primer SSCP indicated different fragments for each treatment. The result of SSCP using D7mit22 formed two different fragments for each treatment. While using D7mit25, the SSCP result formed some different fragments for each sample. Post-warming living embryo had similar ribbon to pre-freezing fresh embryo.
Conclusion: D7mit222, D7mit25, and D18mit87 primers could be used as the aneuploidy marker on mouse embryos that were induced by post-warming process. The profile of living blastocyst, dead blastocyst, and post-warming fragmented blastocyst had different DNA tapes.
Keywords: blastocyst, DNA mutation, single-strand conformation polymorphism, vitrification.