Thursday, 29 January 2015

Morphological and histological identification of Paramphistomum cervi (Trematoda: Paramiphistoma) in the rumen of infected sheep

Research (Published online: 30-01-2015)
24. Morphological and histological identification of Paramphistomum cervi (Trematoda: Paramiphistoma) in the rumen of infected sheep -Vijayata Choudhary, J. J. Hasnani, Mukesh K. Khyalia, Sunanda Pandey, Vandip D. Chauhan, Suchit S. Pandya and P. V. Patel
Veterinary World, 8(1): 125-129

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.125-129

Aim: This study was undertaken to identify Paramphistomum cervi on the basis of its morphology and histology to be the common cause of paramphistomosis in infected sheep and its differentiation from other similar Paramphistomes in Gujarat.
Materials and Methods: Adult rumen flukes were recovered from the rumen of naturally infected sheep slaughtered in various abattoirs in Gujarat. Some adult flukes were flattened and stained in Borax carmine, and some were sectioned in the median sagittal plane and histological slides of the flukes were prepared for detailed morphological and histological studies.
Result: Microscopic pictures of the parasite used in identification define the similarity in the morphology and histology of the anterior sucker, pharynx, esophagus, genital atrium, posterior sucker (acetabulum) and testes to the P. cervi.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that the most common species found in sheep infected with Paramphistomosis is P. cervi on the basis of its histo-morphological appearance in Gujarat.
Keywords: abattoirs, histology, morphology, paramphistomosis, posterior sucker, rumen fluke, sheep.

Virulence genes detection of Salmonella serovars isolated from pork and slaughterhouse environment in Ahmedabad, Gujarat

Research (Published online: 30-01-2015)
23. Virulence genes detection of Salmonella serovars isolated from pork and slaughterhouse environment in Ahmedabad, Gujarat -
J. H. Chaudhary, J. B. Nayak, M. N. Brahmbhatt and P. P. Makwana
Veterinary World, 8(1): 121-124

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.121-124

Aim: The aim was to detect virulence gene associated with the Salmonella serovars isolated from pork and Slaughterhouse environment.
Materials and Methods: Salmonella isolates (n=37) used in this study were isolated from 270 pork and slaughter house environmental samples collected from the Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation Slaughter House, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Salmonella serovars were isolated and identified as per BAM USFDA method and serotyped at National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre, Central Research Institute, Kasauli (Himachal Pradesh, India). Polymerase chain reaction technique was used for detection of five genes, namely invA,spvR, spvC, fimA and stn among different serovars of Salmonella.
Results: Out of a total of 270 samples, 37 (13.70%) Salmonella were isolated with two serovars, namely Enteritidis and Typhimurium. All Salmonella serovars produced 284 bp invA gene, 84 bp fimA and 260 bp amplicon for enterotoxin (stn) gene whereas 30 isolates possessed 310 bp spvR gene, but no isolate possessed spvC gene.
Conclusion: Presence of invA, fimA and stn gene in all isolates shows that they are the specific targets for Salmonella identification and are capable of producing gastroenteric illness to humans, whereas 20 Typhimurium serovars and 10 Enteritidis serovars can able to produce systemic infection.
Keywords: pork, Salmonella, slaughterhouse environment, virulence genes

Clinico-pathology, diagnosis and management of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta co-infection in wistar rats

Research (Published online: 29-01-2015)
22. Clinico-pathology, diagnosis and management of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta co-infection in wistar rats - Y. Damodar Singh and Rahul Singh Arya
Veterinary World, 8(1): 116-120

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.116-120

Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the pathology and control of sudden unexplained mortality in wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in a colony of 25 male wistar rats where there was mortality of nine rats. The dead rats were subjected to thorough post-mortem examination and necropsy samples were processed for hematoxylin and eosin staining for histopathological studies. Faecal samples of live rats were studied for the presence of parasitic eggs. Treatment with anthelmintics was given to manage the mortality and infections.
Results: The investigation revealed a natural co-infection of Cysticercus fasciolaris and Hymenolepis diminuta in wistar rats, which were pathogenic enough to cause mortality. Typical lesions associated with the parasites were found in the dead rats. The mortality and infection were managed with common anthelmintics.
Conclusion: C. fasciolaris and H. diminuta infection can cause mortality in wistar rats even when individually they cause asymptomatic infection. The mortality and infection can be managed with common anthelmintics.
Keywords: anthelmintics, co-infection, Hymenolepis diminuta, Mizoram, Taenia taeniaeformis, wistar rats

In vitro utilization of lime treated olive cake as a component of complete feed for small ruminants

Research (Published online: 29-01-2015)
21In vitro utilization of lime treated olive cake as a component of complete feed for small ruminants - A. Ishfaq, R. K. Sharma, A. Rastogi, B. A. Malla and J. Farooq
Veterinary World, 8(1): 109-115

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.109-115

Aim: The current in vitro study was carried out to determine the chemical composition and inclusion level of lime treated olive cake on acid detergent fiber (ADF) replacement basis in adult male goats.
Materials and Methods: Crude olive cake was collected and evaluated for proximate composition and protein fractionation. It was treated with 6% lime and incubated for 1 week under room temperature in 2 kg sealed polythene bags and was evaluated for proximate composition after incubation. Different isonitrogenous complete diets containing 0-50% of lime treated olive cake on ADF replacement basis were formulated as per the requirement of adult male goats. In ADF replacement, fiber and concentrate sources were replaced by lime treated olive cake by replacing the 0-50% ADF percentage of the total 40% ADF value of complete feed. The formulated complete diets were tested for in vitro degradation parameters.
Results: Treatment of olive cake with 6% slaked lime increased availability of cellulose and alleviated digestibility depression caused by high ether extract percentage. Organic matter, nitrogen free extract, ADF and neutral detergent fiber were significantly lowered by lime treatment of olive cake. The cornell net carbohydrate and protein system analysis showed that non-degradable protein represented by acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) was 21.71% whereas the non-available protein represented by neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (NDIN) was 38.86% in crude olive cake. The in vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) values were comparable at all replacement levels. However, a point of inflection was observed at 40% ADF replacement level, which was supported by truly degradable organic matter (TDOM), microbial biomass production (MBP), efficiency of MBP and partitioning factor values (PF).
Conclusion: In our study, we concluded that there is comparable difference in composition of Indian olive cake when compared with European olive cake. The most important finding was that about 78% of nitrogen present in Indian olive cake is available to animal in contrary to that of European olive cake. We concluded from in vitro studies that Indian olive cake can be included in complete feed at 30% level (w/w; 40% ADF replacement) for feeding in small ruminants without compromising in vitro degradability of the feed.
Keywords: acid detergent insoluble nitrogen-non, lime, male goats, olive cake, truly degradable organic matter

Detection of Avibacterium paragallinarum by Polymerase chain reaction from outbreaks of Infectious coryza of poultry in Andhra Pradesh

Research (Published online: 29-01-2015)
20Detection of Avibacterium paragallinarum by Polymerase chain reaction from outbreaks of Infectious coryza of poultry in Andhra Pradesh - T. M. Nabeel Muhammad and B. Sreedevi
Veterinary World, 8(1): 103-108

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.103-108

Aim: This study was carried out for the detection of Avibacterium paragallinarum from outbreaks of infectious coryza of poultry
Materials and Methods: The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was standardized for the diagnosis of infectious coryza by using infectious coryza Killed vaccine, ventri biologicals, Pune as source of DNA of A. paragallinarum. Five outbreaks of infectious coryza from Andhra Pradesh were investigated in the present study. A total of 56 infra orbital sinus swabs and 22 nasal swabs were tested by PCR.
Results: PCR analysis showed 56 positives (71.7%) for infectious coryza out of total 78 samples tested. Of 56 infra orbital sinus swabs tested, 47 were positive (83.9%) and 9 nasal swabs (40.9%) out of 22 tested had given positive results for infectious coryza. Samples collected from birds at acute stage of disease and samples collected before treatment with antibiotics were given better results on PCR.
Conclusion: For preventing the economic losses associated with the disease, an early, accurate and rapid diagnosis is essential. PCR is a rapid and highly sensitive diagnostic technique which can substitute conventional cultural examination.
Keywords: infectious coryza, polymerase chain reaction, poultry

Microbial quality, instrumental texture, and color profile evaluation of edible by-products obtained from Barbari goats

Research (Published online: 29-01-2015)
19. Microbial quality, instrumental texture, and color profile evaluation of edible by-products obtained from Barbari goats - Pramila Umaraw, V. Pathak, V. Rajkumar, Arun K. Verma, V. P. Singh and Akhilesh K. Verma
Veterinary World, 8(1): 97-102

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.97-102

Aim: The study was conducted to estimate the contribution of edible byproducts of Barbari kids to their live and carcass weight as well as to assess textural and color characteristics and microbiological status of these byproducts.
Materials and Methods: Percent live weight, Percent carcass weight, Texture, color, and microbiological analysis was done for edible byproducts viz. liver, heart, kidney, spleen, brain and testicle and longissimus dorsi muscle was taken as a reference.
Results: The edible byproducts of Barbari kids constitute about 3% of the live weight of an animal of which liver contributed maximum (1.47%) followed by testicles (0.69%) and heart (0.41%). While the same constituted 3.57, 1.70, and 0.99%, respectively on carcass weight. There was significant (p<0.05) difference among all organs regarding textural properties. Liver required the maximum shear force and work of shear (121.48N and 32.19 kg-sec) followed by spleen and heart. All organs revealed characteristics color values (L*,a*, b*, chroma, and hue) which were significantly different (p<0.05) from muscle values. The total viable count, coliform count showed slight differences for all organs studied. The staphylococcus counts were low with little differences among organs.
Conclusion: Edible byproducts have a significant contribution to carcass weight which could enhance total edible portion of the carcass. Efficient utilization of these by-products returns good source of revenue to the meat industries. Textural and color analysis give information for their incorporation in comminuted meat products, and microbial study tells about the storage study. However, study was in the preliminary and basic step forward toward better utilization of 3% of live animal which could increase the saleable cost of animal by 6.94%.
Keywords: edible byproducts, hunter color lab, microbial quality, textural characteristics

Saturday, 24 January 2015

Chemical composition of solar dried blood and the ruminal content and its effect on performance of Japanese quails

Research (Published online: 24-01-2015)
17. Chemical composition of solar dried blood and the ruminal content and its effect on performance of Japanese quails - Jyotiprabha Mishra, Robinson J. J. Abraham, V. Appa Rao, R. Asha Rajini, B. P. Mishra and N. R. Sarangi
Veterinary World, 8(1): 82-87

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.82-87

Aim: The aim was to determine the chemical composition of solar dried blood and rumen content (DBRC) and further ascertain the concentration at which DBRC could be included in Japanese quail diets without any adverse effect on its performance.
Materials and Methods: Feeding trial on the effect of DBRC on performance of Japanese quails was studied up to 5 weeks. 252 numbers of day old (Nandanam Type III breed) Japanese quails were purchased from Poultry Research Station, Madhavaram and divided into 7 batches (control+ six treatments) each consisting of 36 birds. The DBRC was included at 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% and 30% in diets as control, treatment-1 (T1), treatment-2 (T2), treatment-3 (T3), treatment-4 (T4), treatment-5 (T5) and treatment-6 (T6) respectively in a completely randomized design to replace soybean meal in Japanese quail feed. The birds were provided with ad-labidum feed and drinking water ad-libitum during the entire experimental period.
Results: The crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), ether extract (EE) and ash contents of DBRC were 35.87%, 17.40%, 3.6% and 12.6%, respectively. The amount of essential amino acids and non-essential amino acid content were found to be 12.98 and 4.87 (g/100 g of feed) respectively in DBRC feed. Result showed that all birds fed DBRC diets performed better than the control group. Mortality was unaffected by dietary treatments. There was a significant difference (p<0.01) observed in weight gain in treatment groups compared to the control.
Conclusion: Up to 30% DBRC could be incorporated in the diets of Japanese quails without any adverse effects on its performance.
Keywords: chemical analysis, growth performance, Japanese quails, solar dried blood and rumen content.

Pathology and molecular diagnosis of classical swine fever in Mizoram

Research (Published online: 24-01-2015)
16. Pathology and molecular diagnosis of classical swine fever in Mizoram - David Malswamkima, T. K. Rajkhowa, Rajesh Chandra and T. K. Dutta
Veterinary World, 8(1): 76-81

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.76-81

Aim: Clinical histopathological and molecular diagnosis of classical swine fever disease in pigs of Mizoram.
Materials and Methods: Totally, 31 clinically suspected pigs from 6 districts of Mizoram were examined, and clinical symptoms were recorded. Detailed post mortem examination of all the 31 dead animals was conducted, and gross changes were recorded. Tissue samples were collected for histopathological examination and molecular diagnosis. The collected tissues (tonsil, lymph nodes, spleen) were also processed for RNA extraction. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was performed to detect the specific gene fragments of classical swine fever virus (CSFV).
Results: Clinical examination of all the 31 suspected pigs revealed typical clinical signs of CSF. All the animals also showed typical gross and microscopic lesions of CSF. RT-PCR on tissue samples amplified the 421bp, 449bp and 735bp region of 5´NCR, non-structural protein 5B and Erns gene regions of CSFV, respectively. Nested PCR for internal region of E2 gene also amplified the expected product of 271bp using PCR product of whole E2 region as template DNA.
Conclusion: CSF is highly endemic disease in Mizoram. The viral strains circulating in this region are highly virulent. The disease can be diagnosed specifically using RT-PCR.
Keywords: classical swine fever, Mizoram, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction

Seroprevalence studies on animal chlamydiosis amongst ruminants in five states of India

Research (Published online: 24-01-2015)
15. Seroprevalence studies on animal chlamydiosis amongst ruminants in five states of India R. Chahota, S. Gupta, B. Bhardwaj, P. Malik, S. Verma and M. Sharma
Veterinary World, 8(1): 72-75

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.72-75

Background and Aim: Animal chlamydiosis, caused by different chlamydial species, is characterized by clinical or subclinical disease manifestations in cattle, buffalo, ovine, caprine and wild animal species. Animal chlamydiosis often remains underdiagnosed or undiagnosed, and its status in many parts of India is still unknown. Hence, the present study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence of animal chlamydiosis amongst ruminant livestock species of five states of India.
Materials and Methods: Totally, 2127 randomly selected serum samples collected from ruminant livestock species viz. cattle (n=430), buffaloes (n=429), sheep (906) and goats (n=362), were tested by agar gel precipitation test for chlamydiosis between 2002 and 2011. Precipitating antigen was prepared from locally isolated strain of Chlamydia psittaci after treatment with sodium deoxycholate.
Results: The chlamydial seroprevalence detected amongst ruminants in five states of India was: Himachal Pradesh: Cattle-10.90%, sheep-10.60% and goats- 22.46%; Punjab: Cattle-1.45%; Andhra Pradesh: Cattle-2.80%, buffaloes-0.93%, sheep-8.90% and goats-9.46%; Maharashtra: goats-8.33%; Jammu and Kashmir: sheep-12.50%. The mean seroprevalence values of each animal species are: Cattle-4.65%, buffaloes-0.93%, sheep-9.82% and goats-19.33%.
Conclusion: The results indicate the endemic nature of animal chlamydiosis across five states in India. Hence, it requires further extensive studies in other parts of India also using chlamydial species-specific diagnostics to ascertain overall countrywide prevalence of the disease. The zoonotic nature of the chlamydiae of ruminant origin further adds significance to such prevalence studies.
Keywords: agar gel precipitation test, chlamydiosis, ruminants, seroprevalence.

Associations of farm management practices with annual milk sales on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya

Research (Published online: 25-01-2015)
18. Associations of farm management practices with annual milk sales on smallholder dairy farms in Kenya - Shauna Richards, John VanLeeuwen, Getrude Shepelo, George Karuoya Gitau, Collins Kamunde, Fabienne Uehlinger and Jeff Wichtel
Veterinary World, 8(1): 88-96

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.88-96

Aim: Cows on smallholder dairy farms (SDF) in developing countries such as Kenya typically produce volumes of milk that are well below their genetic potential. An epidemiological study was conducted to determine reasons for this low milk production, including limited use of best management practices, such as suboptimal nutritional management.
Methods: An observational cross-sectional study of 111 SDF was performed in Nyeri County, Kenya in June of 2013 determining the effect of cow factors, farmer demographics and farm management practices on the volume of milk sold per cow per year (kg milk sold/cow). In particular, the effect of feeding high protein fodder trees and other nutritional management practices were examined.
Results: Approximately 38% of farmers fed fodder trees, but such feeding was not associated with volume of milk sold per cow, likely due to the low number of fodder trees per farm. Volume of milk sold per cow was positively associated with feeding dairy meal during the month prior to calving, feeding purchased hay during the past year, deworming cows every 4 or more months (as opposed to more regularly), and having dairy farming as the main source of family income. Volume of milk sold per cow was negatively associated with a household size of >5 people and feeding Napier grass at >2 meters in height during the dry season. An interaction between gender of the principal farmer and feed shortages was noted; volume of milk sold per cow was lower when female farmers experienced feed shortages whereas milk sold per cow was unaffected when male farmers experienced feed shortages.
Conclusions: These demographic and management risk factors should be considered by smallholder dairy farmers and their advisors when developing strategies to improve income from milk sales and animal-source food availability for the farming families.
Keywords: dairy cattle nutrition, management factors, livelihood, smallholder farm

Wednesday, 21 January 2015

Evaluation of pesticide residues in human blood samples from Punjab (India)

Research (Published online: 21-01-2015)
14. Evaluation of pesticide residues in human blood samples from Punjab (India) - Jasbir Singh Bedi, J. P. S. Gill, P. Kaur, A. Sharma and R. S. Aulakh
Veterinary World, 8(1): 66-71

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.66-71

Tuesday, 13 January 2015

Isolation of Canine parvovirus with a view to identify the prevalent serotype on the basis of partial sequence analysis

Research (Published online: 13-01-2015)
11. Isolation of Canine parvovirus with a view to identify the prevalent serotype on the basis of partial sequence analysis - Gurpreet Kaur, Mudit Chandra, P. N. Dwivedi and N. S. Sharma
Veterinary World, 8(1): 52-56

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.52-56

Aim: The aim of this study was to isolate Canine parvovirus (CPV) from suspected dogs on madin darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell line and its confirmation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and nested PCR (NPCR). Further, VP2 gene of the CPV isolates was amplified and sequenced to determine prevailing antigenic type.
Materials and Methods: A total of 60 rectal swabs were collected from dogs showing signs of gastroenteritis, processed and subjected to isolation in MDCK cell line. The samples showing cytopathic effects (CPE) were confirmed by PCR and NPCR. These samples were subjected to PCR for amplification of VP2 gene of CPV, sequenced and analyzed to study the prevailing antigenic types of CPV.
Results: Out of the 60 samples subjected to isolation in MDCK cell line five samples showed CPE in the form of rounding of cells, clumping of cells and finally detachment of the cells. When these samples and the two commercially available vaccines were subjected to PCR for amplification of VP2 gene, a 1710 bp product was amplified. The sequence analysis revealed that the vaccines belonged to the CPV-2 type and the samples were of CPV-2b type.
Conclusion: It can be concluded from the present study that out of a total of 60 samples 5 samples exhibited CPE as observed in MDCK cell line. Sequence analysis of the VP2 gene among the samples and vaccine strains revealed that samples belonged to CPV-2b type and vaccines belonging to CPV-2.
Keywords: Canine parvovirus, madin darby canine kidney cell line, polymerase chain reaction, nested polymerase chain reaction, VP2 gene.

Heat shock proteins: a therapeutic target worth to consider

Review (Published online: 13-01-2015)
10. Heat shock proteins: a therapeutic target worth to consider - Amita Dubey, K. S. Prajapati, Madhu Swamy and V. Pachauri
Veterinary World, 8(1): 46-51

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.46-51

Heat shock proteins (HSPs) are the molecular chaperones, that are not only expressed during the normal growth process of cell cycle consecutively, but also get induced in cells during various stress conditions produced by cellular insult, environmental changes, temperature, infections, tumors etc. According to their molecular weight and functions, HSPs are divided into five major families. HSP90, HSP70, HSP60 and HSP100 are the most studied members of the family. Experimental studies have proved that overexpression and/or inhibition of HSPs play an important role in maintaining the tolerance and cell viability under above-described stress conditions. HSP90 is found to be a promising candidate for the diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of cancer. Similarly, HSP70, HSP60 and small HSPs experimentally and clinically have potential for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease, ischemia, cell death, autoimmunity, graft rejection, etc. In a way, exploring, the cytoprotective and immunoregulatory role of HSPs can open a new avenue for the drug discovery and treatment of critical diseases.
Keywords: heat shock protein, heat shock protein 70, heat shock protein 90, stress protein, small heat shock proteins.

Plasma mineral profiles and hormonal activities of normal cycling and repeat breeding crossbred cows: A comparative study

Research (Published online: 13-01-2015)
9. Plasma mineral profiles and hormonal activities of normal cycling and repeat breeding crossbred cows: A comparative study - Abhijit Barui, Subhasis Batabyal, Sarbaswarup Ghosh, Debjani Saha and Saibal Chattopadhyay
Veterinary World, 8(1): 42-45

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.42-45

Aim: The present study was carried out to compare the associated role of micro minerals and hormones in repeat breeding animals with the normal crossbred cows.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 10 normal cycling and 10 repeat breeding crossbred cows of Ramakrishna Mission Ashram, Narendrapur to study the plasma mineral profile and hormonal activities.
Results: Zn was found to be highly significant (p<0.01) between the two groups. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and progesterone showed significant (p<0.05) difference in repeat breeding animal from the normal cyclic animal, whereas no significant differences were observed in Ca, P, Cu, Se, Co, luteinizing hormone and estradiol level.
Conclusion: It may conclude that repeat breeding condition of crossbred cows in farm condition is mainly due to the low level of progesterone, FSH and zinc.
Keywords: crossbred cow, hormone, mineral profile, normal cyclic, repeat breeding.

Friday, 9 January 2015

Dynamics of faecal egg count in natural infection of Haemonchus spp. in Indian goats

Research (Published online: 09-01-2015)
8Dynamics of faecal egg count in natural infection of Haemonchus spp. in Indian goats Nimisha Agrawal, Dinesh Kumar Sharma, Ajoy Mandal, Pramod Kumar Rout and Yogendra Kumar Kushwah
Veterinary World, 8(1): 38-41

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.38-41

Aim: Dynamics of faecal egg count (FEC) in Haemonchus spp. infected goats of two Indian goat breedsJamunapari and Sirohi, in natural conditions was studied and effects of genetic and non-genetic factors were determined.
Materials and Methods: A total of 1399 faecal samples of goats of Jamunapari and Sirohi breeds, maintained at CIRG, Makhdoom, Mathura, India and naturally infected with Haemonchus spp., were processed and FEC was performed. Raw data generated on FEC were transformed by loge (FEC+100) and transformed data (least squares mean of FEC [LFEC]) were analyzed using a mixed model least squares analysis for fitting constant. Fixed effects such as breed, physiological status, season and year of sampling and breed × physiological states interaction were used.
Result: The incidence of Haemomchus spp. infection in Jamunapari and Sirohi does was 63.01 and 47.06%, respectively. The mean LFEC of both Jamunapari and Sirohi (does) at different physiological stages, namely dry, early pregnant, late pregnant early lactating and late lactating stages were compared. Breed, season and year of sampling had a significant effect on FEC in Haemomchus spp. infection. Effect of breed × physiological interaction was also significant. The late pregnant does of both breeds had higher FEC when compared to does in other stages.
Conclusion: Breed difference in FEC was more pronounced at the time of post kidding (early lactation) when sharp change in FEC was observed.
Keywords: faecal egg count, goats, Haemonchus.

Epidemiological study of canine parvovirus infection in and around Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

Research (Published online: 09-01-2015)
7. Epidemiological study of canine parvovirus infection in and around Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India - Monalisa Behera, S. K. Panda, P. K. Sahoo, A. P. Acharya, R. C. Patra, Sweta Das and S. Pati
Veterinary World, 8(1): 33-37

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.33-37

Aim: An epidemiological study of canine parvovirus infection in dogs in and around Bhubaneswar, Odisha was conducted between December 2012 to March 2013 and prevalence rate was studied on the basis of age, breed, and sex.
Materials and Methods: A total of 71 fecal samples from suspected diarrheic dogs were collected in sterile phosphate buffer saline (10% W/V) and examined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of canine parvo virus infection, followed by epidemiological study in relation to age, breed, and sex.
Results: Of 71 samples analyzed, 29 (40.85%) were found to be positive by PCR assay. The infection was higher in Deshi/local breeds (34.48%), followed by German shepherd (17.24%), equal incidences in mixed and Labrador retriever (10.34%), Rottweiler and German spitz showed 6.90% each and finally lower incidences in four breeds (3.45%) such as Dalmatians, Nea politan mastiff, Pug and Great Dane. Age-wise prevalence study revealed the infection being more in the age group of 3-6 months (41.37%), followed by equal incidences of 27.59% in 1-3 months and 6-12 months age group, and a low incidence in age groups above 12 months (3.45%). The incidence was predominantly higher in males (86.21%) than females (13.79%).
Conclusions: The epidemiological analysis revealed that the breed wise prevalence was found to be more in Deshi breeds as compared to others, age groups below 6 months were found to be more prone to parvovirus infection and males were mostly infected.
Keywords: canine parvovirus, epidemiology, polymerase chain reaction.

Clinicopathological studies of gastrointestinal tract disorders in sheep with parasitic infection

Research (Published online: 09-01-2015)
6Clinicopathological studies of gastrointestinal tract disorders in sheep with parasitic infection - Sarvan Kumar, K. K. Jakhar, Satyavir Singh, Sandeep Potliya, Kailash Kumar and Madan Pal
Veterinary World, 8(1): 29-32

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.29-32

Aim: This study was envisaged to elucidate the parasitological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders of sheep.
Materials and Methods: Fecal, blood and serum samples collected from 31 sheep/lambs of Sheep Breeding Farm, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary & Animal Sciences, Hisar.
Results: Of 25 cases, strongyle eggs (12 cases, 48%) were a major infection, followed by Strongyloides spp. (8 cases, 32%) andMoniezia spp. (5 case, 20%). In one case, massive infection of strongyle particularly Haemonchus contortus and Moniezia spp. was observed. All these animals were found negative for hemoprotozoan parasites in blood smear examination. Hematological studies revealed that significantly decreased values of hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV) and total erythrocytic count (TEC). Absolute leukocytic count revealed significant leukocytosis due to neutrophilia, lymphocytosis, monocytosis and eosinophilia. Serum biochemical profiles of diarrheic sheep/lambs in present study were significant decrease in values of total protein, serum globulin, glucose where as significant increase in the albumin: Globulin ratio, aspartate aminotransaminase (AST), alanine aminotransaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatise (ALKP) and bilirubin.
Conclusions: From the present study, it is reasonable to conclude that major parasitic infection of sheep/lamb observed was strongyle, followed by Strongyloides spp. and Moniezia spp. Hemato-biochemical studies revealed significant leukocytosis and increase in AST, ALT, ALKP and bilirubin.
Keywords: clinico-pathology, gastrointestinal tract disorders, parasitic infection, sheep.