Saturday, 27 February 2016

Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line

Research (Published online: 27-02-2016)
20. Isolation and adaptation of bovine herpes virus Type 1 in embryonated chicken eggs and in Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line -Devprabha Samrath, Sanjay Shakya, Nidhi Rawat, Varsha Rani Gilhare and Fateh Singh
Veterinary World, 9(2): 222-225

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.222-225

Aim: Objective of the present study was to isolate bovine herpes virus Type 1 (BHV-1) from semen of infected bull and to adapt it onto embryonated eggs and Madin–Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cell line. Further, the virus was identified by agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test.
Materials and Methods: Semen samples were collected from five BHV-1 positive bulls previously confirmed for the presence of antibodies against BHV-1 using avidin-biotin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay test. The virus from semen samples was adapted in chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) of 11-day-old embryonated chickens eggs and in MDBK cell line. The presence of BHV-1 in infected CAM and cell culture fluid was confirmed by AGID test.
Results: Virus infected CAM showed edema, congestion and thickening at first passage level. Small foci ranged from 1 to 2 mm in diameter, scattered all over the membrane were observed at first passage. More severe changes were observed in CAM after serial passaging. The large pock lesions, round in shape with opaque raised edge and depressed gray central area of necrosis ranged from 3 to 5 mm in diameter were developed at fourth passage. Blind passages in MDBK cell culture were made. The MDBK cell line at second passage level showed characteristic cytopathic effect viz. rounding of cells with shrinkage, followed by aggregation or clumping of cells which progressed rapidly and appeared as “bunch of grapes” at 72 h post inoculation. Few cells become elongated when compared with uninfected controls. A homogenate of CAM with distinct pock lesions and infected cell culture fluid developed precipitation line within 48 h against specific anti-BHV-1 immune serum by AGID test.
Conclusion: BHV-1 was easily adapted in CAM of chicken embryos and in MDBK cell line. Virus infected CAM and cell culture fluid showed precipitin band by AGID test.
Keywords: Bovine herpes virus Type 1, chorioallantoic membrane, cytopathic effect, Madin–Darby bovine kidney cell line, pock.

Friday, 26 February 2016

Effect of extended photoperiod during winter on growth and onset of puberty in Murrah buffalo heifers

Research (Published online: 27-02-2016)
19. Effect of extended photoperiod during winter on growth and onset of puberty in Murrah buffalo heifers - Ashwani Kumar Roy, Mahendra Singh, Parveen Kumar and B. S. Bharath Kumar
Veterinary World, 9(2): 216-221

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.216-221

Aim: To investigate the effect of extended photoperiod on growth rate, hormonal levels, and puberty in Murrah heifers.
Materials and Methods: About 14 Murrah buffalo heifers were divided into normal day photoperiod (NDP; n=7) and extended NDP (ENDP; n=7) groups. The ENDP group was exposed to 4 h of extended photoperiod with artificial light (160 lux) after sunset for 3 months during winter.
Results: Group, age and group-by-age interaction effects on plasma glucose concentrations were non-significant (p>0.05). A significant effect of age on non-esterified fatty acids (p<0.05), cholesterol (p<0.01), and triglycerides (p<0.05) concentrations was observed. Group and group-by-age interaction effects on plasma T3, T4, leptin, 17 β estradiol, prolactin and melatonin concentrations were non-significant (p>0.05) while significant (p<0.05) age effect on T4, leptin and melatonin concentrations was observed. With respect to the circadian pattern of melatonin and prolactin, the group, time and groupby-time interaction effects were non-significant (p>0.05). Average daily gain and dry matter intake of heifers were nonsignificant between the NDP and ENDP groups but were comparatively higher in ENDP group. By the end of the experiment, 6 out of 7 heifers attained puberty in ENDP group in comparison to 4 out of 7 in NDP group.
Conclusion: Extending the photoperiod by artificial light for 4 h during winter season resulted in better growth rate and early onset of puberty in Murrah buffalo heifers.
Keywords: buffalo, leptin, melatonin, metabolites, photoperiod, prolactin, puberty.

Comparison of different diagnostic techniques for the detection of cryptosporidiosis in bovines

Research (Published online: 27-02-2016)
18. Comparison of different diagnostic techniques for the detection of cryptosporidiosis in bovines - H. K. M. Rekha, G. C. Puttalakshmamma and Placid E. D’Souza
Veterinary World, 9(2): 211-215

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.211-215

Aim: Aim of the present study was to compare different methods, viz., Sheather’s sugar flotation (SSF), Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN), Kinyoun’s acid-fast method (KAF), safranin-methylene blue staining (SMB), and negative staining techniques such as nigrosin staining, light green staining, and malachite green staining for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts in bovines.
Materials and Methods: A total of 455 fecal samples from bovines were collected from private, government farms and from the clinical cases presented to Department of Medicine, Veterinary College, Bengaluru. They were subjected for SSF, ZN, KAF, SMB and negative staining methods.
Results: Out of 455 animal fecal samples screened 5.71% were found positive for Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. The species were identified as Cryptosporidium parvum in calves and Cryptosporidium andersoni in adults based on the morphological characterization and micrometry of the oocysts.
Conclusions: Of all the techniques, fecal flotation with sheather’s was found to be more specific and sensitive method for the detection of Cryptosporidium spp. oocysts. Among the conventional staining methods, the SMB gives better differentiation between oocysts and yeast. Among the three negative staining methods, malachite green was found sensitive over the other methods.
Keywords: bovines, Cryptosporidium, Kinyoun’s acid-fast method, modified Ziehl–Neelsen, oocysts, safranin-methylene blue staining, SSF, diagnostic methods.

Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens

Research (Published online: 27-02-2016)
17. Evaluation of Emblica officinalis fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens - A. P. Patel, S. R. Bhagwat, M. M. Pawar, K. B. Prajapati, H. D. Chauhan and R. B. Makwana
Veterinary World, 9(2): 207-210

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.207-210

Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the dietary addition of Emblica officinalis (Amla) fruit powder as a growth promoter in commercial broiler chickens.
Materials and Methods: An experiment was conducted on 135 commercial broiler chicks (Ven-Cobb 400 strain) divided into three groups with three replicates of 15 chicks each. Three treatment groups were as follows – T1: Basal diet as per BIS standards; T2: Basal diet supplemented with 0.4% of E. officinalis fruit powder; and T3: Basal diet supplemented with 0.8% of E. officinalis fruit powder.
Results: The average body weights at the end of the 6th week were significantly higher (p<0.05) in groups T2 and T3 compared to group T1. Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kg live weight production were similar among the treatment groups. The net profit per bird was the highest in group T2 (Rs. 19.22/bird) followed by group T3 (Rs. 17.86/bird) and the lowest in group T1 (Rs. 14.61/bird).
Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it was concluded that dietary addition of E. officinalis (Amla) fruit powder had a positive effect on growth performance and net profit per bird in commercial broiler chickens.
Keywords: broiler chickens, Emblica officinalis, feed conversion ratio, growth performance.

Saturday, 20 February 2016

Assessment of motion and kinematic characteristics of frozen-thawed Sirohi goat semen using computer-assisted semen analysis

Research (Published online: 20-02-2016)
16. Assessment of motion and kinematic characteristics of frozen-thawed Sirohi goat semen using computer-assisted semen analysis -Mukul Anand and Sarvajeet Yadav
Veterinary World, 9(2): 203-206

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.203-206

Aim: The aim was to determine the motion and kinematics characteristic of frozen-thawed spermatozoa in Sirohi goat using computer-assisted semen analysis.
Materials and Methods: A study was carried out in Sirohi buck. Semen collection was made biweekly from each buck with the help of artificial vagina. A total of 12 ejaculates were collected from two bucks (six ejaculates from each buck). Freshly collected semen was pooled and later evaluated. The pooled semen sample was extended with standard glycerolated egg yolk tris extender and later subjected to a process of cryopreservation. The motion and kinematic characteristics of spermatozoa were studied during freez-thawing process.
Results: Significantly (p<0.01) higher value of live percent, hypo-osmotic swelling test, and acrosomal integrity were recorded in neat semen followed by diluted and frozen thaw semen. The proportion of spermatozoa showing slow progression were the highest in the neat and diluted semen followed by rapid and non-progressively motile, while a reverse pattern was observed in the frozen thaw semen where the proportion of non-progressively motile spermatozoa were significantly (p<0.01) higher followed by slow and rapid progression.
Conclusion: This study showed that the best results for motion, vitality, plasma membrane integrity, and acrosome status were obtained in the neat semen followed by diluted and frozen thaw semen. Further, the process of cryopreservation results in a shift of motility from slow to non-progressive in the post-thaw semen with a significant decrease in the path velocities when compared to neat and diluted semen. Hence, it can be concluded that freezing-thawing process reduces the motility and kinematic characters spermatozoa and may be an important factor affecting the fertilizing ability of spermatozoa resulting in poor conception rate after insemination in goats.
Keywords: computer-assisted semen analysis, cryopreservation, motility, semen, Sirohi goat.

Effect of management system and season on semen freezability in Jakhrana bucks

Research (Published online: 20-02-2016)
15. Effect of management system and season on semen freezability in Jakhrana bucks - Narendra Kumar, B. Rai, Showkat A. Bhat, S. D. Kharche, Chetna Gangwar, S. K. Jindal and Subhash Chandra
Veterinary World, 9(2): 199-202

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.199-202

Aim: The objective of the study was to determine the effect of the management system (intensive and semi-intensive) and season (autumn and winter) on semen freezability in Jakhrana bucks.
Materials and Methods: A total of 24 Jakhrana bucks of same body weight and age (BW=30 kg, age=1 year) were randomly allotted into two groups, viz., Group I (intensive system, 12 bucks) and Group II (semi-intensive system, 12 bucks). These two groups were statistically tested for their homogeneity with respect to age and BW. Semen was collected twice weekly using an artificial vagina during two seasons: autumn (September-November) and winter (December-February). A total of 240 semen samples (120 from each group and season) were evaluated for post-thaw motility (PTM), viability, abnormality, functional membrane integrity (hypo-osmotic swelling [HOS]) response and acrosomal integrity.
Results: The mean values of PTM and acrosomal integrity of spermatozoa were significantly (p<0.01) higher in Group II as compared to Group I. The mean values of viability and abnormality were also differed significant (p<0.05) between groups. However, the mean values of HOS response were found non-significant (p>0.05) between groups. The season showed a significant effect on all parameters except viability and HOS response. The PTM and acrosomal integrity of spermatozoa were significantly (p<0.01) higher in winter as compared to autumn season. Abnormality of spermatozoa was significantly (p<0.05) lower in winter season.
Conclusions: This study indicates that both management system and season influence semen freezability. The semen collected from bucks reared under the semi-intensive system and winter season showed better semen freezability characteristics.
Keywords: freezability, Jakhrana, management system, season.

Effect of feeding different levels of Azolla pinnata on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken

Research (Published online: 20-02-2016)
14. Effect of feeding different levels of Azolla pinnata on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken - Deepesh Bharat Mishra, Debashis Roy, Vinod Kumar, Amitav Bhattacharyya, Muneendra Kumar, Raju Kushwaha and Shalini Vaswani
Veterinary World, 9(2): 192-198

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.192-198

Aim: The present study was conducted to see the effect of feeding different levels of Azolla meal on blood biochemicals, hematology and immunocompetence traits of Chabro chicken.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 160 Chabro chicks, which were randomly divided into four treatment groups each with four replicates of 10 birds. The first treatment (T1) served as a control in which basal diets was offered without Azollasupplementation while in T2, T3, and Tgroups, basal diet was replaced with Azolla meal at 5%, 7.5%, and 10% levels, respectively. A feeding trial was conducted upto 8 weeks. At the last week of trial, blood samples were collected randomly from one bird of each replicate and plasma was separated to estimate certain biochemical parameters, some blood metabolites, minerals and enzymes like alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Hematological parameters such as hemoglobin, packed cell volume, total leukocytes count and differential leukocytes count were estimated in fresh blood just after collection. The humoral immune response was measured against sheep red blood cells,and cell-mediated immune response was measured against phyto hemagglutinin lectin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-P).
Results: The study showed that hematological profile of the Chabro bird was not affected by any treatment except heterophil and lymphocyte which was found higher in Tand Tgroups and eosinophil was found higher in a Tgroup than control. Blood glucose, creatinine, cholesterol, total protein, albumin, uric acid, and triglycerides were found similar in all the groups and within the normal values for broiler chicken. Liver enzymes and macro mineral content in blood were found similar in all the treatment groups and within normal physiological range. Although AST was found higher in 10% replacement group than control, the value was within normal range for broiler chicken. Although antibody titer was found similar in all the experimental groups in the present study, cell-mediate immune response (response to PHA-P) was found higher in 5%, 7.5%, and 10% replacement groups than control(p<0.05).
Conclusion: Similar blood biochemical parameters and higher cell-mediated immune response in Azolla replacement group indicated immune-modulatory effect of Azolla meal without any toxicity.
Keywords: Azolla pinnata, blood biochemicals, hematology, immunocompetence traits.

Wednesday, 17 February 2016

Awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab

Research (Published online: 18-02-2016)
13. Awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab - Jaspal Singh Hundal, Simrinder Singh Sodhi, Aparna Gupta, Jaswinder Singh and Udeybir Singh Chahal
Veterinary World, 9(2): 186-191

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.186-191

Aim: The present study was conducted to assess the awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases among livestock farmers in Punjab.
Materials and Methods: 250 livestock farmers were selected randomly and interviewed with a pretested questionnaire, which contained both open and close ended questions on different aspects of zoonotic diseases, i.e., awareness, knowledge, risks, etc. Knowledge scorecard was developed, and each correct answer was awarded one mark, and each incorrect answer was given zero mark. Respondents were categorized into low (mean − ½ standard deviation [SD]), moderate (mean ± ½ SD), and high knowledge (Mean + ½ SD) category based on the mean and SD. The information about independent variables viz., age, education, and herd size were collected with the help of structured schedule and scales. The data were analyzed by ANOVA, and results were prepared to assess awareness, knowledge, and risks of zoonotic diseases and its relation with independent variables.
Results: Majority of the respondents had age up to 40 years (70%), had their qualification from primary to higher secondary level (77.6%), and had their herd size up to 10 animals (79.6%). About 51.2% and 54.0% respondents had the history of abortion and retained placenta, respectively, at their farms. The respondents not only disposed off the infected placenta (35.6%), aborted fetus (39.6%), or feces (56.4%) from a diarrheic animal but also gave intrauterine medication (23.2%) bare-handedly. About 3.6-69.6% respondents consumed uncooked or unpasteurized animal products. About 84.8%, 46.0%, 32.8%, 4.61%, and 92.4% of livestock farmers were aware of zoonotic nature of rabies, brucellosis, tuberculosis, anthrax, and bird flu, respectively. The 55.6%, 67.2%, 52.0%, 64.0%, and 51.2% respondents were aware of the transmission of zoonotic diseases to human being through contaminated milk, meat, air, feed, or through contact with infected animals, respectively. The transmission of rabies through dog bite (98.4%), need of post-exposure vaccination (96.8%), and annual vaccination of dogs (78%) were well-known facts but only 47.2% livestock owners were aware of the occurrence of abortion due to brucellosis and availability of prophylactic vaccine (67.6%) against it as a preventive measure. About 69.2% respondents belonged to low to medium knowledge level categories, whereas 30.8% respondents had high knowledge (p<0.05) regarding different aspects of zoonotic diseases. Age, education, and herd size had no significant effect on the knowledge level and awareness of farmers toward zoonotic diseases.
Conclusion: Therefore, from the present study, it may be concluded that there is a need to create awareness and improve knowledge of livestock farmers toward zoonotic diseases for its effective containment in Punjab.
Keywords: awareness, knowledge level, livestock farmers, risk factors, zoonotic diseases.

Effect of incubation on freezability of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin treated buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa

Research (Published online: 18-02-2016)
12. Effect of incubation on freezability of cholesterol-loaded cyclodextrin treated buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) spermatozoa - S. A. Lone, J. K. Prasad, S. K. Ghosh, G. K. Das, B. Balamurugan, R. Katiyar and M. R. Verma
Veterinary World, 9(2): 182-185

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.182-185

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of incubation on freezability of cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin (CLC) treated buffalo spermatozoa.
Materials and Methods: Semen samples with mass motility of 3+ and greater, collected from Murrah buffalo bulls were utilized. Immediately after collection, four equal groups of semen sample were made. Group I was kept as control and diluted with Tris upto concentration of 60×10sperm/ml, where as Groups II, III, and IV were treated with CLC at 3 mg/120× 10spermatozoa, incubated at 37°C for action of CLC for 10, 15 and 20 min, respectively, and diluted with tris upto concentration of 60×10sperm/ml. All groups were subjected to equilibration and freezing. The evaluation of semen samples from all groups was carried out at fresh, pre-freeze and post-thaw stage for progressive motility, viability and hypo-osmotic swelling response (HOS response).
Results: At the pre-freeze stage, significantly (p<0.05) higher percentage of progressive motility and viability was observed in treatment groups as compared to control with no significant difference among treatment groups. HOS response was significantly (p<0.05) higher in treatment groups as compared to control at pre-freeze stage. At post-thaw stage, significantly (p<0.05) higher percentage of progressive motility, viability and HOS response was recorded in Group II as compared to control and other treatment groups (III and IV). Group II retained significant post-thaw motility and viability at various post-thaw incubation periods.
Conclusion: Incubation period of 10 min for CLC treated buffalo spermatozoa yielded significantly higher results in terms of freezability as compared to incubation for 15 and 20 min.
Keywords: buffalo spermatozoa, cholesterol loaded cyclodextrin, incubation.

Monday, 15 February 2016

Isolation, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. Recovered from slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region of Central India

Research (Published online: 16-02-2016)
11. Isolation, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. Recovered from slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region of Central India - D. G. Kalambhe, N. N. Zade, S. P. Chaudhari, S. V. Shinde, W. Khan and A. R. Patil
Veterinary World, 9(2): 176-181

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.176-181

Aim: To determine the prevalence, antibiogram and pathogenicity of Salmonella spp. in the common food animals slaughtered for consumption purpose at government approved slaughter houses located in and around Nagpur region during a period of 2010-2012.
Materials and Methods: A total of 400 samples comprising 50 each of blood and meat from each slaughtered male cattle, buffaloes, pigs and goats were collected. Isolation was done by pre-enrichment in buffered peptone water and enrichment in Rappaport-Vassiliadis broth with subsequent selective plating onto xylose lysine deoxycholate agar. Presumptive Salmonella colonies were biochemically confirmed and analyzed for pathogenicity by hemolysin production and Congo red dye binding assay (CRDA). An antibiotic sensitivity test was performed to assess the antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates.
Results: A total of 10 isolates of Salmonella spp. from meat (3 from cattle, 1 from buffaloes and 6 from pigs) with an overall prevalence of 5% among food animals was recorded. No isolation was reported from any blood samples. Pathogenicity assays revealed 100% and 80% positivity for CRDA and hemolytic activity, respectively. Antimicrobial sensitivity test showed multi-drug resistance. The overall resistance of 50% was noted for trimethoprim followed by ampicillin (20%). A maximum sensitivity (80%) was reported to gentamycin followed by 40% each to ampicillin and trimethoprim, 30% to amikacin and 10% to kanamycin.
Conclusion: The presence of multidrug resistant and potentially pathogenic Salmonella spp. in slaughtered food animals in Nagpur region can be a matter of concern for public health.
Keywords: antibiogram, Congo red binding assay, food animals, hemolysis, Salmonella Typhimurium.

Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions

Research (Published online: 16-02-2016)
10. Utilization of carrageenan, citric acid and cinnamon oil as an edible coating of chicken fillets to prolong its shelf life under refrigeration conditions - Anshul Kumar Khare, Robinson J. J. Abraham, V. Appa Rao and R. Narendra Babu
Veterinary World, 9(2): 166-175

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.166-175

Aim: The present study was conducted to determine efficacy of edible coating of carrageenan and cinnamon oil to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat stored under refrigeration conditions.
Materials and Methods: Chicken breast was coated with carrageenan and cinnamon oil by three methods of application viz., spraying brushing and dipping. The coated meat was evaluated for drip loss, pH, thiobarbituric acid number (TBA), tyrosine value (TV)extract release volume (ERV), Warner-Bratzler shear force value (WBSFV), instrumental color, microbiological, and sensory qualities as per standard procedures.
Results: There was a significant difference observed for physicochemical parameters (pH, TBA, TV, ERV, drip loss and WBSFV) and microbiological analysis between storage periods in all the samples and between the control and treatments throughout the storage period but samples did not differed significantly for hunter color scores. However, there was no significant difference among three methods of application throughout the storage period though dipping had a lower rate of increase. A progressive decline in mean sensory scores was recorded along with the increase in storage time.
Conclusion: The carrageenan and cinnamon edible coating was found to be a good alternative to enhance the shelf life of chicken meat under refrigeration conditions. It was also observed from study that dipping method of the application had comparatively higher shelf life than other methods of application.
Keywords: carrageenan, chicken breast/fillets, cinnamon oil, edible coating, spraying/brushing/dipping.

Friday, 12 February 2016

Expression of biologically active bovine interleukin 7 and evaluating the activity in vitro

Research (Published online: 13-02-2016)
9. Expression of biologically active bovine interleukin 7 and evaluating the activity in vitro - J. Lijo, N. Vijay, H. J. Dechamma and G. R. Reddy
Veterinary World, 9(2): 160-165

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.160-165

Aim: Interleukin 7 (IL-7) is a ϒc family cytokine involved in the homeostatic proliferation and maintenance of immune cells. In the present study, we report the expression of bovine IL-7 (bIL-7) in Escherichia coli and evaluated for its biological activity.
Materials and Methods: The sequence coding for bIL-7 (mature protein) was amplified from primary bovine kidney cell culture and cloned into pET28-a vector and expressed in E.coli (BL 21 DE3). The expressed protein was purified by nickel-nitrilotriacetatechromatography, and the reactivity of the protein was confirmed by western blotting using monoclonal antibodies raised against human IL-7. The biological activity of expressed bIL-7 was evaluated by analyzing its effect on the expression of a nuclear factor for activated T-cells c1 (NFATc1), B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl2), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) molecules in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Ability of the expressed protein was also analyzed by its effect on phosphorylating signal transducer and activator 3 (STAT3) molecule by immunostaining in human embryonic kidney cells 293 (HEK293) cells.
Results: The bIL-7 was able to induce the expression of Bcl2 and NFATc1expression in bovine PBMCs by 7 and 5-folds, respectively, whereas a 2-fold decrease was observed in the case of SOCS3 expression. Immunostaining studies in HEK293 cells using antihuman phospho-STAT3 showed activation and nuclear translocation of STAT3 molecule on bIL-7 treatment.
Conclusion: bIL-7 gene was successfully amplified, cloned, and expressed in a prokaryotic expression system. The biological activity study showed that the E.coli expressed bIL-7 protein is biologically active. Considering the role of IL-7 in T-cell homeostasis and memory cell generation, this molecule can be used for enhancing the vaccine response and that has to be proved by further experiments.
Keywords: B-cell lymphoma 2, nuclear factor for activated T-cells c1, recombinant bovine interleukin 7, signal transducer and activator 3.

Effect of incorporation of calcium lactate on physico-chemical, textural, and sensory properties of restructured buffalo meat loaves

Research (Published online: 13-02-2016)
8. Effect of incorporation of calcium lactate on physico-chemical, textural, and sensory properties of restructured buffalo meat loaves - A. Irshad, B. D. Sharma, S. R. Ahmed, S. Talukder, O. P. Malav and Ashish Kumar
Veterinary World, 9(2): 151-159

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.151-159

Aim: The present study was conducted to develop a functional meat product by fortifying calcium (in the form of calcium lactate) with restructured buffalo meat loaf (RBML).
Materials and Methods: Deboned buffalo meat obtained from the carcass of adult female buffalo within 5-6 h of slaughter and stored under frozen condition. Calcium fortified RBML were prepared by replacing the lean buffalo meat with calcium lactate powder at 0%, 1%, 1.25%, and 1.5% level through the pre-standardized procedure. The developed products were evaluated for physico-chemical properties, proximate composition, calcium concentration (mg/100 g), water activity (aw), Lovibond® tintometer color units, texture profile analysis (TPA), and sensory qualities as per-standard procedures.
Results: Of the various product quality parameters evaluated, cooking yield (%), product pH, moisture (%), protein (%), fat (%), and water activity (aw) decreases significantly with increasing level of calcium lactate. Calcium content of fortified functional RBMLs was 135.02, 165.73, and 203.85 mg/100 g as compared to 6.48 mg/100 g in control. Most of the sensory scores at 1% and 1.25% levels of calcium lactate in treatment products remained comparable among themselves and control product, with a gradual decline.
Conclusions: The present study concluded that 1.25% calcium lactate was the optimum level for the fortification of calcium in RBML without affecting the textural and sensory properties which could meet out 15% of recommended dietary allowance for calcium.
Keywords: buffalo meat, calcium fortification, Lovibond® tintometer color units, meat loaves, restructured products, texture profile analysis and sensory attributes.