Saturday, 30 September 2017

Identification of non-cerebral cyst: Zoonotic Taenia multiceps in domestic goat in Bangladesh

Research (Published online: 01-10-2017)
1. Identification of non-cerebral cyst: Zoonotic Taenia multiceps in domestic goat in Bangladesh
Mohammad Omer Faruk, A. M. A. M. Zonaed Siddiki, Md. Shafiqul Islam, Azizunnesa Rekha, Sharmin Chowdhury, Md. Masuduzzaman and Mohammad Alamgir Hossain
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1156-1160
Aim: This study was performed to identify the non-cerebral Taenia multiceps cyst through molecular phylogeny of the 12S rRNA gene.
Materials and Methods: Eight cyst samples were collected from 385 examined slaughtered goats during October 2015-September 2016 from three slaughterhouses in Chittagong City Corporation. Cysts were removed from the thigh muscle, and scolices were collected for light microscopic examination and molecular identification. The DNA was extracted and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction using 12S rRNA gene primers. Cyst samples were also preserved in 10% buffered formalin for histopathological study.
Results: T. multiceps non-cerebral cyst is 2.1% prevalent in goat in this area. Under light microscopic examination, scolex was found with four suckers and a rostellum with the double crown of 32 hooks and hooklets. Molecularly, all the samples were amplified with 12S rRNA gene fragments yielded 270 base pair amplicon. Zenker's necrosis with focal to diffuse infiltration of lymphocytes and eosinophil was also found around the cyst wall in histopathological examination.
Conclusion: Although the non-cerebral form of the cysts produced by T. multiceps is genetically identical with the cerebral cyst, previously published data indicated that cerebral T. multiceps cyst is predominant in other parts of the world as well as in Bangladesh. This study showed that non-cerebral cyst is also prevalent in this country which is very important for public health concern. This study depicts an idea of non-cerebral form of zoonotic T. multiceps cyst which will be helpful in taenia cyst control and prevention.
Keywords: 12SrRNA, Bangladesh, goat, non-cerebral cyst, phylogeny, Taenia multiceps.

Impact of heat stress and hypercapnia on physiological, hematological, and behavioral profile of Tharparkar and Karan Fries heifers

Research (Published online: 30-09-2017)
22. Impact of heat stress and hypercapnia on physiological, hematological, and behavioral profile of Tharparkar and Karan Fries heifers
Priyanka Pandey, O. K. Hooda and Sunil Kumar
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1149-1155
Aim: The present investigation was undertaken to study the impact of heat stress and hypercapnia on physiological, hematological, and behavioral profile of Tharparkar and Karan Fries (KF) heifers.

Materials and Methods: The animals of both the breeds of Tharparkar and KF were exposed at different temperatures and CO2 levels. Exposure conditions of 25°C, 400 ppm CO2 level, and 60% relative humidity (RH) were taken as a control condition. The exposure conditions 40°C with two levels of CO2 500 ppm and 600 ppm with RH 55±5% and exposure conditions 42°C with two levels of CO2 500 ppm and 600 ppm with RH 55±5% were taken as treatments. The exposure period in each condition was 4 h daily for 5 consecutive days.

Results: Physiological responses (respiration rate [RR], pulse rate [PR], and rectal temperature [RT]) were significantly (p<0.01) higher and different during all exposure conditions compared to control condition in both the breeds of cattle. KF heifers had higher RR, PR, and RT than Tharparkar heifers. Hematological parameters, namely, red blood cell, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume were significantly higher and different during all exposure condition than control in both the breeds, whereas no significant changes were observed in total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count. Blood pH increased with increase in temperature and CO2 levels and was significantly higher than control conditions. PCO2 and base excess were significantly (p<0.05) lower, and PO2 was higher during different exposure conditions than control in both breeds. Restlessness and excitement signs were observed in all the exposure conditions as compared to control condition in both the breeds.

Conclusion: Changes in physiological responses, behavioral pattern, and hematological parameters reflect the current functional status of the body system, and it can be used as an index for assessing the adaptation capacity of cattle to predict changes occurring in climate variables due to increasing CO2 levels and environmental temperature.

Keywords: behavior, hematological, hypercapnia, hyperthermia, Tharparkar.

Thursday, 28 September 2017

Congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome caused by Akabane virus in newborn calves of Basrah Governorate, Iraq

Research (Published online: 29-09-2017)
21. Congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome caused by Akabane virus in newborn calves of Basrah Governorate, Iraq
K. M. Alsaad, H. H. N. Alautaish and M. A. Y. Alamery
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1143-1148
Aim: The study was conducted in Basrah, Iraq, to diagnose congenital arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly syndrome caused by Akabane virus (AKAV) in calves.
Materials and Methods: Affected animals (42 calves) are about 2-27 days old from both sexes show signs of arthrogryposis and hydranencephaly. Eight clinically healthy newborn calves were considered as controls. Diagnosis of AKAV was confirmed using a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test.
Results: Results show that all affected calves were found seropositive. Furthermore, a significant increase in total leukocyte count in diseased calves due to a significant increase in the absolute lymphocyte number indicated in affected calves than in controls. Moreover, a significant increase in sedimentation rate of erythrocytes was also encountered in diseased calves than in controls. In addition, a significant increase in haptoglobin level and fibrinogen was also detected.
Conclusion: Diagnosis of AKAV infection of Basrah Governorate, Iraq, will provide useful epidemiological information for cattle and other domesticated animals. Therefore, abortion could be prevented and controlled.
Keywords: Akabane virus, arthrogryposis-hydranencephaly, calves, Iraq.

Wednesday, 27 September 2017

Prevalence of Corynosoma caspicum infection in Gasterosteus aculeatus fish in Caspian Sea, Northern Iran

Research (Published online: 27-09-2017)
20. Prevalence of Corynosoma caspicum infection in Gasterosteus aculeatus fish in Caspian Sea, Northern Iran
Bahman Rahimi-Esboei, Mahdi Najm, Morad Shaker, Mahdi Fakhar and Iraj Mobedi
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1139-1142
Aim: There is little information about the prevalence of Corynosoma caspicum in fish particularly Gasterosteus aculeatus in Iran and the world. The aim of the present study was to find out the prevalence of acanthocephalan infection in Babolsar district, southern coastal of Caspian Sea, Northern Iran.

Materials and Methods: Between September 2012 and August 2014, a total of 360 G. aculeatus fishes were randomly collected by drift nets from coastal regions in Babolsar and then examined the intestine and body cavity for worm infections.

Results: A total of 360 G. aculeatus fishes, 109 (30.3%) were found infected with at least one Corynosoma capsicum, and there was no significant association between genders and the prevalence infection of acanthocephalan. Moreover, there was a significant difference in infected rate between summer (79%, 86/109) and spring (21%, 23/109) (p<0.05).

Conclusion: The high occurrence of Corynosoma infection in G. aculeatus indicates the enzootic constancy status of the infection in the southern coastal of Caspian Sea, Northern Iran.

Keywords: Acanthocephalosis, Caspian Sea, Corynosoma caspicum, Gasterosteus aculeatus.

Monday, 25 September 2017

Epidemiological features and pathological study of avian leukosis in turkeys' flocks

Research (Published online: 26-09-2017)
19. Epidemiological features and pathological study of avian leukosis in turkeys' flocks
Mourad Zeghdoudi, Leila Aoun, Latifa Merdaci and Nardjes Bouzidi
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1135-1138
Aim: The purpose of this study was focused on the identification of tumor diseases in turkeys on the basis of a detailed description of epidemiological features, clinical signs, lesions, and histopathological changes.
Materials and Methods: Outbreak of a tumor disease in turkeys was investigated in various regions of Eastern Algeria. Four turkeys' flocks aged from 17 weeks were affected, resulting to mortality often over 10%, on a period of 15 days. The main epidemiological characters, clinical signs, and lesions were observed throughout all the course of the disease. Serum samples were collected from affected turkeys in each flock to detect p27 antigen in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test to diagnose avian leukosis virus (ALV). Portions of sciatic nerves and livers are taken from dead turkeys for microscopic examination.
Results: The disease was characterized by clinical signs such as anorexia, weakness, and diarrhea. Necropsy of the dead birds showed hepatomegaly and gross splenomegaly with neoplastic nodules or gray foci and diffuse infiltration in the myocardium and lungs. ALV antigen test using ELISA confirmed the presence of virus leukosis. Histopathological sections of the liver had proliferations of lymphoblastoid cells and absence of any modifications or lymphocytic infiltration in peripheral nerves.
Conclusion: The present study confirms that this disease condition is caused by lymphoid leukosis.
Keywords: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, epidemiological features, histopathology, lesions, leukosis, turkeys.

Repertoire of noncoding RNAs in corpus luteum of early pregnancy in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

Research (Published online: 25-09-2017)
18. Repertoire of noncoding RNAs in corpus luteum of early pregnancy in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
A. Jerome, S. M. K. Thirumaran and S. N. Kala
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1129-1134
Aim: The present study was designed to identify other noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) in the corpus luteum (CL) during early pregnancy in buffalo.
Materials and Methods: For this study, CL (n=2) from two buffalo gravid uteri, obtained from the slaughter house, was transported to laboratory after snap freezing in liquid nitrogen (-196°C). The stage of pregnancy was determined by measuring the crown-rump region of the fetus. This was followed by isolation of RNA and deep sequencing. Post-deep sequencing, the obtained reads were checked and aligned against various ncRNA databases (GtRNA, RFAM, and deep guide). Various parameters, namely, frequency of specific ncRNAs, length, mismatch, and genomic location target in several model species were deciphered.
Results: Frequency of piwi-interacting RNAs (piwi-RNAs), having target location in rodents and human genomes, were significantly higher compared to other piwi-RNAs and ncRNAs. Ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) deduced had nucleotides (nts) ranging from 17 to 50 nts, but the occurrence of small length rRNAs was more than lengthier fragments. The target on 16S rRNA species confirms the conservation of 16S rRNA across species. With respect to transfer RNA (tRNA), the abundantly occurring tRNAs were unique with no duplication. Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs), identified in this study, showed a strong tendency for coding box C/D snoRNAs in comparison to H/ACA snoRNAs. Regulatory and evolutionary implications of these identified ncRNAs are yet to be delineated in many species, including buffaloes.
Conclusion: This is the first report of identification of other ncRNAs in CL of early pregnancy in buffalo.
Keywords: buffalo, corpus luteum, noncoding RNA, pregnancy.

Sunday, 24 September 2017

Characterization and zoonotic impact of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli in some wild bird species

Research (Published online: 24-09-2017)
17. Characterization and zoonotic impact of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli in some wild bird species
Hanaa Mohamed Fadel, Rabab Afifi and Dheyazan Mohammed Al-Qabili
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1118-1128
Aim: Wild birds are considered silent vectors of some zoonotic water and food borne pathogens of public health significance. Owing to the importance of Shiga toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) as the most pathogenic among the emerging diarrheagenic E. coli groups that can infect man; the present study was designed to detect the occurrence of STEC among wild birds in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: A total of 177 intestinal content swab samples originating from five wild bird species were investigated for the presence of E. coli and STEC by standard culture methods. Suspect STEC isolates were further characterized by serotyping, random amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction (RAPD PCR), antimicrobial resistance pattern and PCR detection of stx1stx2, and eae genes.
Results: A total of 30 suspect STEC isolates from 30 positive birds' samples were detected and identified on STEC CHROMagar (semi-captive pigeons, 15; house crows, 8; cattle egrets, 3; moorhens, 2; and house teals, 2). 25 isolates were grouped into 13 serogroups (O:20, O:25, O:26, O:27, O:63, O:78, O:111, O:114, O:125, O:128, O:142, O:153, and O:158), while five were rough strains. The distribution of STEC virulence genes among wild birds was as follows: 16 birds carried stx1 gene only (nine pigeons [28.1%], six crows [7.1%], and one cattle egret [5.6%]). stx1 and stx2 genes together were detected in four birds (one cattle egret [5.6%], two moorhens [6.1%], and one house teal, [10%]). Only one pigeon (3.1%) possessed the three alleles. Disk diffusion test results showed that cefixime was the most effective against STEC serotypes with (93.3%) sensitivity, followed by gentamycin (56.7%), and amoxicillin (50%). On the other hand, all the recovered STEC isolates were resistant to cefotaxime, doxycycline, cephalothin, and sulfisoxazole. RAPD fingerprinting using primers OPA-2 and OPA-9 showed that STEC isolates were heterogeneous; they yielded 30 and 27 different clusters, respectively.
Conclusion: Wild birds carry STEC and may add to the contamination of the surrounding environment.
Keywords: antibiotic, eae, random-amplified polymorphic DNA polymerase chain reaction, Shiga toxin producing Escherichia colistx1stx2, wild birds.

Friday, 22 September 2017

The effect of eggshell thickness on hatchability of quail eggs

Research (Published online: 23-09-2017)
16. The effect of eggshell thickness on hatchability of quail eggs
Oguz Fatih Ergun and Umut Sami Yamak
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1114-1117
Background and Aim: The aim of the successful incubation period is to achieve maximum health chicks in each batch. Therefore, all factors affecting incubation have to be investigated in detail. This study investigated the effect of eggshell thickness on hatchability of quail eggs.
Materials and Methods: A total of 1415 eggs were collected from the same flock at the ages of 23 and 41 weeks. Two different incubations were performed at these eggs. Eggshell thicknesses of all eggs were determined with an ultrasonic gauge before incubation. Incubation period was applied as for 18 days. After 15 days of incubation, eggs were transferred to hatching machine. Eggs were classified as thin-, medium-, and thick-shelled according to eggshell thickness values.
Results: Eggshell thicknesses were ranged between 0.24 and 0.36 mm, and the differences between the hatching rates of thickness values were not found significant. Hatchability of thin-, medium-, and thick-shelled eggs was found as 69.2%, 69.4%, and 82.4% for Experiment 1. These values were as 87.8%, 89.2%, and 91.9% for Experiment 2, respectively. Similar to eggshell thickness frequencies, the differences between hatching rates of eggshell thickness groups were found insignificant.
Conclusion: Results of this study showed that eggshell thickness does not affect hatchability.
Keywords: eggshell thickness, hatchability, incubation, quail, ultrasound.

Aboveground burial for managing catastrophic losses of livestock

Research (Published online: 22-09-2017)
9. Aboveground burial for managing catastrophic losses of livestock - Gary Alan Flory, Robert W. Peer, Robert A. Clark, Mohamed Naceur Baccar, Thanh-Thao Le, Aziz Ben Mbarek and Sami Farsi
International Journal of One Health, 3: 50-56

  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.50-56


Background and Aim: Environmental impacts from carcass management are a significant concern globally. Despite a history of costly, ineffective, and environmentally damaging carcass disposal efforts, large animal carcass disposal methods have advanced little in the past decade. An outbreak today will likely be managed with the same carcass disposal techniques used in the previous decades and will likely result in the same economic, health, and environmental impacts. This article overviews the results of one field test that was completed in Virginia (United States) using the aboveground burial (AGB) technique and the disposal of 111 foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) infected sheep in Tunisia using a similar methodology.
Materials and Methods: Researchers in the United States conducted a field test to assess the environmental impact and effectiveness of AGB in decomposing livestock carcasses. The system design included a shallow trench excavated into native soil and a carbonaceous base placed on the bottom of the trenches followed by a single layer of animal carcasses. Excavated soils were subsequently placed on top of the animals, and a vegetative layer was established. A similar methodology was used in Tunisia to manage sheep infected with FMDs, Peste des Petits Ruminants virus, and Bluetongue Virus.
Results: The results of the field test in the United States demonstrated a significant carcass degradation during the 1-year period of the project, and the migration of nutrients below the carcasses appears to be limited thereby minimizing the threat of groundwater contamination. The methodology proved practical for the disposal of infected sheep carcasses in Tunisia.
Conclusions: Based on the analysis conducted to date, AGB appears to offer many benefits over traditional burial for catastrophic mortality management. Ongoing research will help to identify limitations of the method and determine where its application during large disease outbreaks or natural disasters is appropriate.
Keywords: aboveground burial, carcass disposal, foot-and-mouth disease, foreign animal diseases, mesophilic static pile composting.

Thursday, 21 September 2017

Cloning and expression of P67 protein of Mycoplasma leachii

Research (Published online: 21-09-2017)
15. Cloning and expression of P67 protein of Mycoplasma leachii
Sabarinath Thankappan, Rajneesh Rana, Arun Thachappully Remesh, Valsala Rekha, Viswas Konasagara Nagaleekar and Bhavani Puvvala
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1108-1113
Aim: The present study was undertaken to clone, express and study the immunogenicity of P67 protein of Mycoplasma leachii.
Materials and Methods: P67 gene was amplified from genomic DNA of M. leachii. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product was inserted in pRham N-His SUMO Kan vector and was used to transform competent Escherichia cloni 10G cells. Recombinant protein expression was done by inducing cells with 0.2% Rhamnose. Purification was done using nickel nitrilotriacetic acid affinity chromatography. Western blot and dot blot analysis were performed to assess the immunoreactivity of P67 protein.
Results: PCR amplicon size of P67 gene was found to be 1500 base pair. The size of the fusion protein with SUMO tag was 79 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis. The recombinant P67 fusion protein expressed in pRham N-His SUMO Kan vector was found to be immunogenic in both western blot and dot blot analysis.
Conclusion: Western blot and dot blot analysis of P67 protein of M. leachii revealed that the protein is immunogenic. Further work is needed to evaluate the role of P67 antigen of M. leachii as an immunodiagnostic agent.
Keywords: cloning, dot blot, expression, Mycoplasma leachii, P67 protein, western blot.

Cloning and sequence analysis of hyaluronoglucosaminidase (nagH) gene of Clostridium chauvoei

Research (Published online: 21-09-2017)
14. Cloning and sequence analysis of hyaluronoglucosaminidase (nagH) gene of Clostridium chauvoei
Saroj K. Dangi, Pavan Kumar Yadav, Aakanksha Tiwari and Viswas Konasagara Nagaleekar
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1104-1107
Aim: Blackleg disease is caused by Clostridium chauvoei in ruminants. Although virulence factors such as C. chauvoei toxin A, sialidase, and flagellin are well characterized, hyaluronidases of C. chauvoei are not characterized. The present study was aimed at cloning and sequence analysis of hyaluronoglucosaminidase (nagH) gene of C. chauvoei.
Materials and Methods: C. chauvoei strain ATCC 10092 was grown in ATCC 2107 media and confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the primers specific for 16-23S rDNA spacer region. nagH gene of C. chauvoei was amplified and cloned into pRham-SUMO vector and transformed into Escherichia cloni 10G cells. The construct was then transformed into E. cloni cells. Colony PCR was carried out to screen the colonies followed by sequencing of nagH gene in the construct.
Results: PCR amplification yielded nagH gene of 1143 bp product, which was cloned in prokaryotic expression system. Colony PCR, as well as sequencing of nagH gene, confirmed the presence of insert. Sequence was then subjected to BLAST analysis of NCBI, which confirmed that the sequence was indeed of nagH gene of C. chauvoei. Phylogenetic analysis of the sequence showed that it is closely related to Clostridium perfringensand Clostridium paraputrificum.
Conclusion: The gene for virulence factor nagH was cloned into a prokaryotic expression vector and confirmed by sequencing.
Keywords: black quarter, Clostridium chauvoei, hyaluronoglucosaminidase.

Tuesday, 19 September 2017

Immunological and histopathological changes in sheep affected with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and treated immunotherapeutically

Research (Published online: 20-09-2017)
13. Immunological and histopathological changes in sheep affected with cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma and treated immunotherapeutically
Faten A. M. Abo-Aziza, A. A. Zaki, A. El-Shemy, Sahar S. Abd Elhalem and Amany S. Amer
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1094-1103
Background and Aim: Recently, it has been recorded unexpected percentage of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) in sheep. Despite the improvement in surgical treatment, the outcome of animals remains limited by metastatic relapse. Although antibodies for cancer treatment have been practiced for many decades, the use of this methodology in animals is deficient. This study aimed to establish cSCC therapy by tumor cell protein antibody (Ab1) or secondary antibody (Ab2) raised by two series of immunization in the same strain of rabbits.
Materials and Methods: A total of 19 Ossimi sheep were used (14 sheep suffered from cSCC and 5 were apparently healthy). Each animal from control healthy group (n=5) and control cSCC (n=4) group was treated with a course of eight injections of normal globulins. Animals in the third (n=5) and the last (n=5) groups received a course of eight injections of Ab1and Ab2, respectively. Each tumor was measured before and after treatment. The eight injections were applied at 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th week and the remaining three injections were at 1 week interval. Tissue specimens and blood samples were taken for histological and immunological studies.
Results: The obtained results revealed that injection of Ab1 might prevent the bad prognostic picture of polymorph infiltration without any criteria of regression % of tumor. Treatment with Ab2 showed regression of tumor size ranged between minimum of 8.99% and maximum of 78.12%, however, the measurements in most cases reached the maximum regression after the past two injections. In additions, infiltration of lymphocytes to tumor site, normalization of leukocytes picture and also increase of antibody titer were observed.
Conclusion: This profile might confirm that Ab2 could act as an antigen and encourage us to use it as a tumor vaccine. Extensive studies are needed to isolate the idiotypic portion of Ab1 for raising Ab2 as an anti-idiotypic antibody to be used as tumor vaccine. The question of how lymphocyte traffic to the tumor site as a result of Ab2 injection needs further investigation.
Keywords: antibody, cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma, histopathology, immunotherapy, sheep.

Monday, 18 September 2017

Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry as a reliable proteomic method for characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates

Research (Published online: 19-09-2017)
12. Matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry as a reliable proteomic method for characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates
Waleed S. Shell, Mahmoud Lotfy Sayed, Fatma Mohamed Gad Allah, Fatma Elzahraa Mohamed Gamal, Afaf Ahmed Khder, A. A. Samy and Abde Hakam M. Ali
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1083-1093
Aim: Identification of pathogenic clinical bacterial isolates is mainly dependent on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of the microorganisms. These conventional methods are costive, time-consuming, and need special skills and training. An alternative, mass spectral (proteomics) analysis method for identification of clinical bacterial isolates has been recognized as a rapid, reliable, and economical method for identification. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the performance, sensitivity and reliability of traditional bacteriology, phenotypic methods and matrix-assisted laser desorption-ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) in the identification of clinical Escherichia coli and Salmonella isolates recovered from chickens.
Materials and Methods: A total of 110 samples (cloacal, liver, spleen, and/or gall bladder) were collected from apparently healthy and diseased chickens showing clinical signs as white chalky diarrhea, pasty vent, and decrease egg production as well as freshly dead chickens which showing postmortem lesions as enlarged liver with congestion and enlarged gall bladder from different poultry farms.
Results: Depending on colonial characteristics and morphological characteristics, E. coli and Salmonella isolates were recovered and detected in only 42 and 35 samples, respectively. Biochemical identification using API 20E identification system revealed that the suspected E. coli isolates were 33 out of 42 of colonial and morphological identified E. coli isolates where Salmonella isolates were represented by 26 out of 35 of colonial and morphological identified Salmonella isolates. Serological identification of isolates revealed that the most predominant E. coli serotypes were O1 and O78 while the most predominant Salmonella serotype of Salmonellawas Salmonella Pullorum. All E. coli and Salmonella isolates were examined using MALDI-TOF MS. In agreement with traditional identification, MADI-TOF MS identified all clinical bacterial samples with valid scores as E. coli and Salmonella isolates except two E. coli isolates recovered from apparently healthy and diseased birds, respectively, with recovery rate of 93.9% and 2 Salmonella isolates recovered from apparently healthy and dead birds, respectively, with recovery rate of 92.3%.
Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that Bruker MALDI-TOF MS Biotyper is a reliable rapid and economic tool for the identification of Gram-negative bacteria especially E. coli and Salmonella which could be used as an alternative diagnostic tool for routine identification and differentiation of clinical isolates in the bacteriological laboratory. MALDI-TOF MS need more validation and verification and more study on the performance of direct colony and extraction methods to detect the most sensitive one and also need using more samples to detect sensitivity, reliability, and performance of this type of bacterial identification.
Keywords: ABI, Bruker Daltonics, colibacillosis, Escherichia coli, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry, SalmonellaSalmonella pullorum.

N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptides in dogs and cats: A technical and clinical review

Review (Published online: 18-09-2017)
11. N-terminal-pro brain natriuretic peptides in dogs and cats: A technical and clinical review
Gabriela Vieira de Lima and Felipp da Silveira Ferreira
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1072-1082
Biomarkers are quantitative indicators of biological processes performed by an organ or system. In recent years, natriuretic peptides (NPs) have emerged as important tools in the diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of heart diseases. Research has shown that serum and plasma levels of N-terminal pro brain NP (NT-proBNP) in dogs and cats are the only biomarkers that afford to diagnose and monitor congestive processes and, indirectly, the myocardial function of small animals. The present review discusses the peer-reviewed specialized literature about NT-proBNP and presents and compares the potential clinical applications of this NP in veterinary medicine of small animals, considering diagnosis, follow-up, and prognosis of myocardial or systemic diseases. The relevance of NT-proBNP is associated with sample stability, easy determination in laboratory, sensitivity, accuracy, and the possibility to analyze myocardial function. These advantages are specially important when NT-proBNP is compared with other cardiac biomarkers, mostly those that indicate the integrity of the myocardial cell. Fast NT-proBNP assays are marketed today and may be used in association with complementary tests. Together, these methods are an important source of information in differential diagnosis of heart and lung diseases as well in the early diagnosis of cardiopathy in dogs and cats, proving valuable tools in treatment and prognosis.
Keywords: cardiac biomarkers, cats, congestive heart failure, dogs, NT-proBPN.

Wednesday, 13 September 2017

Pathology and immunohistochemistry study of Newcastle disease field case in chicken in Indonesia

Research (Published online: 13-09-2017)
10. Pathology and immunohistochemistry study of Newcastle disease field case in chicken in Indonesia
Etriwati, Dewi Ratih, Ekowati Handharyani and Surachmi Setiyaningsih
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1066-1071
Aim: The aim of the study was to examine pathology and the distribution pattern of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in internal organs of chickens from a field case using immunohistochemical staining.
Materials and Methods: 10 groups of broiler, layer, and domestic chicken were collected from necropsy room Division of Pathology, Bogor Agricultural University. These chickens were originated from West Java and collected based on pathologist diagnosis as suspect of Newcastle disease (ND). They were subsequently confirmed positive of ND with real-time-reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. The respiratory, circulatory, digestive, lymphoreticular and central nervous systems were collected for histopathology examination.
Results: The gross pathology and histopathology changes were tracheitis, pneumonia, pericarditis, myocarditis, catarrhal proventriculitis, catarrhal enteritis, typhlitis, perihepatitis, pancreatitis, nephritis interstitial, splenitis, atrophy of Bursa Fabricius, and encephalitis.
Conclusion: The distribution pattern of NDV in internal organs of chickens from a field case in this study is similar with a previous reported pattern in systemic cases of the internal chicken organs. High intensity of immunohistochemistry stain result was detected in trachea, lung, proventriculus, duodenum, cecal tonsil, kidney, and brain.
Keywords: broiler, domestic chicken, immunohistochemistry, layer, Newcastle disease.

Detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia patients

Research (Published online: 13-09-2017)
9. Detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in chronic myeloid leukemia and acute myeloid leukemia patients
Mohammad Javad Gharavi, Mona Roozbehani and Zienat Mandeh
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1063-1065
Background and Aim: Infection of Toxoplasma gondii is a worldwide distribution. Toxoplasmosis in patients who are immunocompromised by virtue of underlying leukemia disease has received relatively little attention. This study was aimed to evaluate IgG and IgM antibodies of T. gondii and to minimize the role of T. gondii and opportunistic infection complication at the early stage of infection in leukemia patients.
Materials and Methods: The purpose of this assay was to measure anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique in leukemia patients.
Results: IgG antibodies against T. gondii were detected by ELISA in 96 (56.4%) leukemia patients and 72 (42.4%) control group. IgM antibodies were found in 10 patients (5.9%) with leukemia and 3 (1.8%) in the corresponding.
Conclusion: Our finding indicated that leukemia patients under immunosuppressive condition should not be neglected. Toxoplasmosis in leukemia patients as a main risk factor is considered, meanwhile in some patients, due to possibility of the presence of secondary infection that leads to severe toxoplasmosis.
Keywords: acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, Toxoplasma gondii.

Tuesday, 12 September 2017

Mastitis vaccines in dairy cows: Recent developments and recommendations of application

Review (Published online: 12-09-2017)
8. Mastitis vaccines in dairy cows: Recent developments and recommendations of application
Zuhair Bani Ismail
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1057-1062
The objective of this review article was to summarize the most recent clinical field trials that have been published evaluating the use of different types of vaccines against mastitis pathogens in dairy cows. Mastitis is one of the most common and economically important diseases in dairy cows in the world. The disease is considered an important welfare issue facing the dairy industry in addition to the loss of production and premature removal or death of affected cows. Losses are also related to high cost of veterinary medicines and the cost of unsalable milk of treated cows. Mastitis can be caused by either contagious or environmental pathogens both of which are best prevented rather than treated. In addition to the application of best management practices in the parlor during milking, vaccination against common udder pathogens is widely practiced in many dairy farms to prevent or reduce the severity of clinical mastitis. In this review, the most recent clinical field studies that evaluated the use of different types of vaccines in dairy cows are summarized.
Keywords: dairy cows, immunization, mastitis, pathogens, udder.

Application of radio frequency based digital thermometer for real-time monitoring of dairy cattle rectal temperature

Research (Published online: 12-09-2017)
7. Application of radio frequency based digital thermometer for real-time monitoring of dairy cattle rectal temperature
Tridib Debnath, Santanu Bera, Suman Deb, Prasenjit Pal, Nibash Debbarma and Avijit Haldar
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1052-1056


Aim: Dairy cattle health monitoring program becomes vital for detecting the febrile conditions to prevent the outbreak of the animal diseases as well as ensuring the fitness of the animals that are directly affecting the health of the consumers. The aim of this study was to validate real-time rectal temperature (RT) data of radio frequency based digital (RFD) thermometer with RT data of mercury bulb (MB) thermometer in dairy cattle.

Materials and Methods: Two experiments were conducted. In experiment I, six female Jersey crossbred cattle with a mean (±standard error of the mean) body weight of 534.83±13.90 kg at the age of 12±0.52 years were used to record RT for 2 h on empty stomach and 2 h after feeding at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min using a RFD thermometer as well as a MB thermometer. In experiment II, six female Jersey crossbred cattle were further used to record RT for 2 h before exercise and 2 h after exercise at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min. Two-way repeated measures analysis of variance with post hoc comparisons by Bonferroni test was done.

Results: Real-time RT data recorded by RFD thermometer as well as MB thermometer did not differ (p>0.05) before and after feeding/exercise. An increase (p<0.05) in RT after feeding/exercise in experimental crossbred cattle was recorded by both RFD thermometer and MB thermometer.

Conclusion: The results obtained in the present study suggest that the body temperature recordings from RFD thermometer would be acceptable and thus RFD thermometer could work well for monitoring real-time RT in cattle.

Keywords: cattle, exercise, feeding, radio frequency device, rectal temperature, thermometer.

Monday, 11 September 2017

Hydrophilic nanosilica as a new larvicidal and molluscicidal agent for controlling of major infectious diseases in Egypt

Research (Published online: 11-09-2017)
6. Hydrophilic nanosilica as a new larvicidal and molluscicidal agent for controlling of major infectious diseases in Egypt
Marwa M. Attia, Soliman M. Soliman and Mahmoud A. Khalf
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1046-1051

Aim: This research was conducted to evaluate the molluscicidal and mosquitocidal efficacy of silica nanoparticles in the eradication of the larvae and pupa of malaria and filariasis vector as well as vectors of rift-valley fever virus (Culex pipiens); Schistosoma mansoni vector (Biomphlaria alexandrina (snail and egg masses)).

Materials and Methods: Hydrophilic nanosilica particles (NSPs) were characterized using transmission electron microscope during the preliminary part of the study; the stages were exposed to upgrade concentrations of NSP from 50 to 1200 ppm each for 24-36 h exposure time. The highly effective concentrations were re-evaluated at lower exposure time as 3, 6, and 12 h.

Results: Lethal concentration (LC50) and LC90 versus mosquito larvae were (350 ppm/24 h and 1400 ppm/24 h, respectively). C. pipiens pupae proved slight high tolerance versus the effect of these nanoparticles as the two previous doses increased to 680 ppm/6 h and 1300 ppm/24 h. The LC50 and LC90 versus B. alexandrina were increased to 590 ppm/6 h and 980 ppm/48 h, respectively. Moreover, the embryonated snail egg masses appear more susceptible to the toxic effect of these nanoparticles than the non-embryonated eggs as the LC50 and LC90 were increased to 1450 ppm/12 h and 1250 ppm/48 h, respectively, for embryonated eggs, and it was 1400 ppm/24 h and 1890 ppm/48 h, respectively, for non-embryonated one.

Conclusion: The results open a new field for controlling the infectious diseases through eradication of their vectors by the way that avoids the resistance recorded from the successive chemical application in this field.

Keywords: Biomphalaria alexandrina, Culex pipiens, Egypt, nanosilica, rift valley fever, schistosomiasis.

Detection of food-borne bacteria in ready to eat betel leaf sold at local markets in Mymensingh

Research (Published online: 11-09-2017)
5. Detection of food-borne bacteria in ready to eat betel leaf sold at local markets in Mymensingh
Md. Mazedul Haque, Md. Atiqur Rahman Sarker, Rafia Afroze Rifa, Md. Ariful Islam and Mst. Minara Khatun
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1040-1045
Aim: The present study was undertaken to determine bacterial load as well as characterize bacterial flora of ready to eat (RTE) betel leaf sold at local markets in Mymensingh city.
Materials and Methods: A total of 25 RTE betel leaf samples were collected from five local markets such as Kamal-Ranjit (KR) market, Shesh more, Kewatkhali, Jobber more, and Ganginar par.
Results: Total viable count of bacteria in betel leaf (log10 mean colony forming unit±standard deviation/ml) was 7.58±0.04 for KR market, 7.72±0.06 for Shesh more, 7.62±0.04 for Kewatkhali, 7.40±0.03 for Jobber more, and 7.60±0.06 for Ganginar par. A total of 98 bacterial isolates belong to five genera (Escherichia coliSalmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus spp.) were identified. The prevalence of E. coli was 17.34%, Salmonella spp. was 25.51%, Vibrio spp. was 19.39%, Bacillus spp. was 18.37%, and Staphylococcus spp. was 19.39%. Antibiotic sensitivity test showed that all isolates were sensitive to two antibiotics such as ciprofloxacin and gentamicin. Four isolates (E. coliSalmonella spp., Vibrio spp., and Staphylococcus spp.) were resistant to two antibiotics (ampicillin and cephalexin). Antibiogram profile of bacterial isolates of betel leaf suggests that they were multidrug resistance.
Conclusion: Data of this study indicate that betel leaf sold at local market harbors multidrug resistance food-borne bacteria which might cause public health hazards if these antibiotic resistant transfer to human through food chain.
Keywords: betel leaf, food-borne bacteria, Mymensingh city, public health importance.

Wednesday, 6 September 2017

Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in cat's internal organs by immunohistochemistry methods labeled with-[strept] avidin-biotin

Research (Published online: 06-09-2017)
4. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii in cat's internal organs by immunohistochemistry methods labeled with-[strept] avidin-biotin
Muhammad Hanafiah, Raden Wisnu Nurcahyo, Rika Yuniar Siregar, Joko Prastowo, Sri Hartati, Bambang Sutrisno and Dwinna Aliza
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1035-1039
Aim: The aims of the study are to detect the presence of Toxoplasma gondii antigen and to determine its distribution location in several organs of domestic cat using immunohistochemistry (IHC) method with Labeled-[Strept] Avidin-Biotin (LAB-SA).
Materials and Methods: Four domestic cats aged 1-2 years were used as sample in this research. The sample divided into two groups with two cats each. Cats in Group I were positive Toxoplasma based on serologically screening test, while cats in Group II were orally infected with 1x106 Toxoplasma oocyst. All samples then necropsied, and the organs including brain, liver, kidney, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, lungs, and spleen were collected for IHC method with LAB-SA.
Result: The result showed that Toxoplasma antigens were detected in ileum of both serologically positive domestic cat and the experimentally infected cats. Toxoplasma was also observed in kidney of serologically positive domestic cat. In the serologically positive domestic cat, necrotic lesions were found on ileum, kidney, and liver, whereas in experimentally infected cat, the lesion was only found on ileum.
Conclusion: The presence of Toxoplasma antigen is successfully detected in several organs of domestic cat using IHC method with the LAB-SA.
Keywords: cat, immunohistochemistry, labeled-[strept] avidin-biotin, Toxoplasma gondii.