Wednesday, 31 August 2016
Research (Published online: 01-09-2016)
1. Impacts of self- and cross-sucking on cattle health and performance - Motamed Elsayed Mahmoud, Fatma Ali Mahmoud and Adel Elsayed Ahmed
Veterinary World, 9(9): 922-928
Background: Improvement of dairy farms economics requires intensification, automatic milking, and artificial rearing methods. The ability to express normal behavior is one of the five freedoms to achieve animal welfare, whereas the display of abnormal behaviors is considered as an indicator of poor welfare. Cross-sucking is defined as sucking any body parts of pen-mate calves, whereas inter-sucking in cows is defined as sucking the udder or udder area. Previous studies showed that self- and cross-sucking during the calf-hood period could be a causal factor of milk sucking in adulthood.
Aim: To investigate the effects of cross-sucking among calves and inter-sucking in cows on animal health status and performance.
Materials and Methods: Gathering information from customized questionnaires, the study of the breeding records, recording of self- and cross-sucking behaviors, and health status of calves till weaning, and dairy cows before milking were performed in two governmental farms under the same managemental conditions in Sohag and Qena governorates.
Results: Cross-sucking appeared in calves at the 2nd week of age followed by abscesses at ears and navels that were observed within cross-sucker calves. Milk sucking was higher in primiparous than multiparous cows during the second lactation period, as primiparous cows start to suck mostly around the 4th month of milking. Mastitis and elongation of the front teats were observed in sucker cows. Suffered animals had body condition scoring 3.5 or less. Interestingly, most of the cows displaying self-sucking were sucking another cow and were experienced self- or cross-sucking in their calf-hood. The use of pronged nose-rings was ineffective in preventing milk sucking and all cows were ultimately culled at the end of the season.
Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the health problems of abnormal oral behaviors in terms of developed ears and navels abscesses in cross-sucker calves, and mastitis and teat deformities in milk-sucker cows. Furthermore, indexes that lead to oral satisfaction should be taken in priorities of farm managers to effectively reduce or prevent crosssucking in calves. Culling of cows and heifers suffering from sucking would be the ultimate uneconomic alternative in case of persistent suckers.
Keywords: animal welfare, culling, inter-sucking in cows, self-sucking in calves, teat deformity.
Monday, 29 August 2016
Genotypic study of verocytotoxic Escherichia coli isolates from deer by multiplex polymerase chain reaction
Research (Published online: 30-08-2016)
21. Genotypic study of verocytotoxic Escherichia coli isolates from deer by multiplex polymerase chain reaction - Raghavendra Prasad Mishra, Udit Jain and Rakesh Kumar Singh
Veterinary World, 9(8): 919-921
Aim: This study was planned to study the genotypes of verocytotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in fecal samples of deer due to its public health significance.
Materials and Methods: A total of 160 fecal samples of deer were taken from Mathura district and Kanpur Zoo and screened for VTEC genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: All fecal samples were positive for E. coli. All the E. coli isolates were screened by PCR to detect virulence genes stx1, stx2,eaeA, and hlyA. Of these, 15 isolates were found positive for VTEC having one or more genes in different combinations.
Conclusion: Genes such as stx1, stx2, eaeA, and hlyA were prevalent in VTEC isolates from feces of deer. The presence of VTEC isolates having virulent genes may pose a threat to public health.
Keywords: deer, polymerase chain reaction, verocytotoxic Escherichia coli.
A study on association of virulence determinants of verotoxic Escherichia coli isolated from cattle calves
Research (Published online: 29-08-2016)
20. A study on association of virulence determinants of verotoxic Escherichia coli isolated from cattle calves - Singh Parul, Basanti Bist, Barkha Sharma, Udit Jain and Janardan K. Yadav
Veterinary World, 9(8): 915-918
Aim: The present study was conducted to find the association among virulence determinants of verotoxic Escherichia coli (VTEC) isolated from cattle calf feces.
Materials and Methods: A total of 216 cattle calf fecal samples were collected aseptically and processed under required conditions for the isolation of E. coli. The isolates were further subjected to multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) for the detection of virulent genes. All the VTEC isolates were serotyped at the Central Research Institute, Kasauli, Himachal Pradesh. The VTEC isolates were observed for the enterohemolysin production on washed sheep blood agar (wSBA).
Results: A total of 177 presumptive E. coli were isolated from 216 calf fecal samples revealing an overall prevalence of E. coli to be 81.94%. A total of 32 (14.81%) isolates were detected as VTEC through mPCR. The prevalence of verotoxin genes vt1, vt2, and combination of vt1+vt2 in the VTEC isolates was found to be 12 (37.5%), 14 (43.75%), and 6 (18.75%), respectively. Other virulent genes eaeA and hlyA were found in 6 and 11 VTEC strains with prevalence values of 18.75% and 34.37%, respectively. A total of 13 different O serogroups were revealed in serotyping of 32 VTEC isolates. Out of 32 VTEC strains, only 26 (81.25%) were enterohemolytic on wSBA as they produced the characteristic small, turbid zone of hemolysis around the streaking line. Although enterohemolysin production has been attributed to the presence of hlyA gene, only 11 of 26 enterohemolysin producing VTEC were found to be harboring the hlyA gene (11/26) 42.03%.
Conclusion: The present study concludes that there might be an association between the presence of verotoxin genes and enterohemolysin production in VTEC group of E. coli.
Keywords: enterohemolysin gene (hlyA), enterohemolysin toxin, intimin gene (eaeA), verotoxic Escherichia coli, verotoxin genes (vt1and vt2), virulence determinants.
Sunday, 28 August 2016
Hematology and serum biochemistry of Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian rat snake (Ptyas mucosa)
Research (Published online: 28-08-2016)
19. Hematology and serum biochemistry of Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian rat snake (Ptyas mucosa) - Sanath Krishna Muliya and Mudraje Narayana Bhat
Veterinary World, 9(8): 909-914
Aim: To study the hematology and serum biochemistry parameters of Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) and Indian rat snake (Ptyas mucosa) and to evaluate the differences in the same between captive and wild populations.
Materials and Methods: Animals were categorized into four groups, viz., wild Indian spectacled cobra (n=10), wild Indian rat snakes (n=10), captive Indian spectacled cobra (n=10), and captive Indian rat snake (n=10). The snakes were restrained with restraint tubes, and 2 ml of blood was collected from either heart or ventral coccygeal vein. Hematological examinations were performed manually and serum biochemistry assays were performed on semi-automated clinical chemistry analyzer.
Results: The values of total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, and hemoglobin were slightly low in captive spectacled cobras and captive rat snakes compared to wild ones, whereas total leukocyte count was found to be slightly high in wild spectacled cobras compared to captive ones. All the recorded values of biochemical and electrolyte analytes were found to be well within expected range for snakes except for total protein and chloride levels in both the species which was slightly above the expected range.
Conclusion: The hematology and serum biochemistry intervals of the two most common Indian snakes are presented here. The data will be useful in routine health evaluations and aiding in better medical management of the species studied. Since this study is the first to report complete hematologic and blood biochemical ranges for the study species, observations made here can also be used as referral intervals for future use.
Keywords: hematology, Indian rat snake, Indian spectacled cobra, Naja naja, Ptyas mucosa, serum biochemistry.
Friday, 26 August 2016
Proteinuria reduction after treatment with miltefosine and allopurinol in dogs naturally infected with leishmaniasis
Research (Published online: 26-08-2016)
18. Proteinuria reduction after treatment with miltefosine and allopurinol in dogs naturally infected with leishmaniasis - Daniela Proverbio, Eva Spada, Giada Bagnagatti de Giorgi and Roberta Perego
Veterinary World, 9(8): 904-908
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in proteinuria in dogs naturally infected with visceral leishmaniasis, following treatment with miltefosine (MLF) and allopurinol.
Materials and Methods: Medical records of 40 dogs with leishmaniasis, treated with 2 mg/kg MLF every 24 h PO and 10 mg/kg allopurinol every 12 h for 28 days were reviewed. 20 dogs were included in the study, and clinical staging was performed following guidelines of the Canine leishmaniasis (CanL) Working Group, and dogs were categorized for proteinuria according to the International Renal Interest Society (IRIS) staging system. Clinical score, indirect fluorescent antibody test titer, serum total protein, gamma globulin (IgG), serum creatinine and urea concentration, and urine protein creatinine ratio (UP/C) were recorded at the time of diagnosis before the start of therapy (D0) and at the end of 28 days of therapy (D28).
Results: Following the CanL Working Group staging, all 20 dogs were classified as the clinical Stage C (Clinical disease) before and after the cycle of treatment. Before the cycle of therapy, dogs were categorized according to the IRIS staging system, as: 9/20 non-proteinuric (NP), 7/20 borderline proteinuric (BP), and 4/20 proteinuric (P). After treatment, 12/20 dogs were NP, 7/20 were BP, and 1/20 was P. There was a significant change in UP/C values before and after one cycle of treatment with MLF. In detail, after 28 days of therapy, 2 of 9 NP dogs became BP, 3 of the 7 BP dogs became NP, and 2 of the 4 P dogs became NP.
Conclusion: This study showed a significant decrease in UP/C values occurred after one cycle of treatment with MLF and allopurinol in dogs naturally affected with CanL. This suggests that MLF does not increase proteinuria, and the use of MLF could be considered for the management of dogs with leishmaniasis, particularly in those with impaired renal function at the time of diagnosis.
Keywords: canine leishmaniasis therapy, proteinuric kidney disease, renal function, urine protein creatinine.
Tuesday, 23 August 2016
Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken
Research (Published online: 24-08-2016)
17. Studies on the effectiveness of oral pellet vaccine in improving egg production and egg quality in desi chicken - T. Lurthu Reetha, J. Johnson Rajeswar, T. J. Harikrishnan, K. Sukumar, P. Srinivasan and J. John Kirubakaran
Veterinary World, 9(8): 900-903
Aim: To study the effect of Newcastle disease (ND) oral pellet vaccine in egg production and egg quality in desi chicken.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Veterinary University Training and Research Centre, Tiruchirapalli, Tamil Nadu. A total of 48-day-old desi chicks obtained from a private hatchery in Namakkal, Tamil Nadu, were maintained under cage system of rearing up to 52 weeks of age as per standard management practices. All the 48 chicks were divided into six groups having eight chicks in each group were subjected to different treatment regimes. All the birds were challenged at 52 weeks of age with 0.5 ml dose of 104.0egg infectious dose 50 virulent ND field virus. 10 eggs from each group were randomly collected during the last 3 days of 8 weeks interval period from 28 to 52 weeks of age and were used to measure the egg quality parameters. The production performance of each group was assessed at 4 weeks interval period from 25 to 52 weeks of age.
Results: In all the six treatment groups with respect to egg production, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 25 to 52 weeks of age. Similarly, in egg weight, egg shape index and specific gravity, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was noticed from 28 to 52 weeks of age.
Conclusion: From this study, it is concluded that the administration of ND oral pellet vaccine to desi chicken does not affect the egg production performance, egg weight, egg shape index, and specific gravity of egg.
Keywords: effectiveness, egg production, egg quality, desi chicken, oral pellet vaccines.
Monday, 22 August 2016
Effect of feeding different dietary levels of energy and protein on growth performance and immune status of Vanaraja chicken in the tropic
Research (Published online: 23-08-2016)
16. Effect of feeding different dietary levels of energy and protein on growth performance and immune status of Vanaraja chicken in the tropic - Shahla Perween, Kaushalendra Kumar, Chandramoni, Sanjay Kumar, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Manoj Kumar and Amitava Dey
Veterinary World, 9(8): 893-899
Aim: The present study was conducted to observe the effect of feeding dietary level of energy and protein on growth performance and immune status of Vanaraja chicken in the tropic.
Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted for 56 days on 540 1-day-old chicks, which were individually weighed and distributed into nine groups having 60 birds in each. Each group was further subdivided into triplicates having 20 birds in each. Nine different experimental rations were formulated with three levels of protein, viz., 17%, 19%, and 21%; each with three levels of energy (2600, 2800, and 3000 kcal metabolizable energy [ME]/kg), respectively. Group T8 serves as control fed with 21% protein and 2800 kcal energy as per Project Directorate of Poultry, Hyderabad given requirement. Feed consumption, live weight gain, body weight change, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were calculated based on the amount of feed consumed every week. All the birds were vaccinated following standard protocol. The hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test have been performed to assess the immunity potential of birds due to dietary effect, and serum samples were subjected to HI test at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days of age. Finally, economics of broiler production was calculated on the cost of feed per kg live weight gain.
Results: This study revealed that the effect of feeding different levels of energy and protein on growth parameters such as body weight gain and FCR was found to be significantly higher (p<0.05) containing 19% and 21% crude protein with 3000 kcal ME/kg in Vanaraja birds. There was a gradual increase in antibody titer against New castle disease virus as the level of protein and energy increase. It is speculated that the better body weight gain corroborate health and antibody titer. Moreover, the better immune response recorded in the study might be due to better nutrient utilization and its extension toward the better immune response. Higher energy with medium protein diet positively reflects to obtain desirable performance economically.
Conclusion: It was positive inclination toward ration containing high protein and energy which influence the immune response of Vanaraja birds to obtained desirable performance economically also.
Keywords: body weight gain, economics, energy, immunity, protein, Vanaraja.
Sunday, 21 August 2016
Research (Published online: 22-08-2016)
15. Prevalence and pathogenesis of some filarial nematodes infecting donkeys in Egypt - A. M. Radwan, N. E. Ahmed, L. M. Elakabawy, M. Y. Ramadan and R. S. Elmadawy
Veterinary World, 9(8): 888-892
Aim: The primary objective of the present study is to determine the commonness of filarial parasites in donkeys in Egypt, identification of the filarial species tainting them and the delivered pathogenic impact connected with the infestation.
Materials and Methods: A total of 188 donkeys were examined for filarial infection. The blood samples and scraping of the cutaneous bleeding lesions were collected, stained, and inspected for microfilariae all through the period from March 2011 to October 2013. The adult worms were perceived in tissue samples acquired from skin scraping, testes, eyes, tendons, peritoneal and pleural cavities, and the ligamentum nuchae.
Results: On the basis of morphological identification, 163 of 188 donkeys (86.70%) were infected with Onchocerca cervicalis (82.98%),Setaria equina (31.11%), Parafilaria multipapillosa (5.32%), and Onchocerca reticulata (4.26%). There was no significant effect of the sex on the incidence of all the encounteredfilarial worms except for S. equina, where the infection rate prevailed in males versus females (40.82% vs. 35.90%). In addition, age group of 5-15 years old exhibited a fundamentally higher predominance (p< 0.05) of the recognized filarial worms versus those of ˂5 years old and >15 years old.
Conclusion: The preliminary results add to our comprehension of filarial species infecting donkeys in Egypt, their impact on animal execution and production. Accentuation must be taken for avoidance, control of filarial disease, and improvement of the management system of donkeys.
Keywords: age, donkey, Filaria, gender, prevalence.
Research (Published online: 22-08-2016)
14. Low-level laser therapy: Case-control study in dogs with sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis - Roberta Perego, D. Proverbio, A. Zuccaro and E. Spada
Veterinary World, 9(8): 882-887
Aim: Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a therapeutic photobiostimulation with properties in reducing swelling, inflammation, and promoting tissue healing. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate LLLT in sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis in five dogs.
Materials and Methods: In each dog, one lesion was designated as the control (treated with a 0.0584% hydrocortisone aceponate spray), and one or more other lesions were treated with a gallium aluminum arsenide-laser, daily for 5 days. Lesions were scored before treatment (D0), at the end (D4), 16 days after the last laser treatment (D20), and after 2 months (D65).
Results: Comparing the treated lesion group with the control lesion group, the clinical score was similar at D0, whereas there was a statistically significant difference at D4 and D20; in the treated group over time, there was a statistically significant improvement between D0, D4, and D20. Lesion recurrence was absent in more than 50% of the treated lesions at D65. No adverse reactions were reported.
Conclusion: Given the positive results of this first clinical study, it would be interesting to extend the study to confirm the validity of this type of therapy in sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis in the dog.
Keywords: case-control study, dog, low-level laser therapy, skin, sterile pyogranulomatous pododermatitis.
Thursday, 18 August 2016
Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines
Research (Published online: 19-08-2016)
13. Molecular characterization of virulence genes of Streptococcus equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus in equines - R. Javed, A. K. Taku, Rakhi Gangil and R. K. Sharma
Veterinary World, 9(8): 875-881
Aim: The aim was to determine the occurrence of streptococci in equines in Jammu (R. S. Pura, Katra), characterization of Streptococci equi subsp. equi and Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus with respect to their virulence traits and to determine antibiotic sensitivity pattern of virulent Streptococcus isolates.
Materials and Methods: A total of 96 samples were collected from both clinically affected animals (exhibiting signs of respiratory tract disease) and apparently healthy animals and were sent to laboratory. The organisms were isolated on Columbia nalidixic acid agar containing 5% sheep blood as well as on sheep blood agar and confirmed by cultural characteristics and biochemical tests. Molecular detection of Streptococcus was done directly from cultures using sodA and seM gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Antibiogram was performed against five antibiotics such as amoxicillin, penicillin G, streptomycin, rifampicin, and methicillin.
Results: During this study, a total 40 streptococcal isolates were obtained out of which 2 isolates were of S. equi subsp. equi, 12 isolates were from S. equi subsp. zooepidemicus. In the PCR-based detection, we revealed amplicons of 235 bp and 679 bp for confirmation of sodA and seM gene, respectively. In antibiogram, two isolates of S. equi subsp. equi were found resistant to penicillin G, and all other isolates were found sensitive to amoxicillin and streptomycin.
Conclusion: The majority of streptococcal infections was due to S. equi subsp. Zooepidemicus, and thus was recognized as a potential pathogen of diseases of equines besides S. equi subsp. equi.
Keywords: polymerase chain reaction, Streptococcus equi sub sp. equi, and Streptococcus equi sub sp. zooepidemicus.
Wednesday, 17 August 2016
Research (Published online: 18-08-2016)
12. Studies on clinical signs and biochemical alteration in pregnancy toxemic goats - Prasannkumar R. Vasava, R. G. Jani, H. V. Goswami, S. D. Rathwa and F. B. Tandel
Veterinary World, 9(8): 869-874
Aim: This study was planned to reveal the clinical signs and biochemical alterations in pregnancy toxemic goats.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from 20 healthy pregnant and 45 pregnancy toxemic goats and analyzed biochemically.
Results: The most significant clinical findings were observed in naturally affected goats with pregnancy toxemia included anorexia, recumbency, lethargy, opisthotonos, dropped head, periodic convulsion, sweetish fruity odor from breath, apparent blindness, bloat, grinding of teeth, and frothy salivation. In this study, the level of serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (SGOT) (84.23±1.44 IU/L), serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (SGPT) (216.01±4.07 IU/L), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) (22.24±0.31 mg/dl), creatinine (2.13±0.09 mg/dl), β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA) (0.46±0.83 mmol/L), and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) (1.67±0.71 mmol/L) was significantly higher whereas glucose (30.89±0.38 mg/dl) and calcium (8.10±0.20 mg/dl) levels were significantly decreased in pregnancy toxemic goats as compared to healthy goats.
Conclusion: The goats with pregnancy toxemia exhibited clinical signs include anorexia, recumbency, sweetish fruity odor from breath, apparent blindness, bloat, grinding of teeth, and frothy salivation. Biochemically, there were significantly decreased the level of glucose and calcium, and increased level of SGPT, SGOT, BUN, creatinine, BHBA, and NEFA in the pregnancy toxemic goats.
Keywords: alteration, biochemistry, clinical signs, goat, pregnancy toxemia.
Monday, 15 August 2016
Evaluation of complementary diagnostic tools for bovine tuberculosis detection in dairy herds from India
Research (Published online: 16-08-2016)
11. Evaluation of complementary diagnostic tools for bovine tuberculosis detection in dairy herds from India - Mukesh Kumar Thakur, Dharmender Kumar Sinha and Bhoj Raj Singh
Veterinary World, 9(8): 862-868
Aim: A cross-sectional study was undertaken to know the herd prevalence and evaluate the single intradermal tuberculin testing (SITT), culture isolation, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis (TB).
Materials and Methods: A total of 541 cows of three dairy farms of Bareilly and Mukteshwar were screened by SITT followed by collection of pre-scapular lymph node (PSLN) aspirates (71), milk (54), and blood (71) samples from reactor animals. These clinical samples were processed for culture isolation and direct PCR-based identification and species differentiation.
Results: Out of 541 cows screened by SITT, 71 (13.12%) animals were found positive. Mycobacteria were isolated from 3 (4.22%) PSLN aspirate but not from any cultured milk and blood samples. 28 (39.43%) PSLN aspirate and 5 (9.25%) milk samples were positive forMycobacterium TB (MTB) complex (MTC) by PCR amplification for the IS6110 insertion sequence; however, blood samples were found negative. For species differentiation, multiplex-PCR using 12.7 kb primers was conducted. Out of 28 PSLN aspirate, Mycobacterium boviswas detected in 18 (64.28%) and MTB in 8 (28.57%), whereas 2 aspirate samples (7.14%) were positive for both the species. All the five milk positive samples were positive for M. bovis.
Conclusion: Direct detection of bovine TB by a molecular-based method in dairy animals after preliminary screening was appeared to be more sensitive and specific compared to the conventional method (i.e., culture isolation). Its application in form of serial testing methodology for the routine diagnosis and thereafter, culling of infected stock may be suggested for the control programs in dairy herds. The PSLN aspirate was found to be the most suitable specimen for culture isolation and PCR-based detection of Mycobacterium spp. among live infected animals.
Keywords: bovine tuberculosis, culture isolation, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, polymerase chain reaction, single intradermal tuberculin testing.
Sunday, 14 August 2016
Pituitary-adrenocortical adjustments to transport stress in horses with previous different handling and transport conditions
Research (Published online: 14-08-2016)
10. Pituitary-adrenocortical adjustments to transport stress in horses with previous different handling and transport conditions - E. Fazio, P. Medica, C. Cravana and A. Ferlazzo
Veterinary World, 9(8): 856-861
Aim: The changes of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis response to a long distance transportation results in increase of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol levels. The purpose of the study was to quantify the level of short-term road transport stress on circulating ACTH and cortisol concentrations, related to the effect of previous handling and transport experience of horses.
Materials and Methods: The study was performed on 56 healthy horses after short-term road transport of 30 km. The horses were divided into four groups, Groups A, B, C, and D, with respect to the handling quality: Good (Groups A and B), bad (Group D), and minimal handling (Group C) conditions. According to the previous transport, experience horses were divided as follows: Horses of Groups A and D had been experienced long-distance transportation before; horses of Groups B and C had been limited experience of transportation.
Results: One-way RM-ANOVA showed significant effects of transport on ACTH changes in Groups B and C and on cortisol changes in both Groups A and B. Groups A and B showed lower baseline ACTH and cortisol values than Groups C and D; Groups A and B showed lower post-transport ACTH values than Groups C and D. Groups A, B, and C showed lower post-transport cortisol values than Group D. Only Groups A and B horses have shown an adequate capacity of stress response to transportation.
Conclusion: The previous transport experience and quality of handling could influence the HPA axis physiological responses of horses after short-term road transport.
Keywords: adrenocorticotropic hormone, cortisol, horse, previous transport experience, social context, transport stress.