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3. Hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory effects of copper-nicotinate complex against fatty liver in rat model
Ahmed Medhat Hegazy, Ayman Samir Farid, Ahmed S. Hafez, Rania M. Eid and Soad M. Nasr
Veterinary World, 12(12): 1903-1910
Aim: The current study was designed to evaluate the potential hepatoprotective and immunomodulatory effects of copper-nicotinate complex (CNC) against methionine- and choline-deficient diet (MCDD)-induced fatty liver in rats.
Materials and Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into one of four equal-sized groups (G1-G4). The G1 group was fed a balanced diet and kept under normal conditions; the G2 group received CNC orally at a dose of 0.043 mg/kg body weight, 3 times/week for 4 weeks, and a balanced diet; the G3 group was fed an MCDD for 4 weeks; and the G4 group was fed an MCDD and administered CNC at the same dose and route as G2. Blood samples were collected for the determination of serum enzyme activity. After 4 weeks of treatment, liver specimens were collected for the evaluation of the oxidative/antioxidative markers, cytokine gene expression, and histopathological examination.
Results: CNC improved MCDD-induced liver dysfunctions by recovering serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma-glutamyl transferase activities to their normal levels. The glutathione (GSH) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly decreased, while lipid peroxidation (as reflected by malondialdehyde [MDA]) markedly increased in the liver tissue of the MCDD group. After cotreatment with MCDD and CNC, the GSH level and SOD activity markedly increased and the MDA level significantly decreased to return to normal levels. After cotreatment with MCDD and CNC, significant downregulation of the mRNA expression of hepatic interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-4, macrophage inflammatory protein-1a, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 genes was found. Moreover, CNC reduced fatty liver complications by reducing the number of hepatic vacuolations, degenerative changes in the hepatocytes, and hemorrhage.
Conclusion: CNC has the potential to limit tissue injury and possibly prevent the progression to severe liver disease caused by an MCDD.
2. Effects of dichloromethane Sarcophyton spp. extract on the lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of nuclear factor-kappa B and inducible nitric oxide synthase in mice
Putut Har Riyadi, Didik Wahyudi and Wendy Alexander Tanod
Veterinary World, 12(12): 1897-1902
Background and Aim: The soft coral genus Sarcophyton is a source of cembraneterpen. Sarcophyton is reported to have anti-inflammatory properties, with the ability to reduce the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and inhibit nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of dichloromethane (DCM) extracts of soft coral Sarcophyton spp. to inhibit the expression of NF-κB and iNOS induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
Materials and Methods: Crude extracts of Sarcophyton spp. were macerated with DCM (1:3 v/v) for 24 h. Thirty-six Balb/c mice were divided into six treatment groups, namely, normal control (without LPS induction), negative control (LPS induction 4 mg/mL), comparative control (LPS+Dexamethasone 6 mg/kg), and 3 concentration groups extract (LPS+50, 125, and 250 mg/kg). The expression of NF-κB and iNOS was measured in each treatment group.
Results: Flow cytometry analysis showed that the relative number of NF-κB+ cells increased (18.38±1.24%) in LPS-induced mice compared with normal mice (13.24±1.15%). The Sarcophyton spp. DCM extracts decreased the relative number of NF-κB+ cells (125 mg/kg: 13.96±0.84%). Immunohistochemical analysis with ImmunoMembrane showed that LPS induction in mice increased iNOS expression when compared to normal mice. The Sarcophyton spp. DCM extracts reduced iNOS expression (especially at 125 mg/kg).
Conclusion: DCM extracts of Sarcophyton spp. inhibited the activation of NF-κB, resulting in suppressed iNOS expression, which directly inhibits NO production.
1. Diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in farmed pigs in Southeast Gabon, Central Africa
Gael Darren Maganga, Linda Bohou Kombila, Larson Boundenga, Ivan Cyr Moussadji Kinga, Judicael Obame-Nkoghe, Herve Tchoffo, Oubri Bassa Gbati and Julius Awah-Ndukum
Veterinary World, 12(12): 1888-1896
Background and Aim: Gastrointestinal infestations caused by intestinal parasites are the most important diseases and the most common in pigs in the tropics. These parasites are often associated with a huge economic loss. This study aimed to assess the diversity and prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in farmed pigs from Haut-Ogooue Province, in South East Gabon.
Materials and Methods: From March 2018 to July 2018, 156 samples of pig feces collected from nine different farms were analyzed under light microscopy. The identification of eggs, cysts, and oocysts in fecal samples was done using two qualitative techniques: Flotation and sedimentation.
Results: After examination, the results obtained revealed an overall infestation level of 98.7% (154/156). We found ten parasite types with infestation levels that varied from species: Balantidium coli (120/156), Oesophagostomum spp. (100/156), Isospora suis (102/156), Ancylostoma spp. (17/156), Trichostrongylus spp. (28/156), Hyostrongylus spp. (13/156), Strongyloides spp. (7/156), Ascaris suum (8/156), Globocephalus spp. (1/156), and spirurida (1/156). The study of risk factors revealed that factors such as sex, age, and physiological condition may influence the diversity and level of infestation of animals by gastrointestinal parasites.
Conclusion: For better prevention of parasitism in these farms, it would be interesting to implement health monitoring and to ensure good hygiene. Finally, further studies would be needed to better evaluate the distribution of these parasites in Gabon and the involvement of these animals in the transmission cycle of parasitic zoonoses.
28. Antibody reaction of leptospirosis in asymptomatic feral boars, Thailand
Phirom Prompiram, Kanaporn Poltep and Nongluck Sangkaew
Veterinary World, 12(11): 1884-1887
Aim: This study aimed to determine the proportion of exposure to leptospirosis and evaluate the degree of serovar antibody reaction in feral boars.
Materials and Methods: A total of 58 sera obtained from feral boars in Khao Prathab Chang Wildlife Breeding Center, Ratchaburi, Thailand, were screened for leptospirosis exposure by microscopic agglutination test, conducted with a reference panel of 23 pathogenic serovars and a non-pathogenic serovar.
Results: Overall exposure rate of 62.07% was found in the studied population. An antibody reaction presented in 18 of 24 leptospiral serovars. Among the seropositive, Ballum serovar showed predominant exposure in the feral boar population.
Conclusion: The results show a relatively high exposure to leptospirosis and the predominant serovar was Ballum followed by Canicola, the first finding in feral boars in Thailand. It has been revealed that feral boars act as a natural reservoir host of leptospirosis. There should be more concern about public health problems in leptospirosis arising where feral boars appear.
27. Fungal food spoilage of supermarkets' displayed fruits
Iman Saleh and Roda Al-Thani
Veterinary World, 12(11): 1877-1883
Background and Aim: Post-harvest fungal infection of fruits and vegetables is mainly caused by fungal pathogens that can be harmful to both human and animals as they produce mycotoxins, post-harvest diseases in fruits and vegetables are a serious problem that results in the loss of a large percentage of crops reaching 50% in some fruits. This study aims at screening the post-purchasing shelf-life of four highly consumed fruits and vegetables and at identifying the fungal strains behind their spoilage in Qatar.
Materials and Methods: Fruits and vegetables were collected from the market to study their post-purchasing shelf-life and to identify the fungal types involved in samples rotting. Factors that affect samples' shelf-life were also analyzed.
Results: A total of 73 fungal isolates were isolated and identified, with the highest percentage of Penicillium (21.9%) followed by Rhizopus (17.8%). Interestingly, many mycotoxins producing and diseases inducing fungi were identified in this study; this includes Rhizopus, Aspergillus, Penicillium, Alternaria, Fusarium, Cladosporium, Botrytis, Geotrichum, and Colletotrichum. Statistical analysis shows that different fruits have significantly different shelf-life and different predispositions for spoilage. In many cases, a strong relationship was shown between the fungal types isolated and the country of origin of the fruit. Finally, the price of the commodity did not have a significant effect on its contamination level nor did the market from which the sample was purchased. This indicates that the fruit displaying methods in Qatar do not affect their contamination level.
Conclusion: The study is among the first reports about fungal types involved in fruits and vegetables rotting in Qatar and it highlights the strong link between spoiling fungi and their country of origin.
Keywords: country of origin, fungi, post-harvest, shelf-life, spoilage.
26. Effect of age on dental plaque deposition and its control by ultrasonic scaling, dental hygiene chew, and chlorhexidine (0.2%w/v) in dogs
Nishiswapna Garanayak, Manoranjan Das, Ramesh Chandra Patra, Sangram Biswal and Susen Ku Panda
Veterinary World, 12(11): 1872-1876
Background and Aim: Periodontitis is the most prevalent inflammatory dental disease caused by a lack of oral hygiene measures in domestic animals. The periodontal disease complex arises as a result of bacterial biofilm deposition termed as plaque on the tooth surface. Lack of cleaning measures either mechanical or chemical credit for the condition. The present study was conducted to screen the animals for the presence of plaque deposition, gingivitis, along with various control measures for the same.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-two dogs of different age groups were evaluated for the presence of plaque and gingivitis by scoring method to estimate the extent of severity. Scaling of the tooth surface was done by ultrasonic scaling machine to remove the plaques, and the animals were divided into four treatment groups to study the effects of dental hygiene chew and chlorhexidine for control of plaque.
Results: Present study revealed 71.87% and 34.37% of the screened animals were having plaque deposition and varied degrees of gingivitis respectively. A positive coefficient of correlation (r) of 0.89 (p<0.05) between advancing age and plaque deposition and 0.85 (p<0.05) between age and level of gingivitis was obtained. Two groups receiving dental chew and 0.2% w/v chlorhexidine showed lower plaque deposits, and the fourth treatment group receiving both dental chew and chlorhexidine showed 100% animals remained free from fresh plaque deposits.
Conclusion: The present study showed a strong positive relationship between age and plaque deposition and gingivitis. The study also showed that oral hygiene measures such as use of dental hygiene chew and chlorhexidine application can reduce plaque deposition and periodontitis in domesticated canines.
25. Prevalence of gastrointestinal worms in Wonosobo and thin-tailed sheep on the slope of Mount Sumbing, Central Java, Indonesia
Zein Ahmad Baihaqi, Irkham Widiyono and Wisnu Nurcahyo
Veterinary World, 12(11): 1866-1871
Aim: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) worms in Wonosobo and thin-tailed sheep from the slope of Mount Sumbing.
Materials and Methods: Fecal samples (n=305) were collected directly from the rectum of Wonosobo and thin-tailed sheep during the dry and rainy seasons in Wonosobo Regency, Central Java Province, Indonesia. The presence of GI helminth eggs in the fecal samples was assessed using the modified McMaster egg counting technique. The identification of the eggs or oocysts was done on the basis of their morphology and size.
Results: The highest prevalence of GI worms was observed in male thin-tailed sheep (76.47%) during the rainy season, whereas the lowest prevalence was observed in female Wonosobo sheep (47.36%) during the dry season. The types of GI nematodes observed in these two types of sheep were Haemonchus contortus, Ostertagia spp., Trichostrongylus spp., Bunostomum spp., Trichuris spp., and Moniezia spp. The GI worms with the highest prevalence were of Haemonchus spp. and were observed in male thin-tailed sheep. The prevalences of the two types of sheep assessed at an altitude of 1150 m above sea level were higher than those observed at the altitude of 1586 m. The prevalence of clinical and sub-clinical parasites infestation in Wonosobo and thin-tailed sheep in Kwadungan village was significantly different (p<0.05).
Conclusion: This study showed that two types of local sheep on the slope of Mount Sumbing are infected with various GI worms during the dry and rainy seasons. The highest prevalence of GI worms was found in thin-tailed sheep at an altitude of 1150 m above sea level during the rainy season, with H. contortus being the most prevalent GI parasites.
24. Seroprevalence and risk factors of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in cattle in the Nineveh Governorate, Iraq
Khder Jassiem Hussain, Maab Ibrahim Al-Farwachi and Sadam Dhahir Hassan
Veterinary World, 12(11): 1862-1865
Background and Aim: Bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) is one of the main causes of severe pneumonia, interstitial edema, and emphysema in cattle. The current study investigated the prevalence and risk factors of BRSV in cattle in the Nineveh Province, Iraq.
Materials and Methods: Between September 2017 and September 2018, 450 serum samples were collected from non-vaccinated cattle of different ages and breeds for BRSV testing. The epidemiological information of the animals was recorded. The prevalence of the disease was determined using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.
Results: The prevalence of BRSV was 83.11%, and it was significantly (p<0.05) higher in cattle aged greater than 7 months-1.5 years than in older animals; in imported cattle than in Native animals; and in animals originating from large herds (100 animals) than in those from smaller herds (40 animals). There was no significant difference between BRSV prevalence in male and female animals. When samples from different regions of the Nineveh Governorate were compared, the northern region was associated with the highest prevalence of the disease. Samples harvested in the winter displayed the highest BRSV titer, compared to those collected during the other seasons.
Conclusion: BRSV is prevalent in cattle from the Nineveh Governorate. Risk factors such as animal age, origin, herd size, and the herd's geographical location are associated with an increased prevalence of the disease in this region. Routine vaccination programs should be adopted to reduce the prevalence of BRSV.
23. Relationship between certain serum biochemical values and serostatus against Anaplasma marginale in dairy cows
Myassar O. Alekish and Zuhair Bani Ismail
Veterinary World, 12(11): 1858-1861
Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the possible association between values of certain serum biochemical parameters and seropositivity against Anaplasma marginale in dairy cows.
Materials and Methods: Serum samples from 60 seropositive and 40 seronegative cows were used to determine the values of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), glucose, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) using commercially available kits and reagents. The serostatus of cows against A. marginale was determined using a commercially available cellular enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit according to the manufacturer's recommendations. Significant differences in serum biochemical values between seropositive and seronegative groups were evaluated using independent Student's t-test. Possible associations between the serostatus of the cows and different biochemical parameters were evaluated using univariate followed by multivariate logistic regression analyses.
Results: There was a statistically significant increase (p≤0.05) in values of total protein, BHB, LDH, and AST in seropositive cows compared to seronegative cows while a non-significant increase in values of ALP, ALT, and GGT was detected in seropositive cows. A strong correlation (R=0.69) between serum levels of BHB, LDH, and AST and seropositivity against A. marginale was detected.
Conclusion: There is evidence of a possible association between A. marginale infection and liver damage/hepatic fatty degeneration in dairy cows. Further studies, however, are required to elucidate the exact pathophysiological mechanisms of this relationship.
22. Comparative analysis of hatcheries contribution to poor development of day-old chicks based on biological and immunological performance
P. P. Yeboah, L. A. Konadu, J. A. Hamidu, E. A. Poku, D. Wakpal, P. Y. Kudaya, A. Dey and S. M. Siddiq
Veterinary World, 12(11): 1849-1857
Background and Aim: The quality of day-old chicks is a cornerstone to successful poultry production. Chicks with a poor quality start slowly in the field and may have high feed intake, poor growth rate, and poor feed conversion ratio. The current study aimed to assess chick quality challenges encountered from day-old chicks hatched in most commercial hatcheries in Ghana.
Materials and Methods: A total of 300 day-old chicks each were obtained from commercial hatcheries in Ghana and Europe. The chicks were labeled as locally hatched broiler day-old chicks (LBDOC) and foreign hatched broiler day-old chicks (FBDOC), respectively. Chicks were reared and monitored from day old to 21 days post-hatch. Sample of chicks (n=25) from each hatchery was euthanized weekly at 1, 7, 14, and 21 days and blood samples collected for analysis. The parameters measured included physical, hematological, immunological, histological, and bacteriological characteristics. All data were analyzed by SAS Proc GLM at p<0.05.
Results: The live weight of chicks was higher in FBDOC compared to LBDOC on the 1st day. The chick length and shank length of FBDOC were longer than the LBDOC. The 7-day chick mortality was 6% in LBDOC as compared to 1.5% in FBDOC. The LBDOC also had a higher wet and dry residual yolk sac percentages as well as higher residual yolk sac fluid volume than the FBDOC. The rate of yolk sac disappearance of the FBDOC was higher than the LBDOC. More than half of the LBDOC had developed navel strings and leaky navel compared to FBDOC. The LBDOC recorded Escherichia coli, Proteus, Streptococcus spp., and Gram-negative bacteria in the residual yolk sac isolated through the 21 days while FBDOC recorded E. coli, Proteus, and Gram-negative bacteria. The intestinal villi count, lengths, width, and surface area were all not significantly different. The blood monocyte levels appeared higher in FBDOC than LBDOC, which give evidence of higher immunity in FBDOC than LBDOC.
Conclusion: The results indicate a challenging situation in maintaining the quality of locally hatched broiler day-old-chicks compared to foreign hatched broiler-day-old-chicks. The study demonstrates that chick quality impact goes beyond the physical characteristics of chick weight and chick length, and the higher performance of FBDOC may be influenced by compliance with international hatchery standards and vaccination protocols.
21. Virulence and antibiotic resistance profile of avian Escherichia coli strains isolated from colibacillosis lesions in central of Algeria
Nacima Meguenni, Nathalie Chanteloup, Angelina Tourtereau, Chafika Ali Ahmed, Saliha Bounar-Kechih and Catherine Schouler
Veterinary World, 12(11): 1840-1848
Background and Aim: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli cause extensive mortality in poultry flocks, leading to extensive economic losses. To date, in Algeria, little information has been available on virulence potential and antibiotics resistance of avian E. coli isolates. Therefore, the aim of this study was the characterization of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance profile of Algerian E. coli strains isolated from diseased broilers.
Materials and Methods: In this study, 43 avian E. coli strains isolated from chicken colibacillosis lesions at different years were analyzed to determine their contents in 10 virulence factors by polymerase chain reaction, antimicrobial susceptibility to 22 antibiotics belonging to six different chemical classes and genomic diversity by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE).
Results: Mainly E. coli isolates (58.1%) carried two at six virulence genes and the most frequent virulence gene association detected were ompT (protectin), hlyF (hemolysin) with 55.8% (p<0.001), and iroN, sitA (iron acquisition/uptake systems), and iss (protectin) with 41.8% (p<0.001). Some strains were diagnosed as virulent according to their virulence gene profile. Indeed, 23.25% of the isolates harbored iroN, ompT, hlyF, iss, and sitA combination, 14% ompT, hlyF, and frzorf4 (sugar metabolism), and 11,6% iroN, hlyF, ompT, iss, iutA (iron acquisition/uptake systems), and frzorf4. The chicken embryo lethality assay performed on five isolates confirmed the potential virulence of these strains. All isolates submitted to PFGE analysis yielded different genetic profiles, which revealed their diversity. Overall, 97.2% of the isolates were resistant to at least one antibiotic and 53.5% demonstrated multi-antimicrobial resistance to three different antimicrobial classes. The highest resistance levels were against nalidixic acid (83.4%), amoxicillin and ampicillin (83.3%), ticarcillin (80.5%), pipemidic acid (75%), and triméthoprim-sulfamethoxazole (66.6%). For beta-lactam class, the main phenotype observed belonged to broad-spectrum beta-lactamases. However, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase associated with three at six virulence factors was also detected in 13 isolates. Two of them were attested virulent as demonstrated in the embryo lethality test which constitutes a real public threat.
Conclusion: It would be imperative in avian production to discourage misuse while maintaining constant vigilance guidelines and regulations, to limit and rationalize antimicrobial use.
20. Quantitative evaluation of viral interference among Egyptian isolates of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (H5N1 and H5N8) with the lentogenic and velogenic Newcastle disease virus genotype VII in specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs model
Mohamed A. Soliman, Ahmed A. Nour and Ahmed M. Erfan
Veterinary World, 12(11): 1833-1839
Background and Aim: Mixed infections of the highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) are considered the most distressing problem of the poultry industry. The problem arises due to the influence of a hidden virus on the replication of another suspected virus. Consequently, misdiagnosis of the real cause of disease may become a source of infection for other healthy stock by transmission and dissemination of the hidden virus. This study aimed to determine the impact of HPAIV and NDV on each other in a specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken egg (SPF-ECE) model.
Materials and Methods: HPAIVs (H5N1 and H5N8) and NDVs [avirulent NDV [avNDV] and velogenic NDV [vNDV]) were inoculated into the allantois cavity of SPF-ECE with graded titers (2, 3, and 4 log10 EID50) at 24 and 48 h of incubation, followed by the collection of allantoic fluid. A quantitative reverse transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to determine the viral RNA copies of both viruses.
Results: Obvious interference was reported on the growth of NDVs when co-inoculated with AIVs. NDV RNA titers reduction ranged from <3 to 5 log10 to complete suppression, but slight interference with the growth of AIVs occurred. H5N1 RNA titers showed <1-2 log10 reduction when co-inoculated with vNDV compared with the H5N1 control. The interference impact of H5N8 was more powerful than that of H5N1, while vNDV showed more resistance for interference than the avNDV strain. On the other hand, interference of AIVs was not observed except when vNDV was inoculated before H5N1. The interfering impact was increased after 48 h of inoculation, whereas no titer of avNDV was detectable.
Conclusion: AIV strains had a powerful effect on NDV growth, regardless of which infection occurred first.
19. Molecular and histopathological confirmation of clinically diagnosed lumpy skin disease in cattle, Baghdad Province of Iraq
Hasanain A. J. Gharban, Sattar J. J. Al-Shaeli, Hams H. H. Al-Fattli and Muthanna N. K. Altaee
Veterinary World, 12(11): 1826-1832
Aim: This study aimed to confirm the clinically diagnosed cattle with lumpy skin disease (LSD) at Baghdad Province/Iraq from October 2018 to March 2019.
Materials and Methods: Molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and histopathology were applied for the detection of LSD among 71 infected cattle issued for slaughter.
Results: Pre-slaughter clinical examination showed significant increases (p<0.05) in values of temperature (39.7±0.74°C), pulse (96.42±3.51), and respiratory (33.54±0.63) rates. Enlargement of lymph nodes (prescapular, supramammary, and prefemoral), lacrimation, mucopurulent nasal discharge, salivation, edema in limbs and head among severe infected cases, and marked fall in milk production was seen. An association of LSD to risk factors (age, gender, and areas) showed that there is significant elevation in prevalence of disease in >2-5 years (54.93%) rather than other age groups (>5 and <2 years) in females (73.24%) than males (26.76%); and in sub-rural (42.25%) and rural (39.44%) compared to urban (18.31%) areas. Postmortem examination appeared nodular lesions in upper parts of the digestive system (9.86%), rumen (2.82%), upper respiratory tracts (7.04%), and lung (4.23%). The PCR examination of P32 and thymidine kinase antigenic genes showed 90.14% and 60.56% positive samples, respectively. Histopathological analysis of nodular skin biopsies showed edema, hyperemia, acanthosis, severe hydropic degeneration, and hyperkeratosis in epidermis; whereas, mononuclear cell infiltration, inclusion bodies, and vasculitis seen in the dermis.
Conclusion: PCR and histopathology assay could be a potential method to confirm the LSD infection concomitant with clinical examination.
18. Crossbreeding and consanguinity management in pig farms in the departments of Ouémé and Plateau in Benin
Ignace Ogoudanan Dotché, Simon Idohou, Mahamadou Dahouda, Pascal Kiki, Benoit Govoeyi, Nicolas Antoine-Moussiaux, Jean-Paul Dehoux, Guy Apollinaire Mensah, Souaïbou Farougou, Pierre Thilmant, Issaka Youssao Abdou Karim and Benoît Koutinhouin
Veterinary World, 12(11): 1816-1825
Background: The improvement in pig zootechnical performances is a common practice in Benin. This improvement of the performances is made by the choice of the best reproducers in farms and the crossbreeding between the different breeds.
Aim: This study aims to characterize practices related to consanguinity management in pigs reared in Ouémé and Plateau.
Materials and Methods: Crossbreeding and consanguinity data were collected from 60 farms in these two departments. Frequencies and averages were calculated and compared between departments, genetic types, and origin of progenitors.
Results: The majority of the investigated pig farmers in both departments were married men of primary or secondary education level. Most of them cross animals without a specific crossbreeding scheme. These crossings were performed to a greater extent (p<0.05) in Ouémé (94.28%) than in Plateau (52%). In general, farmers cross improved animals of high breeding values with the crossbred ones. These crossings were mainly performed to improve zootechnical performances. Renewing animals were commonly chosen from the farm or were provided from nearby farms. The majority of pig breeders in Ouémé (100%) and Plateau (86.67%) obtained reproductive animals from nearby farms. Males and females were sometimes bought from the same farm or from farms that pig breeders have sold reproductive animals in the previous years. In the case of selection within their own farm, male and female progenitors are separated at puberty by the majority of the breeders of Plateau (42.11%) and Ouémé (50%). Inbred mating was reported by breeders. More than half of breeders mate animals having a parental link in both departments. The mating was performed between animals of the same mother in 37.93% of farms in Ouémé and in 45.46% in Plateau. The main consanguinity consequences mentioned by the breeders were the high mortality at birth and weaning, piglets' weakness at the birth, the slow growth, and the decrease in litter size. Sows with at least one parent from external farm had a litter size at birth and weaning and a live-born piglets' number significantly higher than sows with both parents from the same farm.
Conclusion: Rigorous monitoring of crossing and the filial links are necessary for pig farms for ensuring the improvement of zootechnical performances.
17. Live vaccines against bacterial fish diseases: A review
Aslizah Mohd-Aris, Mohd Hafiz Ngoo Muhamad-Sofie, Mohd Zamri-Saad, Hassan Mohd Daud and Md. Yasin Ina-Salwany
Veterinary World, 12(11): 1806-1815
Fish diseases are often caused either by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, or a combination of these pathogens. Of these, bacterial fish diseases are considered to be a major problem in the aquaculture industry. Hence, the prevention of such diseases by proper vaccination is one of the integral strategies in fish health management, aimed at reducing the fish mortality rate in the aquaculture farms. Vaccination offers an effective yet low-cost solution to combat the risk of disease in fish farming. An appropriate vaccination regime to prevent bacterial diseases offers a solution against the harmful effects of antibiotic applications. This review discusses the role of live-attenuated vaccine in controlling bacterial diseases and the development of such vaccines and their vaccination strategy. The current achievements and potential applications of live-attenuated and combined vaccines are also highlighted. Vaccine development is concluded to be a demanding process, as it must satisfy the requirements of the aquaculture industry.
Keywords: aquaculture, attenuated vaccines, bacterial fish diseases, vaccination.
16. Isolation and characterization of avian coronavirus from healthy Eclectus parrots (Eclectus roratus) from Indonesia
G. K. Suryaman, R. D. Soejoedono, A. Setiyono, O. N. Poetri and E. Handharyani
Veterinary World, 12(11): 1797-1805
Background and Aim: Avian coronavirus has a wide range of hosts, from chickens and turkeys to wild birds. This virus causes an economically and, possibly, environmentally, important loss in the poultry industry. Therefore, research into the avian coronavirus in various species of birds is required. The Eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus) is an endemic bird to Indonesia and Northern Australia and often kept as pets. At present, there has been limited information about avian coronavirus infection among birds. This study aimed to determine the presence of and to characterize avian coronavirus isolated from Eclectus parrots in Indonesia.
Materials and Methods: Cloacal swab samples were taken from 10 healthy Eclectus parrots (E. roratus). Each isolate was propagated into specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs. The presence of avian coronavirus was determined using three sets of primers targeting the 3' untranslated region (3'-UTR) of avian coronavirus (UTR41+/11–), the N gene of the infectious bronchitis virus (IBVN+/–), and the S1 gene of the IBV (XCE2+/XCE2–). The infectious bronchitis vaccine strain H120 was used as a positive control. Resulting positive bands were sequenced for the S1 gene.
Results: None of the isolates was positive for the 3'-UTR, four isolates were positive for the N gene of infectious bronchitis, and two isolates were positive for the S1 gene of the IBV. However, only one isolate (parrot/Indonesia/BX9/16) was sequenced for the partial S1 gene with primers XCE2+/XCE2–. The partial nucleotide sequence of this isolate showed 100% homology with the IBV GI-13 lineage, specifically with a field isolate of the 4/91 variant 1 Israel and the 4/91 vaccine on the hypervariable region 3 site of the S1 gene.
Conclusion: An IB-like avian coronavirus was isolated from healthy Eclectus parrots. Our results indicate that IBV has a wide range of hosts, which prompt the need to understand the interspecies connection of this virus better.
15. Endotheliotropic herpesvirus infection in Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) of Assam, India
G. Mahato, K. K. Sarma, D. C. Pathak, N. N. Barman, P. Gogoi, M. Dutta and P. Basumatary
Veterinary World, 12(11): 1790-1796
Background and Aim: Elephant endotheliotropic herpesvirus (EEHV) is an emerging disease of elephant. Therefore, a study was conducted to know the actual status of the disease in Assam State of India.
Materials and Methods: A total of 289 Asian elephants of Assam were screened during 2 years of study from April 2017 to March 2019. The clinical symptoms of diseased as well as gross and histopathological changes of dead elephants were recorded for the diagnosis of the disease. Virus involved in the occurrence of the disease was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: In the present study, a total of three elephant calves out of 22 were found positive to EEHV1A. On the other hand, three adult asymptomatic elephants were also found positive for EEHV1 on screening 267 captive Asian elephants of Assam. The amplified PCR product showed band size of 520, 600, and 930 bp. The PCR amplified product with size 600 bp had shown the gene sequence for EEHV1U77/HEL. Gross lesions include congested blood vessels of the liver and intestinal mucosa, foci of petechiae in the spleen, and heart and focal ulceration in the dorsal surface of the tongue. Microscopically, the kidneys showed intertubular edema and focal areas of degeneration associated with coagulative necrosis of the tubular epithelium. The liver showed hydropic degeneration and fatty changes of the hepatocytes. There was a massive proliferation of fibroblasts in the interlobular spaces which penetrated the necrosed areas of the hepatic lobules.
Conclusion: A total of three wild rescued elephant calves and three asymptomatic adults were found positive for EEHV1A during the 2 years of study. The PCR amplified product with size 600 bp had shown the gene sequence for EEHV1U77/HEL.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the benefits of L-arginine addition in skim milk extender to maintain the quality of goat spermatozoa in chilled storage.
Materials and Methods: A total of 18 ejaculates from three healthy goats with weight and age of 45 kg and 4-5 years, respectively, were divided into three groups. The control group contained goat semen diluted in a skim milk extender without L-arginine; Treatment I and Treatment II contained goat semen diluted in a skim milk extender with added L-arginine 4 and 6 mM, respectively. These three groups were chilled at 5°C and evaluated daily for 5 days. Observed variables were viability, motility, intact plasma membrane (IPM), malondialdehyde (MDA) level, necrosis, and apoptosis of spermatozoa.
Results: The addition of L-arginine 4 mM was the best treatment in maintaining viability, motility, and IPM and a decreased MDA level, percentage of necrosis, and apoptosis of goat spermatozoa. An ejaculate in this extender can be divided into 37 doses for intracervical insemination in <1 ml volume with 125 million motile spermatozoa.
Conclusion: Goat semen retained its quality when kept for 5 days in chilled storage by adding L-arginine in skim milk extender.
13. Pregnancy rates in hair sheep after Ovsynch synchronization and a combined intracervical fixed-time artificial insemination and 10-day mating period
D. A. Vallejo, J. D. Londoño, Y. A. Yepes, V. Tamayo, A. F. Mejia and J. G. Maldonado
Veterinary World, 12(11): 1779-1783
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the pregnancy rates in hair ewes using an Ovsynch synchronization protocol under a breeding system that combines fixed-time insemination plus a 10-day mating period as an alternative.
Materials and Methods: Through an experimental study (n=27), ewes were randomly located into one of three treatments: (1) Pre-synch (n=9): Prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α)+Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)+PGF2α+GnRH; (2) Ovsynch (n=9): GnRH+PGF2α+GnRH; and (3) control: Ewes bred by natural mating (NM) (n=9). Ewes were fixed-time inseminated (fixed-time artificial insemination [FTAI]) with fresh semen, collected just before the insemination time through vaginoscopy at 16 h after the second GnRH (gonadorelin) injection. Each experimental group was placed separately during 15 days and, after this time, fertile rams were allowed back with ewes for a 10-day mating period. Control group ewes remained with the rest of the herd suitable for breeding and were bred under NM. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed by ultrasound at 28-, 56-, and 84-day post-breeding to differentiate between FTAI and NM pregnancies. Total (FTAI±NM) pregnancy rates at 56-day post-breeding were used to compared Pre-synch, Ovsynch, and control. For this purpose, two-tailed proportions comparison z-test was used with a 95% confidence level, for testing as the null hypothesis whether two proportions were equal.
Results: Pregnancy rates were higher in control ewes (66.4%) than FTAI (46.6%). When pregnancy rates after a 10-day mating period (40%) were added, the final rate (86.6%) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Ovsynch-based protocols. The pregnancy rate was significantly lower in FTAI ewes compared to FTAI +10-day mating group (p<0.05). The overall pregnancy rate was 88.0, 85.7, and 67.0 (p>0.05) for Pre-synch, Ovsynch, and control ewes, respectively.
Conclusion: These results provide evidence on the benefits of combined FTAI protocols for improving the reproductive efficiency of sheep.