Wednesday, 30 December 2015

Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

Research (Published online: 30-12-2015)
15. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats? - Wafa Siouda and Cherif Abdennour
Veterinary World, 8(12): 1458-1465

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1458-1465

Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD) against Hg-induced toxicity.
Materials and Methods: A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet), the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage), and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml) was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH) level (liver, kidney and testis) and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis) were evaluated after 1 month exposure.
Results: Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa’s concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms’ numbers were noted in the UD supplemented rats.
Conclusion: Nettle leaves have not only played a clear protective role during Hg intoxication, but it also enhanced hepatic, renal and testicular GSH level of Wistar rats.
Keywords: biochemical markers, fertility, glutathione, mercury, Urtica dioica, Wistar rats.

Tuesday, 29 December 2015

Principal component analysis of biometric traits to reveal body confirmation in local hill cattle of Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh, India

Research (Published online: 29-12-2015)
14. Principal component analysis of biometric traits to reveal body confirmation in local hill cattle of Himalayan state of Himachal Pradesh, India - Deepak Verma, Varun Sankhyan, Sanjeet Katoch and Yash Pal Thakur
Veterinary World, 8(12): 1453-1457

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1453-1457

Aim: In the present study, biometric traits (body length [BL], heart girth [HG], paunch girth (PG), forelimb length (FLL), hind limb length (HLL), face length, forehead width, forehead length, height at hump, hump length (HL), hook to hook distance, pin to pin distance, tail length (TL), TL up to switch, horn length, horn circumference, and ear length were studied in 218 adult hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh for phenotypic characterization.
Materials and Methods: Morphological and biometrical observations were recorded on 218 hill cattle randomly selected from different districts within the breeding tract. Multivariate statistics and principal component analysis are used to account for the maximum portion of variation present in the original set of variables with a minimum number of composite variables through Statistical software, SAS 9.2.
Result: Five components were extracted which accounted for 65.9% of variance. The first component explained general body confirmation and explained 34.7% variation. It was represented by significant loading for BL, HG, PG, FLL, and HLL. Communality estimate ranged from 0.41 (HL) to 0.88 (TL). Second, third, fourth, and fifth component had a high loading for tail characteristics, horn characteristics, facial biometrics, and rear body, respectively.
Conclusion: The result of component analysis of biometric traits suggested that indigenous hill cattle of Himachal Pradesh are small and compact size cattle with a medium hump, horizontally placed short ears, and a long tail. The study also revealed that factors extracted from the present investigation could be used in breeding programs with sufficient reduction in the number of biometric traits to be recorded to explain the body confirmation.
Keywords: biometrical traits, hill cattle, phenotypic characterization, principal component analysis.

Effect of microclimate alteration on milk production and composition in Murrah buffaloes

Research (Published online: 29-12-2015)
13. Effect of microclimate alteration on milk production and composition in Murrah buffaloes - Sandeep Reddy Seerapu, Ananda Rao Kancharana, Venkata Seshaiah Chappidi and Eswara Rao Bandi
Veterinary World, 8(12): 1444-1452

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1444-1452

Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of microclimate alteration on temperature-humidity index (THI), milk yield, and milk composition of Murrah buffaloes during summer for a period of 90-day from March to May-2014 at Buffalo Research Station, Venkataramannagudem, Andhra Pradesh, India.
Materials and Methods: A total of 40 lactating Murrah buffaloes were selected having similar body weight, parity, and milk yield. They were divided into four groups of 10 each. Three groups of buffaloes were provided with microclimate alteration using supplemental cooling like foggers, fans and foggers plus fans, and the fourth group (control) was without any cooling system. The daily THI was measured using dry and wet bulb thermometer. The physiological responses viz. rectal temperature, respiration rate, and pulse rate were measured by a clinical thermometer, measuring the flank movements a minute and observing the pulsation of the middle coccygeal artery at the base of tail with the help of finger. Milk samples were analyzed for chemical composition viz., fat, solids-not-fat (SNF), total solids (TS), specific gravity.
Results: In the present study, significant (p<0.001) decrease in the average THI values were observed in experimental Murrah buffalo houses of GroupII (foggers), GroupIII (fans), and GroupIV (foggers and fans) compared to GroupI (control). Significant (p<0.001) decrease in average rectal temperature (°F), respiration rate (breaths/min) and pulse rate (beats/min) values were recorded in Murrah buffaloes of Groups II, III and IV compared to Group I. Significant (p<0.001) increase in the average milk yield (kg/day) was recorded in Murrah buffaloes of Groups II, III, and IV compared with Group I. Significant (p<0.001) increase in the average milk fat, SNF, and TS percent were recorded in Murrah buffalo Groups of II, III, and IV compared with Group I.
Conclusion: Microclimate alteration by the provision of foggers and air circulators in the buffalo houses increased feed intake in buffaloes resulting increased milk production, fat and SNF yield which was due to decreased heat stress in buffaloes.
Keywords: microlimate, milk composition, milk yield, physiological parameters, temperature-humidity index.

Wednesday, 23 December 2015

Single nucleotide polymorphism mining and nucleotide sequence analysis of Mx1 gene in exonic regions of Japanese quail

Research (Published online: 23-12-2015)
12. Single nucleotide polymorphism mining and nucleotide sequence analysis of Mx1 gene in exonic regions of Japanese quail - Diwesh Kumar Niraj, Pushpendra Kumar, Chinmoy Mishra, Raj Narayan, Tarun Kumar Bhattacharya, Kush Shrivastava, Bharat Bhushan, Ashok Kumar Tiwari, Vishesh Saxena, Nihar Ranjan Sahoo and Deepak Sharma
Veterinary World, 8(12): 1435-1443

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1435-1443

Aim: An attempt has been made to study the Myxovirus resistant (Mx1) gene polymorphism in Japanese quail.
Materials and Methods: In the present, investigation four fragments viz. Fragment I of 185 bp (Exon 3 region), Fragment II of 148 bp (Exon 5 region), Fragment III of 161 bp (Exon 7 region), and Fragment IV of 176 bp (Exon 13 region) of Mx1 gene were amplified and screened for polymorphism by polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism technique in 170 Japanese quail birds.
Results: Out of the four fragments, one fragment (Fragment II) was found to be polymorphic. Remaining three fragments (Fragment I, III, and IV) were found to be monomorphic which was confirmed by custom sequencing. Overall nucleotide sequence analysis of Mx1gene of Japanese quail showed 100% homology with common quail and more than 80% homology with reported sequence of chicken breeds.
Conclusion: The Mx1 gene is mostly conserved in Japanese quail. There is an urgent need of comprehensive analysis of other regions ofMx1 gene along with its possible association with the traits of economic importance in Japanese quail.
Keywords: Japanese quail, Mx1 gene, nucleotide sequencing, polymorphism, polymerase chain reaction-single-strand conformation polymorphism.

Dominant viral pathologies in the extensive and semi-intensive animal breeding and their treatment mode in ethno veterinary medicine in Benin

Research (Published online: 23-12-2015)
11. Dominant viral pathologies in the extensive and semi-intensive animal breeding and their treatment mode in ethno veterinary medicine in Benin - T. M. Kpodékon, C. A. Ogni, H. Dassou, T. J. Dougnon, C. Boko, G. B. Koutinhouin, J. S. E. Goussanou, A. Akoegninou and I. Youssao
Veterinary World, 8(12): 1424-1434

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1424-1434

Aim: This study aims to identify the dominant viral animal pathologies and to list the traditional recipes used by the breeders for their treatment.
Materials and Methods: The method of data collection was based on a retrospective survey. Thus, 787 breeders and agro-breeders scattered in the eight agro-ecological areas of Benin were interviewed using semi-structured questionnaires.
Results: In total, 5 pathologies were reported by breeders. Among those pathologies, foot and mouth disease was reported by all of the breeders of the southern part of Borgou compared with the other areas (p<0.05) and treated by 25 species of medicinal plants. African swine fever was the main pathology reported (22.92%) (p<0.05) in the fishery areas which is controlled by 7 medicinal plants. Pseudorinderpest was more reported (33.78%) (p<0.05) in the cotton area of central Benin and treated by 8 medicinal plants. There is also Newcastle disease that was mostly reported in the Western Atacora and treated by 32 medicinal plants as well as fowl pox which was a more reported in the lands of the bar area and the low-pressure area about 34.48% and 36.17% proportions, respectively, and treated by eight medicinal plants.
Conclusion: The breeders in Benin possess rich ethno veterinary knowledge on medicinal plants and their uses in the treatment of livestock. A total of 57 medicinal plants have been inventoried to fight against five major viral diseases as African swine fever, pseudorinderpest and foot and mouth disease. The common plants used to treat viral disease in general were Euphorbia unispina,Euphorbia poissoniiLannea acida, and Mangifera indica. The most harvested organs on the plants reported in this survey were the barks, the leaves, and the whole plants. To better develop our indigenous resources, it would be important to expand this ethno-pharmacological investigation to other diseases category.
Keywords: Benin, ethnoveterinary survey, medicinal plants, viral diseases.

Friday, 18 December 2015

Molecular identification of Campylobacter jejuni and coli from chicken, calves and dogs to determine its potential threat on human being

Research (Published online: 18-12-2015)
10. Molecular identification of Campylobacter jejuni and coli from chicken, calves and dogs to determine its potential threat on human being - Sonuwara Begum, M. Sekar, L. Gunaseelan, Monica Gawande, G. Suganya, P. Annal Selva Malar and A.Karthikeyan
Veterinary World, 8(12): 1420-1423

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1420-1423

Aim: Campylobacter is an emerging zoonotic pathogen and one of the leading cause of foodborne infection worldwide and it has been isolated from a variety of animal species.The aim of this study was to identify Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli from dogs, calves, and poultry using polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Methodology: A total of 104 number of samples comprising cloacal swab from poultry (38), a rectal swab from dogs (40), and calves (26) were collected for the isolation of thermophilic Campylobacters using conventional culture method. PCR was used for identification of mapA gene for C.jejuni and ceuE for C.coli.
Results: The overall presence of Campylobacter was found to be 67(64.42%) from the samples, out of which 6 isolates belongs to C. jejuni species, were 5(18.51%) from chicken and 1(4.17%) from dog was recorded and about 17 isolates belongs to C. coli species were 9(33.33%), 6 (25%), and 1(9.09%) from chicken, dog and calves was recorded.
Conclusion: Results suggested that Campylobacter reservoirs chicken, calves and pet dogs can play a role as the source of infection to human beings and PCR can be an ideal tool for molecular confirmation at the species level.
Keywords: emerging, pathogen, thermophilic Campylobacter, zoonotic. 

Seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in unvaccinated cattle

Research (Published online: 18-12-2015)

9. Seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis infection in unvaccinated cattle - M. Saravanajayam, K. Kumanan and A. Balasubramaniam
Veterinary World, 8(12): 1416-1419

Aim: The present study aimed to investigate the seroepidemiology of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) infection in the non-vaccinated cattle population in northern part of Tamil Nadu, India.
Materials and Methods: A total of 255 sera samples were collected from cattle having the history of respiratory and reproductive disorder from cattle of different age, breeds, and sex. All the sera samples were subjected to indirect ELISA for the diagnosis of IBR antibodies.
Results: Results revealed that the seroprevalence of IBR infection among non-vaccinated cattle population was of 65.88%. No significant difference was noticed in the prevalence of IBR infection between cattle showing respiratory (63.64%) and reproductive form (70.89%) (p≥0.05). A higher prevalence was noticed in animals above 3 years of age (59.60%) and in crossbred animals (71.26%) than young and non-descript animals. This study showed the higher prevalence of IBR infection in female (67.92%) than in male (33.33%).
Conclusion: Cattle population in this part can better be protected with vaccination than leaving them unvaccinated and seromonitoring shall have to be stressed with regular attempts to isolate and characterize the causative agent for IBR.

Keywords: cattle, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, prevalence.

Feasibility of C-arm guided closed intramedullary pinning for the stabilization of canine long bone fractures

Research (Published online: 18-12-2015)
8. Feasibility of C-arm guided closed intramedullary pinning for the stabilization of canine long bone fractures - Anupreet Kaur, Ashwani Kumar, Deepesh Kumar, Jitender Mohindroo and Narinder Singh Saini
Veterinary World, 8(12): 1410-1415

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1410-1415

Aim: To evaluate the feasibility of C-arm guided closed intramedullary pinning (simple Steinmann and end threaded) techniques for the stabilization of various canine long bone fractures.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 19 dogs with long bone fractures which were stabilized using simple Steinmann (Group I; n=6) and end threaded (Group II; n=13) pinning under C-arm guidance. Signalment, history of trauma, clinical examination, and hematobiochemical findings were recorded at the time of presentation. Radiography of the affected limb was carried out in two views to determine type and site of the fracture. Treatment of all the fractures was attempted using simple Steinman and end threaded pinning under the C-arm guidance. The success and failure of the closed technique were correlated with age, site, and type of fractures.
Results: The mean body weight and age of the dogs were 18.53±2.18 kg and 21.58±5.85 months, respectively. Early presented cases at a mean day of 2.84±0.54 were included. Out of 19 cases, it was possible to place implant successfully in 10 cases (success rate 52.63%) only. The remaining 9 cases had serious intraoperative complications like a misdirection of the pin after engaging the proximal fragment (n=3), missing the proximal fragment completely, and formation of the false tract (n=6). The majority of these complications were associated with younger age and proximal or distal third oblique fractures. High success rate of C-arm guided closed pinning was observed in midshaft fractures (75%) and transverse fractures (77.78%) in dogs of more than 1 year of age (77.78%). Simple Steinmann pinning was better feasible in a closed manner with a high success rate (66.70%) but also had implant related complications. Although, C-arm guided end threaded pinning was less (46.15%) successful, slightly tedious and time-consuming but had better implant stability than that of simple intramedullary pinning.
Conclusions: From the present study, it was concluded that C-arm guided closed pinning is recommended in transverse and midshaft fractures of the long bones in dogs older than 1 year of age. Furthermore, there is need to improve traction devices for enhancing the success of C-arm guided intramedullary pinning in dogs.
Keywords: C-arm guided pinning, closed pinning, dog, end threaded pin, fracture.

Thursday, 17 December 2015

Study on prevalence of ancylostomosis in dogs at Anand district, Gujarat, India

Research (Published online: 17-12-2015)
7. Study on prevalence of ancylostomosis in dogs at Anand district, Gujarat, India - Nilima N. Brahmbhatt, P. V. Patel, Jigar J. Hasnani, Suchit S. Pandya and B. P. Joshi
Veterinary World, 8(12): 1405-1409

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1405-1409

Aim: This study was undertaken to derive the prevalence rate of ancylostomosis in dogs by a collection of fecal samples from Anand district.
Materials and Methods: The fecal samples were collected from the dogs brought to the Hospital of Veterinary College (Teaching Veterinary Clinical Service Complex) and the surrounding areas of Anand district. On the day of collection, fecal samples were collected and brought to the Department of Veterinary Parasitology and processed for standard qualitative examination. The sedimentation technique was used to detect the presence of Ancylostoma sppeggs in the samples.
Result: The highest prevalence rate was observed in the month of May (36.66% fecal samples) and the lowest in the month of December (13.79% fecal samples) at Anand district.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that heavy infection is present in Anand district especially in the season of summer followed by monsoon and the least in winter.
Keywords: ancylostomosis, dog, fecal, prevalence rate, sedimentation technique.

Detection of genes mediating beta-lactamase production in isolates of enterobacteria recovered from wild pets in Saudi Arabia

Research (Published online: 17-12-2015)
6. Detection of genes mediating beta-lactamase production in isolates of enterobacteria recovered from wild pets in Saudi Arabia - Sabry A. Hassan and Mohamed Y. Shobrak
Veterinary World, 8(12): 1400-1404

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1400-1404

Aim: To determine the genetic basis and types of beta-lactamase encountered among enterobacterial isolates of wild pets from the animal exhibit.
Materials and Methods: A total of 17 beta-lactamase-producing enterobacteria recovered from fecal samples of wild pet animals were analyzed for a selected beta-lactamase gene by polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Molecular analysis identified one or more β-lactamase-encoding genes in 14 enterobacterial isolates as a single or gene combination. The most frequent extended-spectrum β-lactamases types were transmission electron microscopy and CTX-M, and the most common AmpC enzymes were CMY-2 and DHA types.
Conclusions: The study is the first in Saudi Arabia, have established the presence of β-lactamase-encoding genes in the fecal isolates of wild pets.
Keywords: animal exhibit, extended-spectrum β-lactamases/AmpC beta-lactamase, fecal samples, polymerase chain reaction, Saudi Arabia.

Assessment of aflatoxin B1 in livestock feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography

Research (Published online: 17-12-2015)
5. Assessment of aflatoxin B1 in livestock feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography - Korrapati Kotinagu, T. Mohanamba and L. Rathna Kumari
Veterinary World, 8(12): 1396-1399

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1396-1399

Aim: Detection of aflatoxin B1 in Livestock compound Feed and feed ingredients by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC).
Materials and Methods: Chromatography was performed on HPTLC silica gel 60 F 254, aluminum sheets by CAMAG automatic TLC sampler 4, with mobile phase condition chloroform:acetone:water (28:4:0.06). Extraction of aflatoxin B1 from samples was done as per AOAC method and screening and quantification done by HPTLC Scanner 4 under wavelength 366 nm.
Results: A total of 97 livestock feed (48) and feed ingredients (49) samples received from different livestock farms and farmers were analyzed for aflatoxin B1of which 29 samples were contaminated, constituting 30%. Out of 48 livestock compound feed samples, aflatoxin B1 could be detected in 16 samples representing 33%, whereas in livestock feed ingredients out of 49 samples, 13 found positive for aflatoxin B1 representing 24.5%.
Conclusion: HPTLC assures good recovery, precision, and linearity in the quantitative determination of aflatoxin B1 extracted from Livestock compound feed and feed ingredients. As more number of feed and feed ingredients are contaminated with aflatoxin B1 which causes deleterious effects in both animal and human beings, so there is a need for identifying the source of contamination, executing control measures, enabling better risk assessment techniques, and providing economic benefits.
Keywords: aflatoxin B1, animal feed, feed ingredients, high-performance thin layer chromatography.

Friday, 11 December 2015

Evaluation of antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica seeds in rats

Research (Published online: 11-12-2015)
4. Evaluation of antidiarrheal activity of ethanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica seeds in rats - Dushyant Kumar Sharma, Vinod Kumar Gupta, Surendra Kumar, Vivek Joshi, Ravi Shankar Kumar Mandal, A. G. Bhanu Prakash and Mamta Singh
Veterinary World, 8(12): 1392-1395

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1392-1395

Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the antidiarrheal effect of ethanolic extract of Holarrhena antidysenterica (Family - Apocynaceae) seeds against induced diarrhea in Wistar albino rats.
Materials and Methods: The extract was evaluated for castor oil and Escherichia coli induced diarrhea. Extract was given at 100, 200, 400 mg/kg body wt. orally in both protocols. Standard antidiarrheal Loperamide was used at 5 mg/kg body wt. orally in castor oil induced protocol, while standard antibiotic Gentamicin at 8 mg/kg body wt. intraperitoneally was used in E. coli induced diarrhea. In castor oil induced protocol, the percentage inhibition of defecation was calculated for each group, whereas in E. coli induced protocol, change in fecal consistency, and body weight was recorded for each individual rat for 3 days.
Results: The severity of castor oil induced diarrhea was reduced significantly (p<0.05) with H. antidysenterica seeds extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg body wt. which showed equivalent effectiveness like that of Loperamide treated groups. Similarly in E. coli induced diarrhea protocol, the mean change in body weight was significantly (p<0.05) higher in positive control, whereas no significant variation was observed in negative control, Gentamicin treated and H. antidysenterica treated group at 200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg body wt., respectively.
Conclusion: The study concluded that ethanolic extract of H. antidysenterica seeds effectively controlled diarrhea and decreased the severity of clinical signs of castor oil and E. coli induced diarrhea in Wistar rats.
Keywords: antidiarrheal, Escherichia coli, Holarrhena antidysenterica.

Effect of cholesterol supplementation on cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa

Research (Published online: 11-12-2015)
3. Effect of cholesterol supplementation on cryosurvival of goat spermatozoa Sunita Behera, Hiron M. Harshan, K. Lekshmi Bhai and K. N. Aravinda Ghosh
Veterinary World, 8(12): 1386-1391

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1386-1391

Aim: Sperm membrane cholesterol influences cryodamage during cryopreservation. The present study was carried out to evaluate the effect of varying cholesterol levels in Tris based extenders on the freezability of sexually healthy Malabari buck semen.
Materials and Methods: A total of 48 ejaculates from two adults healthy sexually healthy Malabari bucks were utilized for the study. The collected and pooled ejaculates were divided into four groups with Group I serving as Control - I, Group II and III were treated with 1 mg and 2 mg of cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrin (CLC)/120 × 106 spermatozoa, respectively, and Group IV treated with 1 mg methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD) served as Control - II. Manual freezing was carried out to cryopreserve the treated and control spermatozoa.
Results: Treatment of semen samples with CLC resulted in improved maintenance of sperm motility at pre-freeze and post-thaw stages of cryopreservation without affecting hypo-osmotic swelling response. Treatment of semen with 1 mg of CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa was observed to be better than treatment with 2 mg of CLC/120 × 106 spermatozoa. In general, MβCD treatment was found to result in significantly lower sperm characteristics than those of Control - I and CLC treatment at pre-feeze and post-thaw stages and when incubated up to 4 h.
Conclusion: Cholesterol treatment of sexually healthy Malabari buck semen was found to hold promise for improving cryopreser-vability of spermatozoa.
Keywords: buck, cholesterol, cryopreservation, functional membrane integrity, motility, spermatozoa.

Flow cytometry based profiling of leukocytes: A new method for diagnosis of tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle

Research (Published online: 11-12-2015)
2. Flow cytometry based profiling of leukocytes: A new method for diagnosis of tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle - Ramesh B. Jagtap, Amit Gupta and Sushama R. Chaphalkar
Veterinary World, 8(12): 1379-1385

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1379-1385

Aim: In India, dairy industries are important for the livelihood of small scale farmers and dairy owners. Tropical theileriosis, mostly affecting dairy cattle and buffaloes is a major threat to dairy and related industries. Tropical theileriosis is caused by Theileria annulata, a hemoprotozoan parasite transmitted by Ixodid ticks of Hyalomma sppIn the present study, we examined the clinical signs, hematological parameters and flow cytometric profile of whole blood in 30 theileriosis affected crossbred cattle. The aim of our study is to analyze, in comparison with clinical and hematological diagnosis, whether flow cytometry based profiling of leukocytes could be used as better, quick and alternative method for diagnosis and screening of bovine tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle.
Materials and Methods: In this study, we screened parasites in 30 peripheral blood samples from clinical cases of theileriosis by Giemsa’s staining technique in crossbred cattle. Hematological analysis was done to estimate hemoglobin (Hb) content, total red blood cell (RBC) count, total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count. Further, flow cytometric analysis of whole blood was carried out to study leukocytes profile in affected cattle.
Results: Microscopic examination of stained blood films revealed the presence of piroplasms in erythrocytes and schizonts in lymphocytes. Hematological examination revealed significant (p<0.05) decrease of Hb percent (Hb %), reduced total RBC and total leukocytes, lymphocytosis, eosinopenia, and neutropenia compared to that of apparently healthy cattle. Flow cytometric profiling of leukocytes revealed the severe effect on shape, size, and granularity of leukocytes, marked decrease in granulocytes and 3-5 fold increase in lymphocytes count compared to clinically healthy cattle. Thus, in both methods, namely conventional and flow cytometric analysis, marked lymphocytosis and decrease in other blood cell counts were observed compared to clinically healthy cattle.
Conclusions: From results, it can be concluded that though conventional staining techniques and hematology are efficient in diagnosis of theileriosis, leukocytes profiling based on flow cytometry combined with clinical examination could be a quick, novel and alternative method for diagnosis and screening of clinical tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle. Thus, there is potential to offer a flow cytometry based diagnostic service for tropical theileriosis in crossbred cattle.
Keywords: clinical examination, flow cytometry, hematology, lymphocytosis, Theileria annulata.