Friday, 29 April 2016
Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry
Research (Published online: 30-04-2016)
16. Comparative study on immunoglobulin Y transfer from breeding hens to egg yolk and progeny chicks in different breeds of poultry -Ritu Agrawal, S. D. Hirpurkar, C. Sannat and Amit Kumar Gupta
Veterinary World, 9(4): 425-431
Aim: This study was undertaken to compare the immunoglobulin Y (IgY) level and its efficacy in laying hens of four different breeds of poultry (viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown) and its relative transfer in egg yolk and chick.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in 48 apparently healthy laying hens vaccinated with Salmonella inactivated polyvalent vaccine, eggs and progeny chicks; 12 each from four different breeds of poultry,viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown. The methodology included measurement of egg and yolk weight, total protein and IgY in egg yolk, total serum protein and IgY in breeding hens, and progeny chicks and extent of IgY transfer from hens to yolk then to chicks. Further, Salmonella-specific antibodies in breeding hens, egg yolk and progeny chicks were assessed using O and H antigen by tube agglutination test.
Results: The egg weight differed nonsignificantly (p>0.05) among breeds, however, breed wise significant variation (p<0.01) was reported in yolk weight. The weight of egg yolk significantly affects the total protein and IgY concentration although these levels per unit of volume did not differ. Total protein was significantly higher (p<0.01) in KalingaBrown and Gramapriya as compared to Vanraja and BlackRock. Non-significant (p>0.05) difference among breed was found in total protein of egg yolk and chick. The IgY concentration in hens, egg yolk and chick was found to be in the range of 5.35±0.63- 5.83±0.65, 2.3±0.1-2.6±0.2, and 1.3±0.11-1.7±0.16 mg/ml, respectively which is uniform and independent of total protein concentration at all the three levels. Significant breed variations were not observed in maternal IgY transfer from breeding hens to chicks and were 25.62±1.42-36.06±4.34% of total IgY in parent flock. Moderate to higher rate of seroprevalence with peak titers of 1:640 against Salmonella-specific antibodies was observed in only 41.6% of breeding hens.
Conclusion: No significant difference in the rate of transfer of IgY was observed in four breeds studied (viz.,Vanraja, Gramapriya, BlackRock, and KalingaBrown) and moderate seropositivity was detected for Salmonella-specific antibodies in progeny chicks.
Keywords: breeding hens, chicks, maternal immunoglobulin Y, Salmonella antibody, yolk.
Thursday, 28 April 2016
Detection and viability of Campylobacter species isolates from different species of poultry and humans in Sokoto State, Nigeria
Research (Published online: 29-04-2016)
4. Detection and viability of Campylobacter species isolates from different species of poultry and humans in Sokoto State, Nigeria - I. O. Nwankwo, O. O. Faleke, M. D. Salihu, A. A. Magaji, U. Musa, J. Garba and E. B. Ibitoye
International Journal of One Health, 2: 19-23
Aim: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence and viability of Campylobacter species isolates from different species of poultry and humans in Sokoto State, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed in the live birds markets, humans on admission and at outpatient clinics in the randomly selected hospitals in Sokoto State. Isolation and characterization of Campylobacter species were performed using standard culture isolation techniques and biochemical characterization. A total of 798 (506 cloacal and 292 fecal) swabs from poultry and humans, respectively, were collected and analyzed. The viability of 307 isolates stored in 15% glycerol and 85% tryptone broth at −20°C was determined after 7-13 months.
Results: A total of 312 (39%) were positive for Campylobacter species which comprises 119 (30%), 20 (30%), 3 (14%), 9 (56%), 1 (50%), and 160 (55%) in chicken, guinea fowls, pigeons, ducks, turkey, and humans, respectively. The total of 38 (24%), 63 (39%), and 59 (37%) humans and 29 (19%), 79 (52%), and 44 (29%) poultry isolates were positive for Campylobacter jejuni, Campylobacter Coli, and Campylobacter Lari, respectively. A total of 261 (85%) of the stored isolates were still viable on re-isolation with the viability rates of 41 (95%), 67 (85%), and 17 (59%) at 7, 9, and 13 months of storage, respectively. There was a negative correlation between months of storage and viability rates. However, there was no significant statistical association (p>0.05) between prevalence rate and species of poultry.
Conclusion: Campylobacter species have been detected with varying degree of prevalence in both poultry and humans and their ability to survive freezing at −20°C (95%) for up to 7 months has been revealed in the study. This is not only a concern to food and livestock industries but also a concern to the public health at large, especially, in view of the study area being considered one of the largest livestock producers in Nigeria. Campylobacteriosis is known to be associated with the cost of gastroenteritis management, antimicrobial resistance, food contamination, and complications such as a paralytic condition called Guillain-Barre syndrome.
Keywords: Campylobacter species, humans, poultry, Sokoto, Nigeria.
Wednesday, 27 April 2016
Research (Published online: 28-04-2016)
15. Polymorphism in spa gene of Staphylococcus aureus from bovine subclinical mastitis - Taruna Bhati, Prerna Nathawat, Sandeep Kumar Sharma, Rahul Yadav, Jyoti Bishnoi and Anil Kumar Kataria
Veterinary World, 9(4): 421-424
Aim: The virulence-associated protein-A of Staphylococcus aureus, encoded by spa gene shows a variation in length in different strains. In this study, the spa gene variation in S. aureus strains was studied which were isolated from subclinical cases of bovine mastitis.
Materials and Methods: About 38 isolates of S. aureus were recovered from Holstein–Friesian (HF) crossbred (n=16) and Rathi cattle (n=22) with subclinical mastitis as per standard procedures, and these isolates were subjected to amplification of spa gene (X-region) by polymerase chain reaction and calculation of number of tandem repeats were done.
Results: Of the 16 isolates from H-F crossbred cattle, all with the exception of one isolate produced spa amplicon. Seven isolates produced amplicons of 200 bp, one produced 160 bp, and other seven produced spa amplicon of 150 bp with calculated number of 6, 5, and 4 repeats, respectively, whereas nine different types of amplicons were produced by 22 S. aureus isolates from Rathi cattle, viz., 280, 250, 240, 200, 190, 180, 170, 150, and 140 bp with 10, 8, 8, 6, 6, 6, 5, 4, and 4 repeats, respectively. One of the isolates from Rathi cattle produced two spa amplicons (150 and 190 bp).
Conclusion: A greater polymorphism was observed in the S. aureus isolates from Rathi cattle than from H-F crossbreds with subclinical mastitis.
Keywords: cattle, polymorphism, protein-A, spa gene, Staphylococcus aureus, subclinical mastitis.
Research (Published online: 28-04-2016)
14. In vitro larvicidal effects of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa Linn. on Haemonchus larval stage - Norisal Binti Nasai, Yusuf Abba, Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah, Murugaiyah Marimuthu, Abdulnasir Tijjani, Muhammad Abubakar Sadiq, Konto Mohammed, Eric Lim Teik Chung and Mohammed Ariff Bin Omar
Veterinary World, 9(4): 417-420
Aim: Gastrointestinal helminthosis is a global problem in small ruminant production. Most parasites have developed resistance to commonly available anthelminthic compounds, and there is currently an increasing need for new compounds with more efficacies. This study evaluated the in vitro effects of ethanolic extract of Curcuma longa (EECL) as a biological nematicide against third stageHaemonchus larvae (L3) isolated from sheep.
Materials and Methods: Haemonchus L3 were cultured and harvested from the feces of naturally infected sheep. EECL was prepared and three concentrations; 50, 100, and 200 mg/mL were tested for their efficacies on Haemonchus L3. Levamisole at concentration 1.5 and 3 mg/mL were used as positive controls.
Results: EECL showed anthelmintic activity in a dose-dependent manner with 78% worm mortality within 24 h of exposure at the highest dose rate of 200 mg/mL. There was a 100% worm mortality rate after 2 h of levamisole (3 mg/mL) admisntration. However, there was a comparable larvicidal effect between when levamisole (1.5 mg/mL) and EECL (200 mg) were administered.
Conclusion: The study shows that EECL does exhibit good anthelmintic properties at 200 mg/mL which is comparable with levamisole at 1.5 mg/mL.
Keywords: Curcuma longa, ethanolic extract, Haemonchus, larvae 3, levamisole, strongyle.
Monday, 25 April 2016
Conjugation of ampicillin and enrofloxacin residues with bovine serum albumin and raising of polyclonal antibodies against them
Research (Published online: 26-04-2016)
13. Conjugation of ampicillin and enrofloxacin residues with bovine serum albumin and raising of polyclonal antibodies against them - B. Sampath Kumar, Vasili Ashok, P. Kalyani and G. Remya Nair
Veterinary World, 9(4): 410-416
Aim: The aim of this study is to test the potency of bovine serum albumin (BSA) conjugated ampicillin (AMP) and enrofloxacin (ENR) antigens in eliciting an immune response in rats using indirect competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (icELISA).
Materials and Methods: AMP and ENR antibiotics were conjugated with BSA by carbodiimide reaction using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC) as a cross-linker. The successful conjugation was confirmed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Sprague-Dawley rats were immunized with the conjugates and blood samples were collected serially at 15 days time interval after first immunization plus first booster, second booster, third booster, and the fourth sampling was done 1½ month after the third booster. The antibody titres in the antisera of each antibiotic in all the four immunization cycles (ICs) were determined by an icELISA at various serum dilutions ranging from 1/100 to 1/6400.
Results: Analysis of antibiotic-BSA conjugates by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and coomassie blue staining revealed high molecular weight bands of 85 kDa and 74 kDa for AMP-BSA and ENR-BSA respectively when compared to 68 kDa band of BSA. Both the antibiotic conjugates elicited a good immune response in rats but comparatively the response was more with AMP-BSA conjugate than ENR-BSA conjugate. Maximum optical density 450 value of 2.577 was recorded for AMP-BSA antisera, and 1.723 was recorded for ENR-BSA antisera at 1/100th antiserum dilution in third IC.
Conclusion: AMP and ENR antibiotics proved to be good immunogens when conjugated to BSA by carbodiimide reaction with EDC as crosslinker. The polyclonal antibodies produced can be employed for detecting AMP and ENR residues in milk and urine samples.
Keywords: 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide, antibodies against antibiotics, conjugation, indirect competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay.
Sunday, 24 April 2016
Review (Published online: 25-04-2016)
12. Maggot debridement therapy as primary tool to treat chronic wound of animals - Vijayata Choudhary, Mukesh Choudhary, Sunanda Pandey, Vandip D. Chauhan and J. J. Hasnani
Veterinary World, 9(4): 403-409
Maggot debridement therapy (MDT) is a safe, effective, and controlled method of healing of chronic wounds by debridement and disinfection. In this therapy live, sterile maggots of green bottle fly, Lucilia (Phaenicia) sericata are used, as they prefer necrotic tissues over healthy for feeding. Since centuries, MDT is used in human beings to treat chronic wounds. Lately, MDT came out as a potent medical aid in animals. In animals, although, this therapy is still limited and clinical studies are few. However, with the increasing antibiotic resistance and chronic wound infections in veterinary medicine, maggot therapy may even become the first line of treatment for some infections. This paper will present a brief discussion of MDT and its role in veterinary medicine that may add one more treatment method to utilize in non-healing wounds of animals and overcome the use of amputation and euthanasia. The objective of this review paper is to assemble relevant literature on maggot therapy to form a theoretical foundation from which further steps toward clinical use of maggot therapy in animals for chronic wounds can be taken.
Keywords: chronic wounds, debridement, Lucilia sericata, maggots, maggot debridement therapy.
Thursday, 21 April 2016
Effect of supplemental heat on mortality rate, growth performance, and blood biochemical profiles of Ghungroo piglets in Indian sub-tropical climate
Research (Published online: 22-04-2016)
11. Effect of supplemental heat on mortality rate, growth performance, and blood biochemical profiles of Ghungroo piglets in Indian sub-tropical climate - Hemanta Nath, Mousumi Hazorika, Dipjyoti Rajkhowa, Mrinmoy Datta and Avijit Haldar
Veterinary World, 9(4): 396-402
Aim: The present study was conducted to explore the effect of supplemental heat on mortality rate, growth performance, and blood biochemical profiles of indigenous Ghungroo piglets in sub-tropical cold and humid climatic conditions of Tripura, a state of the north eastern hill (NEH) region of India.
Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted on 38 indigenous Ghungroo piglets from birth up to 60 days of age. Among the 38 piglets, 19 piglets were provided with supplemental heat ranging between 17.0°C and 21.1°C for the period of the first 30 days and thereafter between 24.1°C and 29.9°C for the next 30 days. The other 19 piglets were exposed to natural environmental minimum temperatures ranging between 7.2°C and 15.0°C during the first 30 days and then between 18.5°C and 25.5°C for the next 30 days.
Results: The supplemental heat resulted in 10.6% reduction of piglet mortality from the 2nd till the 7th day of age. These beneficial effects could be related with the lower (p<0.05) plasma glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and cortisol levels and higher (p<0.05) plasma alkaline phosphatase (AP) concentrations in heat supplemented group compared to control group. Plasma AP, GPT, glucose, triiodothyronine, and luteinizing hormone concentrations decreased (p<0.05) gradually with the advancement of age in both control and supplemental heat treated piglets.
Conclusion: Supplemental heat could be beneficial since it is related to a reduction of piglet mortality during the first week of life under farm management system in the sub-tropical climate of NEH region of India.
Keywords: biochemical profiles, Ghungroo piglets, growth, mortality rate, neonatal, supplemental heat.
Monday, 18 April 2016
Review (Published online: 18-04-2016)
10. Advances in reproductive biotechnologies - K. K. Choudhary, K. M. Kavya, A. Jerome, and R. K. Sharma
Veterinary World, 9(4): 388-395
In recent times, reproductive biotechnologies have emerged and started to replace the conventional techniques. It is noteworthy that for sustained livestock productivity, it is imperative to start using these techniques for facing the increasing challenges for productivity, reproduction and health with impending environment conditions. These recent biotechniques, both in male and female, have revolutionized and opened avenues for studying and manipulating the reproductive process both in vitro and in vivo in various livestock species for improving tis efficiency. This review attempts to highlight pros and cons, on the recent developments in reproductive biotechnologies, both in male and female in livestock species.
Keywords: assisted reproductive technologies, biotechnology, livestock, reproduction.
Thursday, 14 April 2016
Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis in Sahiwal cattle from an organized farm using ante-mortem techniques
Research (Published online: 15-04-2016)
9. Detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium bovis in Sahiwal cattle from an organized farm using ante-mortem techniques - Gursimran Filia, Geeta Devi Leishangthem, Vishal Mahajan and Amarjit Singh
Veterinary World, 9(4): 383-387
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis (TB) and detection of Mycobacterium bovis in cattle from an organized dairy farm.
Materials and Methods: A total of 121 animals (93 females and 28 males) of 1 year and above were studied for the prevalence of bovine TB using single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin (SICCT) test, bovine gamma-interferon (γ-IFN) enzyme immunoassay, and polymerase chain reactions (PCRs).
Results: Out of total 121 animals, 17 (14.04%) animals were positive reactors to SICCT test while only one (0.82%) animal for γ-IFN assay. By PCR, Mycobacterium TB complex was detected in 19 (15.70%) animals out of which 4 (3.30%) animal were also positive for M. bovis.
Conclusions: Diagnosis of bovine TB can be done in early stage in live animals with multiple approaches like skin test followed by a molecular technique like PCR which showed promising results.
Keywords: bovine gamma interferon assay, bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex, polymerase chain reaction, single intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test.
Wednesday, 13 April 2016
Research (Published online: 14-04-2016)
8. Relative efficacy of organic acids and antibiotics as growth promoters in broiler chicken - Vikrant Laxman Bagal, Vinod Kumar Khatta, Bachu Singh Tewatia, Sandeep Kumar Sangwan and Subhash Shamrao Raut
Veterinary World, 9(4): 377-382
Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic acids as replacer to antibiotics in their various combinations on feed consumption, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in broiler chicks during different phases of growth.
Materials and Methods: Antibiotics and organic acids were incorporated into boiler feed in different combinations to form 10 maize based test diets (T1 to T10). Each test diet was offered to four replicates of 10 birds each constituting a total of 400 birds kept for 45 days.
Results: Significantly better effect in terms of body weight gain from supplementation of 1% citric acid and 1% citric acid along with antibiotic was observed throughout the entire study, whereas the effect of tartaric acid supplementation was similar to control group. Citric acid (1%) along with antibiotic supplementation showed highest feed intake during the experimental period. Significantly better FCR was observed in groups supplemented with 1% citric acid and 1% citric acid along with antibiotic followed by antibiotic along with organic acids supplemented group.
Conclusion: Growth performance of birds in terms of body weight, body weight gain, and FCR improved significantly in 1% citric acid which was significantly higher than antibiotic supplemented group. 1% citric acid can effectively replace antibiotic growth promoter (chlortetracycline) without affecting growth performance of birds.
Keywords: antibiotics, broilers, economics, growth promoters and organic acids.
Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in thoracic radiographs of Indian Spitz, Labrador retriever and Mongrel dogs
Research (Published online: 14-04-2016)
7. Vertebral scale system to measure heart size in thoracic radiographs of Indian Spitz, Labrador retriever and Mongrel dogs - Deepti Bodh, Mozammel Hoque, Abhishek Chandra Saxena, Mudasir Bashir Gugjoo, Deepika Bist and J. K. Chaudhary
Veterinary World, 9(4): 371-376
Aim: To establish reference values of vertebral heart score (VHS) in Indian Spitz, Labrador retriever, and Mongrel dogs; to assess applicability of VHS in these three dog breeds; to determine if breed, recumbency side, gender, body weight, and thoracic depth (TD) to thoracic width (TW) ratio has an influence on the VHS measurement in these dog breeds.
Materials and Methods: A total of 60, client owned, clinically healthy Indian Spitz (n=20, mean age = 4.25±2.15 years, body weight = 11.87±2.7 kg), Labrador retriever (n=20, mean age = 4.75±1.91 years, body weight = 27.31±5.43 kg), and Mongrel dogs (n=20, mean age = 4.25±1.52 years, body weight = 16.25±3.99 kg), having no radiological and clinical signs of cardiovascular or pulmonary disease were included in the study. All dogs were restrained manually and left lateral (LL) and right lateral (RL) radiographic views were obtained. The size of heart in lateral radiographs was calculated using VHS method. Besides, the TD, TW and TD: TW were calculated to determine the type of thoracic conformation in the dog breeds. In addition to this, the effect of breed, side of recumbency, gender, body weight, and TD to TW ratio on the calculation of VHS was determined.
Results: VHS was calculated in all the animals of the breeds. VHS in Spitz and Labrador retriever was significantly (p<0.0001, p<0.0001, respectively) >9.7±0.5 v. RL and LL VHS in Mongrel dog was significantly (p<0.037) >9.7±0.5 v. Significant (p<0.05) differences in the VHS were observed among Spitz, Labrador retriever and Mongrel dogs, being higher for Labrador retriever followed by Spitz and Mongrel dogs. VHS in RL recumbency was significantly (p<0.001) greater than VHS in LL recumbency in all three breeds. LL and RL VHS correlated significantly with each other in Spitz (r=0.58; p=0.02), Labrador retriever (r=0.87; p<0.0001), and Mongrel dogs (r=0.93; p<0.0001). Significant (p<0.05) differences in the TD and TW were observed among Spitz, Labrador retriever, and Mongrel dogs. Non-significant effect of gender, body weight, and TD to TW ratio on the VHS measurement was observed in each dog breed.
Conclusion: Breed-specific VHS reference ranges should be used for the objective measurement of heart size in dogs. Furthermore, the radiographic view should also be taken into consideration to avoid any erroneous interpretation of cardiac enlargement in dogs.
Keywords: dogs, radiography, recumbency, thorax, vertebral heart scale.
Sunday, 10 April 2016
Diagnosis and prevalence of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma in lung tissues of naturally infected farm sheep
Research (Published online: 11-04-2016)
6. Diagnosis and prevalence of ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma in lung tissues of naturally infected farm sheep - Ganesh G. Sonawane, Bhupendra Nath Tripathi, Rajiv Kumar and Jyoti Kumar
Veterinary World, 9(4): 365-370
Aim: This study was aimed to detect ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) in sheep flocks affected with pulmonary disorders at organized farm.
Materials and Methods: A total of 75 sheep died naturally were thoroughly examined for the lesions of OPA during necropsy. Tissue sections from affected portion of the lungs from each animal were collected aseptically and divided into two parts; one each for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and another for histopathology.
Results: On PCR examination of lung tissues, six sheep (8%) were found to be positive for JSRV. Two of them were 3-6 months of age and did not show clinical signs/gross lesions of OPA. Four adult sheep positive on PCR revealed characteristic lesions of OPA on gross and histopathological examination.
Conclusion: In the absence of known specific antibody response to the infection with JSRV, there is no diagnostic serological test available. The PCR assay employed in this study on lung tissues, using primers based on the U3 region of the viral long terminal repeat for JSRV would be helpful in the screening of preclinical and clinical cases of OPA in sheep.
Keywords: diagnosis, lung tissues, ovine pulmonary adenomatosis, sheep.
Friday, 8 April 2016
Research (Published online: 09-04-2016)
5. Prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal parasites of Djallonke sheep in Ayeduase, Kumasi, Ghana - Moses Owusu, Jemima Owusu Sekyere and Frederick Adzitey
Veterinary World, 9(4): 361-364
Aim: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence and burden of gastrointestinal (GIT) parasites of Djallonke sheep in Ayeduase, Kumasi from January 2015 to July 2015.
Materials and Methods: The presence of nematodal eggs and coccidial oocysts in fecal samples were analyzed using the saturated sodium chloride floatation technique. Identification of eggs or oocysts was done on the basis of morphology and size of the eggs or oocysts.
Results: Out of 110 fecal samples of sheep examined, 108 were infected with GIT parasites, representing a prevalence rate of 98.2%. The total infection rate of GIT nematodes and coccidia oocysts were 94.5% and 51.8%, respectively. Strongyle nematode (94.5%) was the most prevalent GIT nematode detected, followed by strongyloides (27.3%). The average nematodal burden in g/feces was significantly higher (p<0.001) in young rams under 1 year (3482.0) than gimmers (1539.0), lamb (825.0), ewes (420.7), and rams over 1 year (313.3). Nematodal burden in gimmers was significantly higher (p<0.001) than that of lambs, ewes, and rams over 1 year. Nematodal counts of lambs, ewes, and rams did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from each other. The average coccidia oocysts count in g/feces was significantly higher (p<0.001) in lambs (2475.0) than rams under 1 year (286.0), gimmers (263.6), ewes (158.6), and rams over 1 year (150.0). There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the coccidia oocysts count of rams under 1 year, gimmers, ewes, and rams over 1 year. From the studied animals, 40%, 6.36%, 48.18%, and 5.45% had heavy, moderate, light, and no infestation, respectively, with GIT nematodes.
Conclusion: Djallonke sheep in Ayeduase, Kumasi, were infested with varying amounts of GIT parasites. The infestation of Djallonke sheep by GIT parasites also varies among different age groups and sexes.
Keywords: burden, Djallonke sheep, gastrointestinal parasites, prevalence.
Wednesday, 6 April 2016
Neonatal mortality in dogs: Prognostic value of Doppler ductus venosus waveform evaluation - Preliminary results
Research (Published online: 07-04-2016)
4. Neonatal mortality in dogs: Prognostic value of Doppler ductus venosus waveform evaluation - Preliminary results - Gabriele Barella, Stefano Faverzani, Massimo Faustini, Debora Groppetti and Alessandro Pecile
Veterinary World, 9(4): 356-360
Aim: To define the prognostic value of Doppler ultrasonographic morphology of ductus venosus (DV) waveform on canine neonatal mortality.
Materials and Methods: Fifty-four healthy pregnant bitches underwent fetal ultrasonographic assessment. The DV waveforms were classified as diphasic (dDVw) or triphasic (tDVw) and compared with neonatal mortality.
Results: Ninety-three fetuses were evaluated. Twenty fetuses belonged to litters with neonatal mortality, in which tDVw was observed. Seven fetuses belonged to litters without neonatal mortality, in which tDVw was observed. Fifty-eight fetuses belonged to litters without neonatal mortality, in which only dDVw was observed. Eight fetuses belonged to litters with neonatal mortality, in which only dDVw was observed. The correlation between tDVw and neonatal mortality was statistically significant (odds ratio [OR], 20.7; p<0.0001). Considering only pregnancies with one or two fetuses with the same DV waveform: Two fetuses with tDVw belonged to litters with neonatal mortality; 1 foetus with tDVw belonged to litter without neonatal mortality and 26 fetuses showed dDVw without neonatal mortality. The correlation between tDVw and neonatal mortality even in litters up to two pups was statistically significant (OR, 88.3; p=0.01).
Conclusion: Echo-Doppler assessment of DV is feasible in canine fetuses, and the presence tDVw seems to be related to neonatal mortality.
Keywords: dog, Doppler, ductus venosus, neonatal mortality, ultrasound.