Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
7. Assessment of selected heavy metal concentration in fresh and grilled beef - A case study in East Legon, Ghana
Frederick Adzitey, David Mireku and Nurul Huda
International Journal of One Health, 4: 40-44
Aim: Contamination of meat by heavy metals is a concern due to their possible toxicity and effects on human health. The present study was undertaken to determine the presence and concentration of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), manganese (Mg), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) in the fresh and grilled beef sold by kebab sellers in East Legon.
Materials and Methods: A total of 16 fresh and 16 grilled beef samples were collected purposely from three popular kebab sellers (School Junction, Bawalashie, and Otano) in East Legon. Beef samples were dried and digested to obtain a filtrate. The filtrate was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy to determine the presence and concentration of the heavy metals.
Results: The concentration of the heavy metals ranged from 0.80 to 16.43 mg/kg for Fe, 0.05 to 0.27 mg/kg for Zn, 0.09 to 2.10 mg/kg for Cu, 51.74 to 90.83 mg/kg for Ca, and 0.26 to 0.52 mg/kg for Mg. There was statistical difference (p=0.001) in the concentration of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca in the fresh and grilled beef samples. The concentration of Mg in the fresh and grilled beef samples did not differ statistically (p=0.370). Pb and Cd were not detected in the beef samples examined. The concentration of Fe was highest in the grilled beef samples obtained from Bawalashie and lowest in the fresh beef samples obtained from Otano. The concentration of Ca was highest in the grilled beef samples obtained from School Junction (SG) and lowest in Bawalashie. The concentration of Mg was highest in the fresh beef samples obtained from SG and lowest in the grilled beef samples obtained from Bawalashie.
Conclusion: The study revealed the presence and absence of some heavy metals. Heavy metals present were available in varying concentrations. All trace elements were below the maximum limit, hence making it less harmful for consumption.
Keywords: concentration, fresh beef, grilled beef, heavy metal.
27. Amino acid sequence based on Cytochrome b gene in Kejobong goat and its genetic relationships among several local goats in Asia
Dela Ayu Lestari, Endang Purbowati, Sutopo Sutopo and Edy Kurnianto
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1196-1202
Aim: This study aimed to analyze the amino acid sequence of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene in Kejobong goat and its genetic relationships with local goats located in Asia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 28 heads of Kejobong goat were purposively sampled. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from blood using gSYNC DNA mini kit (Geneaid Biotech Ltd.). Cyt b gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with CytbCapF and CytbCapR primers. The amplified PCR products were sequenced for further analysis.
Results: There were a total 377 amino acid sequences translated from 1140 base pair (bp) of Cyt b gene, 99.20% of it were monomorphic, amino acid alterations were found at site 16th, 121st, and 231st, and Kejobong goat was in the same cluster with Southeast Asian local goats.
Conclusion: Most of the amino acid sequence on Cyt b gene in Kejobong goat is monomorphic (99.20%), only a few nucleotide mutations were found that causing amino acid alteration in three sites (0.80%). Kejobong goat has a close genetic relationship to several local goats in Southeast Asian.
26. Mixing two different propolis samples potentiates their antimicrobial activity and wound healing property: A novel approach in wound healing and infection
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1188-1195
Aim: The study aimed to investigate whether mixing two different propolis samples can potentiate their biological activity. This hypothesis was tested by studying the effect of mixed propolis on microbial growth and wound healing and compared with the effect of each propolis individually.
Materials and Methods: The effect of mixing two different propolis extracts (A and B) collected from different locations in Iraq on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans was studied by minimum inhibitory concentration assessment and compared with the effect of each propolis. Wound healing effect of the mixed propolis was studied. Twenty-four rabbits were used for the experiment, and they were assigned to four groups. Wounds were created on the dorsum of each rabbit and treated by topical application of 1 mL of either mixed propolis, propolis A, or propolis B extracts or were kept without treatment as a control. Macroscopic wound evaluation was performed with an assessment of wound size, wound recovery, redness, edema, discharge, granulation tissue, and epithelialization.
Results: Propolis A was more potent than propolis B extracts to inhibit the growth of E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans (p<0.05). However, mixed propolis showed a higher antimicrobial activity toward all the pathogens than propolis A or propolis B extract individually (p<0.05). Furthermore, propolis A and propolis B extracts showed favorable effects on wound healing which was more pronounced with propolis A extract. Interestingly, mixed propolis accelerated wound healing faster than propolis A or propolis B extracts, and it shortened the time of reepithelialization (p<0.05).
Conclusion: This study demonstrates for the first time that mixing different propolis samples possesses a higher antimicrobial activity and higher wound healing property than individual propolis. This approach could pave the way for the development of more effective antimicrobials and wound healing agents.
25. Assessment of antibody assay methods in determination of prevalence of infectious bursal disease among local chickens and guinea fowls in Kwara state, North Central Nigeria
Oluwafemi Babatunde Daodu, Oladapo Oyedeji Oludairo, Julius Olaniyi Aiyedun, Hauwa Motunrayo Ambali, Rafiu Adebisi Kadir, Oluwakemi Christiana Daodu, Isaac Dayo Olorunshola and Arimie Deborah Adah
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1183-1187
Aim: This study aimed to assess available assay methods for infectious bursal disease (IBD) diagnosis and seromonitoring in local birds. It also sought to know the prevalence of IBD antibodies among local chickens and guinea fowls in Kwara state, North Central Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: Sera were obtained from local chickens and guinea fowls and IBD virus (IBDV) antibodies were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), indirect hemagglutination (IHA) test, and agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test.
Results: A total of 265 sera were obtained from local birds during dry and wet seasons. ELISA recorded the highest prevalence of 81.1% (215/265) while IHA and AGID detected IBDV antibodies in 183 (69.1%) and 122 (46%) birds, respectively. Significant differences were established for IBD-positive sera based on the assay method used, bird species, and seasons.
Conclusion: This study indicated that ELISA is the most sensitive and reliable assay method while AGID is the least. It also showed that there is a high prevalence of IBDV antibodies among local birds which were not vaccinated, and this implies a high IBDV activity among these bird species in the study area. This may have significant epidemiological implications on the spread of the virus to exotic bird reared in the rural areas on a commercial scale. Thus, this study suggests continuous surveillance, awareness campaign, and advocacy for vaccination of indigenous birds against IBD.
Keywords: agar gel immunodiffusion test, assessment, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, indirect hemagglutination test, infectious bursal disease, Kwara state, prevalence.
Aim: Swallows are a family of migratory birds found worldwide except Antarctica. Annually, a number of species of swallows migrate to Iran. As they make their nests close to human living places, this may be a potential risk for public health. Conversely, no study has been conducted on intestinal parasitic infections of these birds so far. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in migratory swallows (Hirundo rustica) in the central region of Mazandaran Province, Northern Iran.
Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 205 feces samples from two districts (Sari and Qaemshahr) in the central region of Mazandaran were randomly collected during the summer and spring sessions of 2016-2017. The collected samples were examined using the routine direct fecal examination and formalin-ethyl acetate concentration. In addition, the samples were examined by cold acid-fast staining method to detect possible Cryptosporidium oocysts.
Results: The results of this study indicated that 38 samples (18.5%) were infected with intestinal parasites. Among the helminthic parasites, eight genera and species were identified as follows: Ascaridia galli, Syngamus trachea, Raillietina, Toxocara spp., Choanotaenia, Taenia spp., Ascaridia spp., and Moniezia spp. In addition, among protozoan parasites, only the Coccidia spp. oocysts were identified.
Conclusion: Our findings showed a relatively high prevalence of parasitic infections in migratory barn swallows in Mazandaran Province. Given the presence of zoonotic parasites in the samples, further investigations are needed to identify all parasites fauna, particularly zoonotic species among swallows in the region.
Keywords: barn swallow, Hirundo rustica, intestinal parasites, Iran, zoonosis.
23. Serosurveillance of Brucella antibody in food animals and role of slaughterhouse workers in spread of Brucella infection in Southeast Nigeria
Samuel Okezie Ekere, Emmanuel Okechukwu Njoga, Joseph Ikechukwu Onunkwo and Ugochinyere Juliet Njoga
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1171-1178
Aim: The study was carried out to determine the seroprevalence of Brucella antibody in slaughter cattle and goats; and the role of slaughterhouse workers (SHWs) in spread of Brucella infection during slaughterhouse operations in Enugu State, Southeast Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: Rose Bengal plate test was used to screen for Brucella antibody in 484 cattle and 340 goats slaughtered for human consumption in the state. Structured and pretested questionnaire was used to elicit information from randomly selected SHWs, on socioeconomic characteristics, awareness of brucellosis and involvement in practices that aid dissemination of Brucella infection during slaughterhouse operations.
Results: Suspected seroprevalence of 2.5% and 4.1% were recorded for Brucella antibody in cattle and goats respectively. There was poor awareness of brucellosis (32.1%) among the workers surveyed. Slaughterhouse practices that aid acquisition or spread of Brucella infection and percentage of SHWs engaged in the practices are: non-use of personal protective clothing during slaughterhouse operations (70.8%), discharge of eviscerated fetuses or pregnant uterine contents by open-air dump method of refuse disposal (64.9%) and illegal sell of eviscerated fetuses or gravid uterine contents for human consumption (59.9%) or preparation of dog food (71.5%).
Conclusion: The 4.1% suspected seroprevalence of Brucella antibodies in goats represents 128% increase from 1.8% seroprevalence earlier reported in the same species and study area in 2009. Significant amounts of Brucella antibody was detected in the food animals screened. Slaughterhouse workers played significant roles in spread of Brucella infection by their involvement in risk practices and behaviours that facilitate pathogen transmission. Therefore, massive awareness campaign and coordinated brucellosis control program in Enugu State are imperative to forestall the zoonotic and economic consequences associated with brucellosis.
22. An epidemiological investigation on occurrence of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli in raw milk
H. D. Vanitha, C. Sethulekshmi and C. Latha
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1164-1170
Aim: The aim of the present investigation was to study the epidemiology of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) in raw milk and molecular characterization of isolates using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Materials and Methods: A total of 125 raw milk samples were subjected to isolation, identification, and confirmation of virulence-associated genes by multiplex PCR (mPCR). The samples were collected from a milk cooperative society of Thrissur district, Kerala. For further epidemiological investigation, samples such as dung (126), hair coat of cow (60), udder swab (60), udder wash (60), milking utensil wash (36), Milker's hand wash (36), water (36), soil (36), and feed (36) were collected from the households from which the raw milk tested positive for EHEC.
Results: The occurrence of EHEC in individual raw milk samples was found to be 8.8%. The major source of contamination to raw milk was found to be dung (19.84%) followed by udder swab (16.67%), hair coat of cow (15%), Milker's hand and milking utensils and water (11.11% each), and udder wash and soil (8.33% each). For identification of virulence genes, all the isolates were subjected to mPCR, of 75 isolates 73.33% of isolates harbored stx 2 gene while 53.33, 36, and 36% of isolates were encoded by stx 1, eae A, and hly A genes, respectively. On epidemiological survey, the multiple risk factors accountable for occurrence of EHEC in raw milk were found to be the quality of water used, improper and inadequate udder preparation, unhygienic hands of Milker's, use of insufficiently cleaned milking utensils, and using common utensil for washings of udder and milking purposes.
Conclusion: The result of the present study signifies that raw milk was contaminated with EHEC and possesses a high public health threat. As dairy cattle and its environment serve as a potential niche for EHEC, hygienic milking practices should be adopted to curb the occurrence of EHEC in raw milk.
21. Morphologic and morphometric characteristics of ascaroid worm, Ophidascaris piscatori in Xenochrophis piscator snake in Sidoarjo, Indonesia
Lucia Tri Suwanti, Inggarsetya Syah Audini, Setiawan Koesdarto and Emmanuel Djoko Poetranto
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1159-1163
Aim: The study was conducted to describe the morphology and morphometry of nematode worm in the stomach of Xenochrophis piscator snake macroscopically and microscopically using light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Materials and Methods: The sample was 40 nematode worms that have been collected from 60 snakes which slaughtered at snake slaughterhouses in Sidoarjo, Indonesia. The worms (10 male and 10 female) were stained with carmine, and the others were sent to Indonesian Science Institute for ultrastructure observation by SEM. Some of the female worms were immersed in physiological NaCl and incubated to collect the worm eggs.
Results: Nematode worm in this study had three lips with almost the same size and it had papillae, so it was included in ascaridoid. The mouth of ascaridoids has three lips, the dorsal bearing two large outer papillae and the each lateroventral with one papilla. The body length and width of the male worm were 70-105 mm and 0.92-1.32, respectively, with head diameter of 0.22-0.28 mm. Dorsal and ventrolateral lips almost have the same size that was 0.10-0.12×0.11-0.13 mm. The length of interlabia was 0.06-0.08 mm, esophagus was 3.21-4 mm, tail was 0.17-0.23 mm, and spicule was 2.12-3.36 mm. The body length and width of the female worm were 85-130 mm and 1.28-1.71 mm, respectively. The head diameter was 0.29-0.38 mm. Dorsal and ventrolateral lips almost have the same size that was 0.13-0.16×0.15-0.19 mm. The interlabial length was 0.08-0.10 mm, esophagus was 3.04-4.67 mm, and tail was 0.22-0.31 mm. The distance of the vulva from the anterior edge was 56-88 mm with an average of 67.35 mm. The eggs have conspicuously pitted with length 0.08-0.09 mm and width 0.07-0.08 mm.
Conclusion: Based on the characteristics of morphology and morphometry, the ascaroid worms found on X. piscator snake from Sidoarjo, Indonesia, were O. piscatori.
Keywords: carmine, Ophidascaris piscatori, scanning electron microscopy, Sidoarjo Indonesia, Xenochrophis piscator snake.
20. Sporadic cases of lumpy skin disease among cattle in Sharkia province, Egypt: Genetic characterization of lumpy skin disease virus isolates and pathological findings
Fatma M. Abdallah, Hend M. El Damaty and Gamilat F. Kotb
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1150-1158
Background and Aim: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is a highly infectious viral disease upsetting cattle, caused by LSD virus (LSDV) within the family Poxviridae. Sporadic cases of LSD have been observed in cattle previously vaccinated with the Romanian sheep poxvirus (SPPV) vaccine during the summer of 2016 in Sharkia province, Egypt. The present study was undertaken to perform molecular characterization of LSDV strains which circulated in this period as well as investigate their phylogenetic relatedness with published reference capripoxvirus genome sequences.
Materials and Methods: A total of 82 skin nodules, as well as 5 lymph nodes, were collected from suspect LSD cases, and the virus was isolated in embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs). LSD was confirmed by polymerase chain reactions amplification of the partial and full-length sequences of the attachment and G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor (GPCR) genes, respectively, as well as a histopathological examination of the lesions. Molecular characterization of the LSDV isolates was conducted by sequencing the GPCR gene.
Results: Characteristic skin nodules that covered the whole intact skin, as well as lymphadenopathy, were significant clinical signs in all suspected cases. LSDV isolation in ECEs revealed the characteristic focal white pock lesions dispersed on the chorioallantoic membranes. Histopathologic examination showed characteristic eosinophilic intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies within inflammatory cell infiltration. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the LSDV isolates were clustered together with other African and European LSDV strains. In addition, the LSDV isolates have a unique signature of LSDVs (A11, T12, T34, S99, and P199).
Conclusion: LSDV infections have been detected in cattle previously vaccinated with Romanian SPPV vaccine during the summer of 2016 and making the evaluation of vaccine efficacy under field conditions necessary.
19. Isolation and identification of bacteria from fresh guava (Psidium guajava) sold at local markets in Mymensingh and their antibiogram profile
Md. Atiqur Rahman Sarker, Md. Mazedul Haque, Rafia Afroze Rifa, Fateha Akther Ema, Md. Ariful Islam and Mst. Minara Khatun
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1145-1149
Aim: The study was conducted for the isolation, identification, and antibiogram of bacteria obtained from fresh guava (Psidium guajava).
Materials and Methods: A total of 25 fresh guavas were collected from five markets located in Mymensingh city. Guava samples were cultured onto various selective media such as eosin methylene blue, xylose lysine deoxycholate, thiosulfate-citrate-bile salts-sucrose, blood agar, and mannitol salt agar for the isolation of bacteria. Biochemical tests (dextrose, maltose, lactose, sucrose, mannitol, methyl red, Voges-Proskauer, and indole) were performed to identify the bacteria.
Results: Total viable counts of guava were ranged between log 6.56 colony-forming unit (cfu)/ml and 6.62 cfu/ml. A total of 106 bacterial isolates belonged to five genera (Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Vibrio spp., Bacillus spp., and Staphylococcus spp.) were identified. Salmonella spp. (23.6%) was the most prevalent, followed by E. coli (22.64%), Bacillus spp. (19.81%), Staphylococcus spp. (17.92%), and Vibrio spp. (16.03%). The results of antibiotic sensitivity test showed that Salmonella spp., Bacillus spp., and E. coli were sensitive to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin and resistant to ampicillin and cephalexin. Vibrio spp. was sensitive to chloramphenicol and gentamicin, intermediately sensitive to ciprofloxacin and ampicillin and resistant to cephalexin.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that fresh guava contains multidrug-resistant bacteria which might pose a public health risk.
18. Slaughter of pregnant goats for meat at Nsukka slaughterhouse and its economic implications: A public health concern
Onyinye Josephine Okorie-Kanu, Ekene Vivienne Ezenduka, Christian Onwuchokwe Okorie-Kanu, Chidiebere Ohazurike Anyaoha, Chukwuebuka Anselm Attah, Toochukwu Eleazar Ejiofor and S. Onyinye Onwumere-Idolor
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1139-1144
Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence rate of the slaughter of pregnant goats in Nsukka slaughterhouse, which has become a major cruel occurrence in Nigeria, as well as it's economic and public health implications.
Materials and Methods: All the goats slaughtered at Nsukka slaughterhouse over a period of 3 months (February-April, 2017) were screened. The data collected were: total number of goats slaughtered, age, breed and sex of goats slaughtered, pregnancy status of the goats, and sex of the fetuses observed, and gestational age of the fetuses estimated by crown-rump length.
Results: In the 3-month study, a total of 684 goats were slaughtered, of which 617 (90.2%) were females. 364 (59%) of the females slaughtered were pregnant, and more than 80% of the gestations were in the second and third trimesters. Of 661 fetuses recorded, 320 (48.3%) were males, and 341 (51.7%) were females with 438 (66.3%) predominantly twins. At the cost of ₦ 6,000 ($16) and ₦ 8,000 ($20) for male and female kids, respectively, a total of ₦ 4,648,000 ($11,620) was lost in just one slaughterhouse in 3 months.
Conclusion: This study shows that there is a high rate of slaughter of pregnant goats in Nsukka slaughterhouse with a tremendous economic loss, and most chevon sold in Nsukka are unwholesome and of low meat quality.
17. Seasonal changes of rumen and intestine morphology of the Qinghai yak (Bos grunniens)
Bao A. Ding, Shuang Q. Ma, Zong R. Li, Xi L. Li and Stephen R. Madigosky
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1135-1138
Aim: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of seasonal changes in grass quality on the ruminal and intestinal morphology of male Qinghai yaks.
Materials and Methods: A total of four male yaks with the same age of 4 years old from each season (summer and winter) were randomly selected and slaughtered to determine the effect of different season on intestinal morphology of yak in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.
Results: The histological analysis shows that male yak has the longer and wider papillae in rumen in green season. The height of villi in duodenum and jejunum was significantly higher in green season, and the width of villi on duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and rectum was significantly wider in green season. Surface area of villi and crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum was significantly larger and deeper in green season. Submucosa thickness of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and rectum was significantly thicker in green season. The muscular thickness of jejunum, cecum, and rectum was significantly thicker in green season.
Conclusion: According to this research, we found that the seasonal changes of ruminal and intestinal morphology of yak showed different length and width papillae, villi, crypt, and submucosa. This fact was confirmed the functional advantages resulting from the ability to successfully adapt to a dry climate and diets, flat, open, and cold grassland may allow yak to overcome both water shortage and energy deficiency in winter.
Keywords: green grass, intestine, morphology, Qinghai yak, rumen.
16. Potency of lactic acid bacteria isolated from balinese bovine (Bos sondaicus) intestinal waste from slaughterhouse to improve nutrient content of wheat pollard as animal feedstuff by fermentation process
Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari, Adriana Monica Sahidu, Koesnoto Soepranianondo, Agus Supriyanto, Andreas Berny Yulianto and Anam Al Arif
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1127-1134
Aim: The purpose of this study was to know the genetic and biochemical identification of isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from Balinese bovine (Bos sondaicus) intestinal waste, acidity, and ox bile salts and to inhibit the growth pathogen of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the potential of those isolated to improve nutrient value of wheat pollard as animal feed ingredient by fermentation process.
Materials and Methods: This research was divided into three stages. The first stage, isolated LAB were obtained from the bovine intestines at a slaughterhouse in Indonesia. Small intestinal samples were collected from 10 healthy Balinese beef cattle (B. sondaicus). The isolated LAB were identified by VITEK 2, polymerase chain reaction, and 16S rDNA. The basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) was performed to determine the phylogenetic tree. The second stage, the LAB were screened for their tolerance at pH 2, 3, and 4; bile salt, and antagonistic to enteric pathogen. In the third stage, to determine the potency of this isolate to increase nutrient content of wheat pollard by facultative anaerobe fermentation for 3 and 5 days.
Results: The result of the first stage showed that the isolate could be identified as Lactobacillus casei WPL 315. The result of the second stage showed that the isolate tolerance to low pH (pH 2, pH 3, and pH4) for 90 min and 24 h, and this isolate had viability tolerance in 0.3% bile salt. The isolate can inhibit S. aureus and E. coli. The result of the third stage by proximate analysis showed that crude protein increased by 23.08% after fermentation, while crude fiber decreased by 61.24% on the level 0.5% L. casei subsp. WPL 315 in the 3-day fermentation.
Conclusion: Based on the results, it showed that L. casei WPL 315 derived from indigenous intestinal Balinese beef cattle (B. sondaicus) has tolerant characteristic on acidity and ox bile salts, has antagonistic effect against E. coli and S. aureus, and has the ability to increase crude protein and decrease crude fiber content of wheat pollard. It would be interesting to determine whether the strain has a probiotic candidate.
15. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of the native rabbits in Middle Egypt
El-Sayed Mahfouz Abdel-Kafy, Sahar Saad El-Din Ahmed, Amira El-keredy, Neama Ibrahim Ali, Sherif Ramadan and Ahmed Farid
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1120-1126
Aim: Native rabbits in smallholder system are considered as important genetic resources, and the present study was aimed to study the genetic and phenotypic characterization and detection of the maternal origin of the native rabbit populations located at the Middle of Egypt.
Materials and Methods: A survey of native rabbit populations was conducted in three governorates (Fayum [FY], Beni Suef [BN], and El Menia [MN]). The phenotypic characterization of rabbits included the profile body of the head, ears, eyes, neck, and legs and the coat colors. The blood samples were collected for genetic characterization based on mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and the microsatellite markers.
Results: The phenotypic characterization of the body parts in the three populations was almost similar. The body weight of the mature rabbits in MN government was significantly heaviest, and the measurements for the main body parts (body length, chest circumference, and abdominal girth) were the highest compared to the two populations. The results of mitochondrial (cytochrome b) analysis revealed that the rabbits from the three governments belonged to lineage A except one animal was recorded as lineage G from MN's rabbit population. The results of the microsatellite markers revealed that the genetic diversity between the three populations showed genetic interferences; however, a closer genetic relationship was observed between BN and MN than FY. The majority of the genetic diversity was the individual variability.
Conclusion: The mitochondrial lineage A is the major lineage in rabbit populations in the area of the Middle Egypt understudy. The genetic populations' structure is the interferences among the three populations. A large-scale survey should be done on native rabbit populations for the sustainable management and conservation of the local breeds' genetic resources.
14. Molecular and immunological characterization of Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma excavatum(Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of Q fever in camels
Hend H. A. M. Abdullah, Eman E. El-Shanawany, Sobhy Abdel-Shafy, Hala A. A. Abou-Zeina and Eman H. Abdel-Rahman
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1109-1119
Background and Aim: Q fever Coxiella burnetii is a worldwide zoonotic disease, and C. burnetii was detected in mammals and ticks. Ticks play an important role in the spread of C. burnetii in the environment. Therefore, the aims of this study were to detect Q fever C. burnetii in camels and ixodid ticks by molecular tools and identification of Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma excavatum using molecular and immunological assays.
Materials and Methods: A total of 113 blood samples from camels and 190 adult ticks were investigated for the infection with C. burnetii by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing the targeting IS30A spacer. The two tick species H. dromedarii and H. excavatum were characterized molecularly by PCR and sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) and cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (CO1) genes and immunologically by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot.
Results: A total of 52 camels (46%) were positive for Q fever infection. Only 10 adult ticks of H. dromedarii were infected with C. burnetii. The IS30A sequence was around 200 bp in length for C. burnetii in H. dromedariiticks with a similarity of 99% when compared with reference data in GenBank records. The length of 16S rDNA and CO1 was 440 and 850 bp, respectively, for both H. dromedarii and H. excavatum. The phylogenetic status of H. dromedarii was distant from that of H. excavatum. SDS-PAGE revealed seven different bands in the adult antigens of either H. dromedarii or H. excavatum with molecular weights ranged from 132.9 to 17.7 KDa. In western blot analyses, the sera obtained from either infested camel by H. dromedarii or infested cattle by H. excavatum recognized four immunogenic bands (100.7, 49.7, 43.9, and 39.6 kDa) in H. dromedariiantigen. However, the infested camel sera identified two immunogenic bands (117 and 61.4 kDa) in H. excavatum antigen. Furthermore, the sera collected from cattle infested by H. excavatum recognized three immunogenic bands (61.4, 47.3, and 35 kDa) in H. excavatum antigen.
Conclusion: Molecular analyses indicated that both camels and ticks could be sources for infection of animals and humans with Q fever. Furthermore, the molecular analyses are more accurate tools for discriminating H. dromedarii and H. excavatum than immunological tools.
Keywords: 16S ribosomal DNA, Coxiella burnetii, cytochrome oxidase subunit-1, hard ticks, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction, sequence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot.
13. Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella spp. contamination in broiler chicken farms and slaughterhouses in the northeast of Algeria
Samia Djeffal, Bakir Mamache, Rachid Elgroud, Sana Hireche and Omar Bouaziz
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1102-1108
Aim: The aim of this study was to provide information on the prevalence of Salmonella serotypes and to identify risk factors for Salmonella spp. contamination in broiler chicken farms and slaughterhouses in the northeast of Algeria.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 32 poultry farms and five slaughterhouses in the province of Skikda (northeastern Algeria). A questionnaire was answered by the poultry farmers and slaughterhouses' managers. Biological samples (cloacal swabs, droppings, caeca, livers, and neck skins) and environmental ones (water, feed, surface wipes, rinsing water, and sticking knife swabbing) were taken to assess the Salmonella contamination status.
Results: Nearly 34.37% of the poultry farms and all the slaughterhouses were contaminated with Salmonella. The isolated Salmonella strains belonged to two major serotypes: Kentucky and Heidelberg followed by Enteritidis, Virginia, and Newport. There was an evident heterogeneous distribution of serotypes in poultry farms and slaughterhouses. Only one factor (earth floor) was significantly associated with Salmonellacontamination in poultry houses (p<0.05).
Conclusion: A high prevalence rate of Salmonella contamination was found in poultry farms and slaughterhouses in Skikda region. These results showed the foremost hazardous role of poultry production in the spread and persistence of Salmonella contamination in the studied region.
12. A cross-sectional study of the welfare of calves raised in smallholder dairy farms in Meru, Kenya, 2017
Emily K. Kathambi, John A. Van Leeuwen, George K. Gitau and Shawn L. McKenna
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1094-1101
Aim: This study was aimed at describing calf comfort and determining the individual and pen level factors that affect comfort status (in particular, calf leg hygiene scores) of smallholder dairy farms in Meru County, Kenya.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 52 calves that were up to 1 year old in 38 dairy farms (mean±standard deviation: Herd size=1.71±0.7 milking cows and milk production=6.7±3.1 L/day) in Meru, Kenya, in 2017, with the intention to describe their comfort and determine the factors associated with leg hygiene as a critical parameter for calf comfort assessment. Calves' biodata, health status, and leg hygiene were assessed, along with pen characteristics such as area, hygiene, and knee impact and knee wetness scores, while a questionnaire was administered to the farmers to gather information regarding calf housing management practices in the farm.
Results: The calves had a mean body weight of 85.2±32.8 kg and average daily weight gain of 0.50±0.45 kg per day. 71% of calves had a good body condition score (≥2.5), and the mean space allowance per calf was 2.52±1.56 m2. Approximately 75% of the calves (39/52) were kept in pens, and the rest were reared outdoors. For 39 calves kept indoors, 26% (10/39) of them had wooden or concrete floors while 74% (29/39) had dirt floors. Nearly two-thirds (62%) of indoor calves (26/39) were reared in pens with bedding, and 23% (9/39) and 33% (13/39) of the calves reared indoors were kept in pens displaying a failed knee impact test and failed knee wetness test. Indoor housed calves had an increased probability of having dirty calf legs (cleanliness score of >2.5) by 8.6 times (p=0.031), compared to outdoor-housed calves. In the final multivariable logistic regression model of 39 calves in pens, concrete or wood floors (odds ratio [OR]=7.9, p=0.047), poor body condition (OR=17.1, p=0.020) and use of bedding (OR=12.5, p=0.046) appeared to be positively correlated with dirtiness of calf legs, compared to dirt floors, good body condition, and no bedding, respectively.
Conclusion: Overall, some calf comfort aspects were covered for the majority of calves examined, but 69% of the pens were categorized as dirty, especially those with wooden or concrete floors and poor bedding management. Smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya should be trained on calf housing management to improve calf comfort and productivity.
Keywords: calf comfort, calf hygiene, dairy calves, Kenya.
11. Determination of hematological and serum biochemical reference values for indigenous sheep (Ovies aries) in Dhaka and Chittagong Districts of Bangladesh
Md. Kaisar Rahman, Shariful Islam, Jinnat Ferdous, Md. Helal Uddin, Muhammad Belal Hossain, Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan and Ariful Islam
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1089-1093
Aim: The study was aimed to determine the reference values of most commonly used hematological and biochemical parameters of indigenous sheep, reared under semi-intensive backyard farms in Dhaka and Chittagong district, Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods: A total of 41 blood samples were collected from indigenous sheep (Ovis aries) from June to December 2016 from Dhaka and Chittagong Districts of Bangladesh. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, monocyte, lymphocyte, urea, triglyceride, cholesterol, glucose, albumin, total protein (TP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined by biochemical analyzer. 90% reference intervals were calculated for all parameters.
Results: The hematological and serum biochemical profiles of indigenous sheep showed wide range and variation. The results were categorized according to sex and age of the sheep for comparison. Young sheep had significantly higher PCV, eosinophil, triglyceride, and TP level than that of adult (p<0.05), whereas the urea and albumin level was higher in adult than that of juvenile (p<0.05). Most of the values of the parameters are close to each other for both male and female except TEC, urea, cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and AST. However, a significant difference was found only for albumin and basophil level between male and female sheep.
Conclusions: Hematological and biochemical parameters in Bangladeshi indigenous sheep showed a wide range and variation implicating future study for the prophylaxis of ovine diseases.
10. Antimicrobial resistance genes in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from diseased broiler chickens in Egypt and their relationship with the phenotypic resistance characteristics
Mohamed M. Amer, Hoda M. Mekky, Aziza M. Amer and Hanaa S. Fedawy
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1082-1088
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between phenotypic resistance and genotypic resistance of isolated serotyped pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from the clinically diseased broiler.
Materials and Methods: A total of 160 samples (heart, liver, kidney, and lung) were collected from 18 to 34 days old clinically diseased broiler from 40 broiler farms (3-5 birds/farm) reared in Giza and Kaluobaia Governorates for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Various E. coli isolates were tested for the pathogenicity based on Congo red (CR) dye binding assay. The obtained CR-positive E. coli isolates were subjected to serological identification using slide agglutination test. Disc diffusion test was used to study the sensitivity pattern of E. coli isolates to available 12 antibiotics. Polymerase chain reaction was performed for the detection of antimicrobial resistance genes in the studied pathogenic E. coli isolates.
Results: The results revealed that 56 samples (35 %) were positive for E. coli. The results of the CR assay indicates that 20 isolates of 56 (35.7%) were positive and 36 isolates (64.3%) were negative. Identified E. coliserotypes of CR-positive isolates were 1 (O24), 2 (O44), 2 (O55), 5 (O78), 2 (O86), 1 (124), 3 (O127), 1 (O158), and 3 untyped. Resistance rate in disc diffusion test was 85% to oxytetracycline and kanamycin; 80% to ampicillin (AMP), clindamycin, and streptomycin (S); 75% to enrofloxacin; 65% to chloramphenicol; 55% to cefotaxime and gentamicin (CN); 45% to trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole; 35% to erythromycin (ERI); and 30% to oxacillin. All strains are multidrug-resistant (MDR). Antibacterial resistance genes CITM, ere, aac (3)-(IV), tet(A), tet(B), dfr(A1), and aad(A1) were detected in 14 (70%), 12 (60%), 12 (60%), 8 (40%), 11 (55%), 8 (40%), and 9 (45%) of tested 20 isolates, respectively. Multidrug resistance was detected in the form of resistance to 42%-83.3% of tested 12 antibiotics. Three isolates (15%) of 20 tested isolates showed a relationship between phenotype and genotype and 17 (85%) showed irregular relation. Strains are sensitive and show resistant gene (P-G+) presented in three isolates for AMP (beta-lactam), one for ERI (Macrolide), as well as five isolates for trimethoprim (pyrimidine inhibitor). E. coli isolates had resistance and lacked gene (P+ G-) reported meanly in one isolate for CN (aminoglycoside), two isolates for tetracycline, four isolates for ERI, seven isolates for trimethoprim, and eight isolates for S (aminoglycoside).
Conclusions: The study demonstrates that E. coli is still a major pathogen responsible for disease conditions in broiler. E. coli isolates are pathogenic and MDR. Responsible gene was detected for six antibiotics in most of the isolates, but some do not show gene expression, this may be due to few numbers of resistance genes tested or other resistance factors not included in this study.