Friday, 17 August 2018

Slaughter of pregnant goats for meat at Nsukka slaughterhouse and its economic implications: A public health concern

Research (Published online: 17-08-2018)
18. Slaughter of pregnant goats for meat at Nsukka slaughterhouse and its economic implications: A public health concern
Onyinye Josephine Okorie-Kanu, Ekene Vivienne Ezenduka, Christian Onwuchokwe Okorie-Kanu, Chidiebere Ohazurike Anyaoha, Chukwuebuka Anselm Attah, Toochukwu Eleazar Ejiofor and S. Onyinye Onwumere-Idolor
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1139-1144
Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence rate of the slaughter of pregnant goats in Nsukka slaughterhouse, which has become a major cruel occurrence in Nigeria, as well as it's economic and public health implications.
Materials and Methods: All the goats slaughtered at Nsukka slaughterhouse over a period of 3 months (February-April, 2017) were screened. The data collected were: total number of goats slaughtered, age, breed and sex of goats slaughtered, pregnancy status of the goats, and sex of the fetuses observed, and gestational age of the fetuses estimated by crown-rump length.
Results: In the 3-month study, a total of 684 goats were slaughtered, of which 617 (90.2%) were females. 364 (59%) of the females slaughtered were pregnant, and more than 80% of the gestations were in the second and third trimesters. Of 661 fetuses recorded, 320 (48.3%) were males, and 341 (51.7%) were females with 438 (66.3%) predominantly twins. At the cost of ₦ 6,000 ($16) and ₦ 8,000 ($20) for male and female kids, respectively, a total of ₦ 4,648,000 ($11,620) was lost in just one slaughterhouse in 3 months.
Conclusion: This study shows that there is a high rate of slaughter of pregnant goats in Nsukka slaughterhouse with a tremendous economic loss, and most chevon sold in Nsukka are unwholesome and of low meat quality.
Keywords: economic implications, fetuses, low meat quality, pregnant goats, public health, unwholesome.

Wednesday, 15 August 2018

Seasonal changes of rumen and intestine morphology of the Qinghai yak (Bos grunniens)

Research (Published online: 16-08-2018)
17. Seasonal changes of rumen and intestine morphology of the Qinghai yak (Bos grunniens)
Bao A. Ding, Shuang Q. Ma, Zong R. Li, Xi L. Li and Stephen R. Madigosky
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1135-1138
Aim: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of seasonal changes in grass quality on the ruminal and intestinal morphology of male Qinghai yaks.
Materials and Methods: A total of four male yaks with the same age of 4 years old from each season (summer and winter) were randomly selected and slaughtered to determine the effect of different season on intestinal morphology of yak in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.
Results: The histological analysis shows that male yak has the longer and wider papillae in rumen in green season. The height of villi in duodenum and jejunum was significantly higher in green season, and the width of villi on duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and rectum was significantly wider in green season. Surface area of villi and crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum was significantly larger and deeper in green season. Submucosa thickness of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and rectum was significantly thicker in green season. The muscular thickness of jejunum, cecum, and rectum was significantly thicker in green season.
Conclusion: According to this research, we found that the seasonal changes of ruminal and intestinal morphology of yak showed different length and width papillae, villi, crypt, and submucosa. This fact was confirmed the functional advantages resulting from the ability to successfully adapt to a dry climate and diets, flat, open, and cold grassland may allow yak to overcome both water shortage and energy deficiency in winter.
Keywords: green grass, intestine, morphology, Qinghai yak, rumen.

Potency of lactic acid bacteria isolated from balinese bovine (Bos sondaicus) intestinal waste from slaughterhouse to improve nutrient content of wheat pollard as animal feedstuff by fermentation process

Research (Published online: 16-08-2018)
16. Potency of lactic acid bacteria isolated from balinese bovine (Bos sondaicus) intestinal waste from slaughterhouse to improve nutrient content of wheat pollard as animal feedstuff by fermentation process
Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari, Adriana Monica Sahidu, Koesnoto Soepranianondo, Agus Supriyanto, Andreas Berny Yulianto and Anam Al Arif
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1127-1134
Aim: The purpose of this study was to know the genetic and biochemical identification of isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from Balinese bovine (Bos sondaicus) intestinal waste, acidity, and ox bile salts and to inhibit the growth pathogen of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the potential of those isolated to improve nutrient value of wheat pollard as animal feed ingredient by fermentation process.
Materials and Methods: This research was divided into three stages. The first stage, isolated LAB were obtained from the bovine intestines at a slaughterhouse in Indonesia. Small intestinal samples were collected from 10 healthy Balinese beef cattle (B. sondaicus). The isolated LAB were identified by VITEK 2, polymerase chain reaction, and 16S rDNA. The basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) was performed to determine the phylogenetic tree. The second stage, the LAB were screened for their tolerance at pH 2, 3, and 4; bile salt, and antagonistic to enteric pathogen. In the third stage, to determine the potency of this isolate to increase nutrient content of wheat pollard by facultative anaerobe fermentation for 3 and 5 days.
Results: The result of the first stage showed that the isolate could be identified as Lactobacillus casei WPL 315. The result of the second stage showed that the isolate tolerance to low pH (pH 2, pH 3, and pH4) for 90 min and 24 h, and this isolate had viability tolerance in 0.3% bile salt. The isolate can inhibit S. aureus and E. coli. The result of the third stage by proximate analysis showed that crude protein increased by 23.08% after fermentation, while crude fiber decreased by 61.24% on the level 0.5% L. casei subsp. WPL 315 in the 3-day fermentation.
Conclusion: Based on the results, it showed that L. casei WPL 315 derived from indigenous intestinal Balinese beef cattle (B. sondaicus) has tolerant characteristic on acidity and ox bile salts, has antagonistic effect against E. coli and S. aureus, and has the ability to increase crude protein and decrease crude fiber content of wheat pollard. It would be interesting to determine whether the strain has a probiotic candidate.
Keywords: Escherichia coliLactobacillus casei, probiotics, Staphylococcus aureus, wheat pollard.

Tuesday, 14 August 2018

Genetic and phenotypic characterization of the native rabbits in Middle Egypt

Research (Published online: 14-08-2018)
15. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of the native rabbits in Middle Egypt
El-Sayed Mahfouz Abdel-Kafy, Sahar Saad El-Din Ahmed, Amira El-keredy, Neama Ibrahim Ali, Sherif Ramadan and Ahmed Farid
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1120-1126
Aim: Native rabbits in smallholder system are considered as important genetic resources, and the present study was aimed to study the genetic and phenotypic characterization and detection of the maternal origin of the native rabbit populations located at the Middle of Egypt.
Materials and Methods: A survey of native rabbit populations was conducted in three governorates (Fayum [FY], Beni Suef [BN], and El Menia [MN]). The phenotypic characterization of rabbits included the profile body of the head, ears, eyes, neck, and legs and the coat colors. The blood samples were collected for genetic characterization based on mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and the microsatellite markers.
Results: The phenotypic characterization of the body parts in the three populations was almost similar. The body weight of the mature rabbits in MN government was significantly heaviest, and the measurements for the main body parts (body length, chest circumference, and abdominal girth) were the highest compared to the two populations. The results of mitochondrial (cytochrome b) analysis revealed that the rabbits from the three governments belonged to lineage A except one animal was recorded as lineage G from MN's rabbit population. The results of the microsatellite markers revealed that the genetic diversity between the three populations showed genetic interferences; however, a closer genetic relationship was observed between BN and MN than FY. The majority of the genetic diversity was the individual variability.
Conclusion: The mitochondrial lineage A is the major lineage in rabbit populations in the area of the Middle Egypt understudy. The genetic populations' structure is the interferences among the three populations. A large-scale survey should be done on native rabbit populations for the sustainable management and conservation of the local breeds' genetic resources.
Keywords: microsatellite markers, middle of Egypt, mitochondrial DNA, native breed, phenotypic, rabbit.

Sunday, 12 August 2018

Molecular and immunological characterization of Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma excavatum(Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of Q fever in camels

Research (Published online: 12-08-2018)
14. Molecular and immunological characterization of Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma excavatum(Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of Q fever in camels
Hend H. A. M. Abdullah, Eman E. El-Shanawany, Sobhy Abdel-Shafy, Hala A. A. Abou-Zeina and Eman H. Abdel-Rahman
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1109-1119
Background and Aim: Q fever Coxiella burnetii is a worldwide zoonotic disease, and C. burnetii was detected in mammals and ticks. Ticks play an important role in the spread of C. burnetii in the environment. Therefore, the aims of this study were to detect Q fever C. burnetii in camels and ixodid ticks by molecular tools and identification of Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma excavatum using molecular and immunological assays.
Materials and Methods: A total of 113 blood samples from camels and 190 adult ticks were investigated for the infection with C. burnetii by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing the targeting IS30A spacer. The two tick species H. dromedarii and H. excavatum were characterized molecularly by PCR and sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) and cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (CO1) genes and immunologically by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot.
Results: A total of 52 camels (46%) were positive for Q fever infection. Only 10 adult ticks of H. dromedarii were infected with C. burnetii. The IS30A sequence was around 200 bp in length for C. burnetii in H. dromedariiticks with a similarity of 99% when compared with reference data in GenBank records. The length of 16S rDNA and CO1 was 440 and 850 bp, respectively, for both H. dromedarii and H. excavatum. The phylogenetic status of H. dromedarii was distant from that of H. excavatum. SDS-PAGE revealed seven different bands in the adult antigens of either H. dromedarii or H. excavatum with molecular weights ranged from 132.9 to 17.7 KDa. In western blot analyses, the sera obtained from either infested camel by H. dromedarii or infested cattle by H. excavatum recognized four immunogenic bands (100.7, 49.7, 43.9, and 39.6 kDa) in H. dromedariiantigen. However, the infested camel sera identified two immunogenic bands (117 and 61.4 kDa) in H. excavatum antigen. Furthermore, the sera collected from cattle infested by H. excavatum recognized three immunogenic bands (61.4, 47.3, and 35 kDa) in H. excavatum antigen.
Conclusion: Molecular analyses indicated that both camels and ticks could be sources for infection of animals and humans with Q fever. Furthermore, the molecular analyses are more accurate tools for discriminating H. dromedarii and H. excavatum than immunological tools.
Keywords: 16S ribosomal DNA, Coxiella burnetii, cytochrome oxidase subunit-1, hard ticks, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction, sequence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot.

Friday, 10 August 2018

Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella spp. contamination in broiler chicken farms and slaughterhouses in the northeast of Algeria

Research (Published online: 10-08-2018)
13. Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella spp. contamination in broiler chicken farms and slaughterhouses in the northeast of Algeria
Samia Djeffal, Bakir Mamache, Rachid Elgroud, Sana Hireche and Omar Bouaziz
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1102-1108
Aim: The aim of this study was to provide information on the prevalence of Salmonella serotypes and to identify risk factors for Salmonella spp. contamination in broiler chicken farms and slaughterhouses in the northeast of Algeria.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 32 poultry farms and five slaughterhouses in the province of Skikda (northeastern Algeria). A questionnaire was answered by the poultry farmers and slaughterhouses' managers. Biological samples (cloacal swabs, droppings, caeca, livers, and neck skins) and environmental ones (water, feed, surface wipes, rinsing water, and sticking knife swabbing) were taken to assess the Salmonella contamination status.
Results: Nearly 34.37% of the poultry farms and all the slaughterhouses were contaminated with Salmonella. The isolated Salmonella strains belonged to two major serotypes: Kentucky and Heidelberg followed by Enteritidis, Virginia, and Newport. There was an evident heterogeneous distribution of serotypes in poultry farms and slaughterhouses. Only one factor (earth floor) was significantly associated with Salmonellacontamination in poultry houses (p<0.05).
Conclusion: A high prevalence rate of Salmonella contamination was found in poultry farms and slaughterhouses in Skikda region. These results showed the foremost hazardous role of poultry production in the spread and persistence of Salmonella contamination in the studied region.
Keywords: poultry, prevalence, risk factor, Salmonella, serotype, slaughterhouse.

A cross-sectional study of the welfare of calves raised in smallholder dairy farms in Meru, Kenya, 2017

Research (Published online: 10-08-2018)
12. A cross-sectional study of the welfare of calves raised in smallholder dairy farms in Meru, Kenya, 2017
Emily K. Kathambi, John A. Van Leeuwen, George K. Gitau and Shawn L. McKenna
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1094-1101
Aim: This study was aimed at describing calf comfort and determining the individual and pen level factors that affect comfort status (in particular, calf leg hygiene scores) of smallholder dairy farms in Meru County, Kenya.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 52 calves that were up to 1 year old in 38 dairy farms (mean±standard deviation: Herd size=1.71±0.7 milking cows and milk production=6.7±3.1 L/day) in Meru, Kenya, in 2017, with the intention to describe their comfort and determine the factors associated with leg hygiene as a critical parameter for calf comfort assessment. Calves' biodata, health status, and leg hygiene were assessed, along with pen characteristics such as area, hygiene, and knee impact and knee wetness scores, while a questionnaire was administered to the farmers to gather information regarding calf housing management practices in the farm.
Results: The calves had a mean body weight of 85.2±32.8 kg and average daily weight gain of 0.50±0.45 kg per day. 71% of calves had a good body condition score (≥2.5), and the mean space allowance per calf was 2.52±1.56 m2. Approximately 75% of the calves (39/52) were kept in pens, and the rest were reared outdoors. For 39 calves kept indoors, 26% (10/39) of them had wooden or concrete floors while 74% (29/39) had dirt floors. Nearly two-thirds (62%) of indoor calves (26/39) were reared in pens with bedding, and 23% (9/39) and 33% (13/39) of the calves reared indoors were kept in pens displaying a failed knee impact test and failed knee wetness test. Indoor housed calves had an increased probability of having dirty calf legs (cleanliness score of >2.5) by 8.6 times (p=0.031), compared to outdoor-housed calves. In the final multivariable logistic regression model of 39 calves in pens, concrete or wood floors (odds ratio [OR]=7.9, p=0.047), poor body condition (OR=17.1, p=0.020) and use of bedding (OR=12.5, p=0.046) appeared to be positively correlated with dirtiness of calf legs, compared to dirt floors, good body condition, and no bedding, respectively.
Conclusion: Overall, some calf comfort aspects were covered for the majority of calves examined, but 69% of the pens were categorized as dirty, especially those with wooden or concrete floors and poor bedding management. Smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya should be trained on calf housing management to improve calf comfort and productivity.
Keywords: calf comfort, calf hygiene, dairy calves, Kenya.

Thursday, 9 August 2018

Determination of hematological and serum biochemical reference values for indigenous sheep (Ovies aries) in Dhaka and Chittagong Districts of Bangladesh

Research (Published online: 09-08-2018)
11. Determination of hematological and serum biochemical reference values for indigenous sheep (Ovies aries) in Dhaka and Chittagong Districts of Bangladesh
Md. Kaisar Rahman, Shariful Islam, Jinnat Ferdous, Md. Helal Uddin, Muhammad Belal Hossain, Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan and Ariful Islam
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1089-1093
Aim: The study was aimed to determine the reference values of most commonly used hematological and biochemical parameters of indigenous sheep, reared under semi-intensive backyard farms in Dhaka and Chittagong district, Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods: A total of 41 blood samples were collected from indigenous sheep (Ovis aries) from June to December 2016 from Dhaka and Chittagong Districts of Bangladesh. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters such as hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), neutrophil, eosinophil, basophil, monocyte, lymphocyte, urea, triglyceride, cholesterol, glucose, albumin, total protein (TP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate transaminase (AST) were determined by biochemical analyzer. 90% reference intervals were calculated for all parameters.
Results: The hematological and serum biochemical profiles of indigenous sheep showed wide range and variation. The results were categorized according to sex and age of the sheep for comparison. Young sheep had significantly higher PCV, eosinophil, triglyceride, and TP level than that of adult (p<0.05), whereas the urea and albumin level was higher in adult than that of juvenile (p<0.05). Most of the values of the parameters are close to each other for both male and female except TEC, urea, cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose, and AST. However, a significant difference was found only for albumin and basophil level between male and female sheep.
Conclusions: Hematological and biochemical parameters in Bangladeshi indigenous sheep showed a wide range and variation implicating future study for the prophylaxis of ovine diseases.
Keywords: Bangladesh, biochemical parameters, hematology, indigenous sheep, Ovis aries, reference values.

Antimicrobial resistance genes in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from diseased broiler chickens in Egypt and their relationship with the phenotypic resistance characteristics

Research (Published online: 09-08-2018)
10. Antimicrobial resistance genes in pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from diseased broiler chickens in Egypt and their relationship with the phenotypic resistance characteristics
Mohamed M. Amer, Hoda M. Mekky, Aziza M. Amer and Hanaa S. Fedawy
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1082-1088
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between phenotypic resistance and genotypic resistance of isolated serotyped pathogenic Escherichia coli isolates from the clinically diseased broiler.
Materials and Methods: A total of 160 samples (heart, liver, kidney, and lung) were collected from 18 to 34 days old clinically diseased broiler from 40 broiler farms (3-5 birds/farm) reared in Giza and Kaluobaia Governorates for the isolation of pathogenic E. coli. Various E. coli isolates were tested for the pathogenicity based on Congo red (CR) dye binding assay. The obtained CR-positive E. coli isolates were subjected to serological identification using slide agglutination test. Disc diffusion test was used to study the sensitivity pattern of E. coli isolates to available 12 antibiotics. Polymerase chain reaction was performed for the detection of antimicrobial resistance genes in the studied pathogenic E. coli isolates.
Results: The results revealed that 56 samples (35 %) were positive for E. coli. The results of the CR assay indicates that 20 isolates of 56 (35.7%) were positive and 36 isolates (64.3%) were negative. Identified E. coliserotypes of CR-positive isolates were 1 (O24), 2 (O44), 2 (O55), 5 (O78), 2 (O86), 1 (124), 3 (O127), 1 (O158), and 3 untyped. Resistance rate in disc diffusion test was 85% to oxytetracycline and kanamycin; 80% to ampicillin (AMP), clindamycin, and streptomycin (S); 75% to enrofloxacin; 65% to chloramphenicol; 55% to cefotaxime and gentamicin (CN); 45% to trimethoprim+sulfamethoxazole; 35% to erythromycin (ERI); and 30% to oxacillin. All strains are multidrug-resistant (MDR). Antibacterial resistance genes CITMereaac (3)-(IV)tet(A)tet(B)dfr(A1), and aad(A1) were detected in 14 (70%), 12 (60%), 12 (60%), 8 (40%), 11 (55%), 8 (40%), and 9 (45%) of tested 20 isolates, respectively. Multidrug resistance was detected in the form of resistance to 42%-83.3% of tested 12 antibiotics. Three isolates (15%) of 20 tested isolates showed a relationship between phenotype and genotype and 17 (85%) showed irregular relation. Strains are sensitive and show resistant gene (P-G+) presented in three isolates for AMP (beta-lactam), one for ERI (Macrolide), as well as five isolates for trimethoprim (pyrimidine inhibitor). E. coli isolates had resistance and lacked gene (P+ G-) reported meanly in one isolate for CN (aminoglycoside), two isolates for tetracycline, four isolates for ERI, seven isolates for trimethoprim, and eight isolates for S (aminoglycoside).
Conclusions: The study demonstrates that E. coli is still a major pathogen responsible for disease conditions in broiler. E. coli isolates are pathogenic and MDR. Responsible gene was detected for six antibiotics in most of the isolates, but some do not show gene expression, this may be due to few numbers of resistance genes tested or other resistance factors not included in this study.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance genes, broiler, Escherichia coli, isolation.

Tuesday, 7 August 2018

Sources of contamination, prevalence, and antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacterisolated from turkeys

Research (Published online: 07-08-2018)
9. Sources of contamination, prevalence, and antimicrobial resistance of thermophilic Campylobacterisolated from turkeys
Radia Bouhamed, Leila Bouayad, Sara Messad, Safia Zenia, Malek Naim and Taha-Mossadak Hamdi
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1074-1081

Aim: Sources of contamination, prevalence, and antimicrobial susceptibility of thermophilic Campylobacter isolated from turkey samples were determined.
Materials and Methods: A total of 300 samples were collected from 3 farms (fecal droppings) and 4 poultry slaughterhouses (neck skins and ceca) located in the middle area of Algeria (Algiers, Boumerdes, and Bouira). After detection, an antibiogram was realized only for slaughterhouses samples.
Results: Samples from cecum (90.0%, 90/100; 95% confidence interval (CI)=84.1-95.9%), fecal dropping (68.0%, 68/100; 95% CI=58.9-77.1%), and neck skin (55.0%, 55/100; 95% CI=45.2-64.8%) were positive for thermophilic Campylobacter (p<0.05). Contamination rate of turkey carcasses was higher in modern slaughterhouse (96.7%) than in traditional slaughterhouses (37.1%) (p<0.05). Isolated strains were resistant to nalidixic acid (NA) (87.5%), tetracycline (TE) (81.3%), ciprofloxacin (CIP) (75.0%), ampicillin (AM) (65.6%), and erythromycin (25.0%) (p<0.05). 96.9% (124/128) of the isolates were multiresistant and 18 drug resistance patterns were registered. The predominant one (43.0%) was AM, NA, CIP, and TE.
Conclusions: Potential sources of contamination of this fastidious bacterium were noticed in farms and slaughterhouses. Modern slaughterhouse allowed contamination of turkey carcasses more than a traditional slaughterhouse. However, the scalding step could not represent a source of contamination. The most tested strains exhibited resistance to erythromycin and/or CIP. It is worrisome because these molecules are considered as first-choice antibiotics for human campylobacteriosis.
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, farm, slaughterhouse, Thermophilic Campylobacter, turkey.

Monday, 6 August 2018

Effectiveness of poultry litter amendments on bacterial survival and Eimeria oocyst sporulation

Research (Published online: 06-08-2018)
8. Effectiveness of poultry litter amendments on bacterial survival and Eimeria oocyst sporulation
Essam S. Soliman, Nahla H. Sallam and Eman M. Abouelhassan
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1064-1073
Aim: Broilers' optimum performance in response to their genetic potential depends on litter environment which is ideal for bacterial survival and coccidian oocyst sporulation. An in vitro evaluation was conducted for the effectiveness of superphosphate, meta-bisulfide, and charcoal litter amendments in minimizing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium survival, Eimeria oocyst count, and sporulation.
Materials and Methods: Three groups of 16 litter trays were prepared and inoculated with E. coli O157:H7, S. Typhimurium, and Eimeria non-sporulated oocyst. A set of four trays in each group was designed for each one of the chemical amendments. A total of 720 litter samples were collected and examined for bacterial counts, Eimeria oocyst count, and sporulation during the experimental period (35 days).
Results: Litter moisture and pH revealed a highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in all treated litter trays compared to control. Total bacterial count (TBC), total Enterobacteriaceae count, and S. Typhimurium count showed a highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in meta-bisulfide-treated trays compared to other amendments and positive control. Meanwhile, Eimeria oocyst count and sporulation revealed a highly significant (p<0.001) reduction in superphosphate, meta-bisulfide, and charcoal-treated trays, respectively. Temperature revealed a highly significant (p<0.001) weak positive correlation with pH of all inoculated trays, a highly significant (p<0.001) weak negative correlation with moisture percentage of E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium inoculated trays, and a highly significant (p<0.001) weak negative correlation with TBC. Meanwhile, relative humidity revealed significant (p≤0.005) weak positive correlation with moisture percentage of E. coli O157:H7 inoculated trays.
Conclusion: The study concluded that regular usage with periodical reapplication of litter amendments as meta-bisulfide or superphosphate in poultry farms is one of the indispensable managemental and preventive measures for minimizing bacterial survival and inhibiting Eimeria oocyst maturation and sporulation.
Keywords: charcoal, EimeriaEscherichia coli, litter, meta-bisulfide, Salmonella, superphosphate.

Saturday, 4 August 2018

Post-epidemic awareness and knowledge of Lassa fever among residents in affected community in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria

Research (Published online: 04-08-2018)
7. Post-epidemic awareness and knowledge of Lassa fever among residents in affected community in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria
E. J. Awosanya
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1059-1063
Aim: An outbreak of Lassa fever occurred in Ibadan with a case fatality rate of 50% in 2012. Awareness creation and sensitization is a known disease prevention and control strategy. An assessment of the awareness level and knowledge of Lassa fever in the affected community and a nearby university community was done to aid the development of effective information, education, and communication (IEC) material adaptable to the affected community.
Materials and Methods: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data about awareness and knowledge of Lassa fever from 130 respondents. Descriptive statistics and statistical differences between categorical variables were done using Fisher's exact test at 5% significant level.
Results: Respondents' age was 29.9 ± 10.9 years. Awareness level in the affected and university communities was 42 (65%) and 55 (85%), respectively (p=0.02). The most reported source of awareness was the television and radio (59.8%). Only 33.1% of all respondents had good knowledge of the clinical symptoms. Most (68.5%) of the respondents knew rat as the reservoir: However, 56.9% and 80.0% of respondents from the affected and university communities, respectively, had this knowledge (p=0.01). About one-third (30.0%) of the respondents had good knowledge of preventive measures: 18.5% and 41.5% from affected and university communities, respectively (p=0.01).
Conclusion: Knowledge of respondents on Lassa fever symptoms, reservoir, and preventive measures was low in the affected community; the IEC material was developed to address the knowledge gaps. Awareness was also intensified in the affected community.
Keywords: IEC materials, knowledge, Lassa fever, outbreaks.

Investigation of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, and some biochemical parameters in calves with omphalitis

Research (Published online: 04-08-2018)
6. Investigation of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, and some biochemical parameters in calves with omphalitis
K. Bozukluhan, O. Merhan, M. Ogun, B. Kurt, M. Cihan, E. E. Erkilic, G. Gokce, U. Aydin and A. Ozcan
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1055-1058
Aim: In this study, it was aimed to determine the concentration of some important acute phase proteins (APPs) and some biochemical parameters pre-operative and post-operative in calves with omphalitis.
Materials and Methods: A total of 20 calves were used in the study and they consist of 10 clinically healthy calves that were used as a control and 10 calves with omphalitis were used as the treatment group. Blood samples were collected from Vena jugularis of animals to tubes with anticoagulant (sodium citrate) and without anticoagulants, pre-operative (day 0), and post-operative (day 7). Samples were used to determine the concentration of haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), ceruloplasmin (Cp), fibrinogen, glucose, total protein, albumin, urea, total bilirubin, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) concentrations.
Results: While the Hp, SAA, Cp, fibrinogen, urea, creatinine, total bilirubin, ALP, and GGT concentrations were statistically and significantly increasing rather than the control group during the pre-operative period for calves with omphalitis, they decreased to the post-operative period. Moreover, an insignificant increase in the glucose, total protein, and AST concentrations and an insignificant decrease in the albumin, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations were statistically determined.
Conclusion: We have the opinion that the assessment of biochemical parameters and especially APP levels in calves with the omphalitis together with the clinical findings may be important in terms of the treatment and prognosis.
Keywords: acute phase protein, biochemistry parameters, calves, omphalitis.

Friday, 3 August 2018

The effect of cashew leaf extract on small intestine morphology and growth performance of Jawa Super chicken

Research (Published online: 03-08-2018)
5. The effect of cashew leaf extract on small intestine morphology and growth performance of Jawa Super chicken
H. Setiawan, M. E. Jingga and H. T. Saragih
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1047-1054
Aim: This research aimed to study the effect of leaf extract of cashew as a bioactive compound in feed on the morphology of the small intestine in Jawa Super chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).
Materials and Methods: This study used 72 1-day-old Jawa Super chicks reared for a further 16 days. We used a randomized complete design, in which basal feed was supplemented with ethanolic extract of cashew leaves at 0 g/kg feed (control), 1.25 g/kg feed (P1), 2.5 g/kg feed (P2), 5 g/kg feed (P3), 10 g/kg feed (P4), and 20 g/kg feed (P5). Parameters observed included growth performance, chicken morphometry, and morphology of the small intestine, comprising the length and width of the villi, the depth of the crypt, and the number and size of goblet cells in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Data analysis was conducted using one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan's test, with significance defined as p<0.05.
Results: Ethanolic extract of cashew leaf significantly increased body weight, feed efficiency, body morphometry, villus length, crypt depth, number of goblet cells, and extent of goblet cell area of the small intestine at 16 days. The morphological results from the small intestine showed that P4 and P5 were significantly better than control.
Conclusion: Cashew leaf ethanolic extract mixed with 10 g/kg basal feed is effective as a natural feed supplement for Jawa Super chickens.
Keywords: cashew leaf, feed supplement, growth performance, Jawa Super chicken, small intestine.

Thursday, 2 August 2018

Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum): From population genetics to functional genomics

Review (Published online: 02-08-2018)
4. Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum): From population genetics to functional genomics
Harshit Kumar, Manjit Panigrahi, Supriya Chhotaray, V. Bhanuprakash, Rahul Shandilya, Arvind Sonwane and Bharat Bhushan
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1043-1046
Tribolium castaneum is a small and low maintenance beetle that has emerged as a most suitable insect model for studying developmental biology and functional genetic analysis. Diverse population genetic studies have been conducted using Tribolium as the principal model to establish basic facts and principles of inbreeding experiments and response to the selection and other quantitative genetics fundamentals. The advanced molecular genetic studies presently focused on the use of Tribolium as a typical invertebrate model for higher diploid eukaryotes. After a whole genome sequencing of Tribolium, many areas of functional genomics were unraveled, which enabled the use of it in many technical approaches of genomics. The present text reviews the use of Tribolium in techniques such as RNAi, transgenic studies, immune priming, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, gene sequencing for characterization of microRNAs, and gene editing using engineered endonuclease. In contrast to Drosophila, the T. castaneum holds a robust systemic RNAi response, which makes it an excellent model for comparative functional genetic studies.
Keywords: functional genomics, hox gene, insertional mutagenesis, RNAi, Tribolium.

Pathogens isolated from clinical cases of urinary tract infection in dogs and their antibiogram

Research (Published online: 02-08-2018)
3. Pathogens isolated from clinical cases of urinary tract infection in dogs and their antibiogram
Manisha Punia, Ashok Kumar, Gaurav Charaya and Tarun Kumar
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1037-1042
Aim: This study aims to determine the etiology of urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and to develop an antibiogram of organisms isolated.
Materials and Methods: Urine samples were collected either through catheterization or cystocentesis from 35 dogs suspected of UTI admitted to VCC, LUVAS, Hisar. Bacteria were identified on the basis of cultural characteristics in 22 samples, and all the isolates were subjected to in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity testing.
Results: The urine samples found positive for bacteria yielded pure colony growth in 77.27% and mixed growth in 22.73% samples, respectively. Escherichia coli (29.62%) and Streptococcus spp. (29.62%) were the most prevalent microorganisms followed by Staphylococcus spp. (22.22%), Klebsiella spp. (11.11%), Pseudomonas spp. (3.7%), and Bacillus spp. (3.7%). Overall, maximum sensitivity of isolates was found toward ceftriaxone/tazobactam (88.88%) and least toward amoxicillin and cloxacillin (29.62%).
Conclusion: E. coli and Streptococcus spp. were the most predominant bacteria isolated from UTI affected dogs. In vitro sensitivity revealed a significant proportion of bacteria to be multidrug resistant.
Keywords: antibiogram, multidrug resistance, Escherichia coliStaphylococciStreptococci.

Wednesday, 1 August 2018

Seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants in organized and unorganized sectors of Gujarat state, India

Research (Published online: 01-08-2018)
2. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants in organized and unorganized sectors of Gujarat state, India
A. Kanani, S. Dabhi, Y. Patel, V. Chandra, O. R. Vinodh Kumar and R. Shome
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1030-1036
Aim: The present study aimed to study the seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants of Gujarat state, India, using Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA).
Materials and Methods: A total of 2444 sera samples (675 sheep and 1769 goat) from unorganized sector and 1310 sera samples (861 sheep and 449 goat) from seven organized farms were collected for brucellosis screening.
Results: In unorganized sector, 23.70% sheep (160/675) and 15.99% goat (283/1769) were positive by RBPT and 24.44% sheep (165/675) and 17.24% goat (305/1769) by iELISA. The organized sector samples showed higher seroprevalence in goat (7.79 %, 35/449) than sheep (4.06 %, 35/861) by RBPT. Similarly, in iELISA, goat samples showed a higher seroprevalence (9.35%, 42/449) compared to sheep (7.50%, 65/861). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of RBPT with ELISA were 88.69% and 99.65%, respectively, and showed a significant difference (p≤0.0001). The Chi-square analysis revealed a significant difference in seroprevalence between sectors (p≤0.01) and species (p≤0.01).
Conclusion: The seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants of Gujarat was investigated and showed a higher prevalence of brucellosis and warrants the implementation of proper preventive measures.
Keywords: brucellosis, Gujarat, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Rose Bengal Plate test, seroprevalence, small ruminants.

Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the outer capsid protein genes of Indian isolates of bluetongue virus serotype-16

Research (Published online: 01-08-2018)
1. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the outer capsid protein genes of Indian isolates of bluetongue virus serotype-16
Arpit Saxena, Sanchay K. Biswas, Karam Chand, Jishnu Naskar, Ankita Chauhan, Gulam Mohd, Neha Tewari, Kurat-ul-Ain, Muthannan A. Ramakrishnan and Awadh Bihari Pandey
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1025-1029
Aim: The aim of the study was to characterize bluetongue virus serotype 16 (BTV-16), recently isolated from different states of India. The evolutionary relationship of newly isolated BTV-16 and previously reported Indian and global BTV-16 isolates were compared using molecular analysis.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, five (n=5) BTV-16 isolates were used to amplify gene segment-2 and segment-6 encoding the outer capsid proteins VP2 and VP5, respectively. The amplified products were purified and sequenced by the Sanger sequencing method. The phylogenetic relationship and nucleotide identity of all five BTV-16 isolates were compared with previously reported Indian and global BTV-16 isolates. Nucleotide sequence data were aligned using the CLUSTAL W algorithm implemented in the MegAlign of DNASTAR program package (MegAlign 5.00, DNASTAR Inc., Madison, USA). Phylogenetic analyses were carried out using MEGA version 6.0 software with the best nucleotide substitution model.
Results: Phylogenetic analysis based on the VP2 and VP5 encoding genes, segregates Indian BTV-16 isolates in a distinct cluster with proximity to the Eastern topotype. Indian isolates make a monophyletic cluster with Eastern topotypes with Western topotype BTV-16 (BTV-16/NIG/AJ586694) occupying a separate cluster. Indian isolates were found to share 91.5%- 97.5% and 96.5%-98.9% identity at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid (aa) level, respectively, to the global BTV-16 isolates. There is a high degree of variation with the Nigerian isolate with 27.0-27.7% and 26.0-26.9% at the nucleotide and aa sequence level, respectively. These data suggest that Indian BTV-16 isolates might have evolved separately within the Eastern BTV topotype.
Conclusion: Phylogenetic analyses and nucleotide identity of BTV-16 isolates at the VP2 and VP5 gene encoded level indicate that isolates used in the present study might have evolved from a common Eastern topotype ancestor. The data presented in this study will be helpful for future selection of reference strains in a serological and molecular epidemiology study.
Keywords: bluetongue virus, phylogenetic analysis, VP2 gene, VP5 gene.