Sunday, 28 June 2015

Evaluation of physiological and biochemical responses in different seasons in Surti buffaloes

Research (Published online: 17-06-2015)
7.  Evaluation of physiological and biochemical responses in different seasons in Surti buffaloes - Sandhya S. Chaudhary, Virendra Kumar Singh, Ramesh C. Upadhyay, Gopal Puri, Arjun B. Odedara and Pankaj A. Patel
Veterinary World, 8(6): 727-731

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.727-731

Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the impact of hot dry, hot humid and comfortable season on physiological, hematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters in Surti buffaloes.
Materials and Methods: Ten lactating Surti buffaloes of similar physiological status were selected. Based on the temperature-humidity index (THI), their natural exposure to the environment was categorized as hot dry (THI1), hot humid (THI2) and moderate winter/comfort season (THI3). Blood/serum samples were collected and analyzed for physiological, hematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress parameters. The results were analyzed using standard statistical methods.
Results: With increase in THI, significant rise in physiological parameters such as respiration rate (RR), hematological parameters such as red blood cell (RBC), hematocrit, hemoglobin (Hb) and mean cell Hb concentration (MCHC), biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT), Na, K, creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, Mn, Cu and Zn, hormones such as cortisol and oxidative stress parameters such as glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), lipid peroxide (LPO) and total antioxidant status (TAS) and significant decline in glucose, cholesterol and triiodothyronine (T3) was observed.
Conclusion: It was concluded that THI is a sensitive indicator of heat stress and is impacted by ambient temperature more than the relative humidity in buffaloes. Higher THI is associated with significantly increased RR, total RBC count, Hb, hematocrit, MCHC, ALT, urea, sodium, creatinine, triiodothyronine, SOD, GPx, LPO and TAS and with significant decrease in glucose, cholesterol and triiodothyronine (T3).
Keywords: biochemical, heat stress, physiological, surti buffalo, temperature humidity index.

Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in Banaraja fowls reared in semi-intensive system of management in Mayurbhanj district of Odisha

Research (Published online: 17-06-2015)
6.  Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in Banaraja fowls reared in semi-intensive system of management in Mayurbhanj district of Odisha - Ananta Hembram, M. R. Panda, B. N. Mohanty, C. R. Pradhan, M. Dehuri, A. Sahu and M. Behera
Veterinary World, 8(6): 723-726

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.723-726

Aim: Studies on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths infection in Banaraja fowls of Mayurbhanj district in Odisha with respect to semi-intensive system of rearing.
Materials and Methods: A total of 160 Banaraja birds (30 males and 130 females) belonging to two age groups (below 1 month age and above 1 month) were examined for the presence of different species of gastrointestinal helminth infection over a period of 1-year. The method of investigation included collection of fecal sample and gastrointestinal tracts, examination of fecal sample of birds, collection of parasites from different part of gastrointestinal tract, counting of parasites, and examination of the collected parasites by standard parasitological techniques followed by morphological identification as far as possible up to the species level.
Results: Overall, 58.75% birds were found infected with various gastrointestinal helminths. Total five species of parasites were detected that included Ascaridia galli (25.63%), Heterakis gallinarum (33.75%), Raillietina tetragona (46.25%), Raillietina echinobothrida(11.87%), and Echinostoma revolutum (1.87%). Both single (19.15%) as well as mixed (80.85%) infection were observed. Highest incidence of infection was observed during rainy season (68.88%) followed by winter (66.66%) and least in summer season (41.81%). Sex-wise incidence revealed slightly higher occurrence among females (59.23%) than males (56.67%). Age-wise prevalence revealed that chicks were more susceptible (77.77%) than adults (51.30%) to gastrointestinal helminths infection.
Conclusions: Present study revealed that mixed infection with gastrointestinal helminths of different species was more common than infection with single species and season-wise prevalence was higher in rainy season followed by winter and summer. Chicks were found to be more prone to this parasitic infection and a slight higher prevalence among female birds was observed.
Keywords: Banaraja fowl, gastrointestinal helminths, prevalence.

Enhancement of growth performance in pre-weaning suckling Boer kids supplemented with creep feed containing alfalfa

Research (Published online: 15-06-2015)
5.  Enhancement of growth performance in pre-weaning suckling Boer kids supplemented with creep feed containing alfalfa Nay Naing Htoo, Aung Tun Khaing, Yusuf Abba, Nwe Nwe Htin, Jesse Faaz Firdaus Abdullah, Than Kyaw, Mohd Azam Khan Goriman Khan and Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila
Veterinary World, 8(6): 718-722

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.718-722

Aim: This study examined the effects of creep feed (CF) supplementation (with or without Alfalfa) on the pre-weaning growth performance of nursing goat kids.
Materials and Methods: A total of forty eight (48), 7 days old, single born kids (live weight 4.4±0.09 kg) were divided into three treatment groups, each containing eight males and eight females. All three groups had access to their dams’ milk (DM). The kids from the first treatment group had free access to CF containing alfalfa (CFA) while those from the second group had free access to CF without alfalfa. The third treatment group (control) had access to their DM only. All three groups were kept isolated from the dams from 800 to 1200 h and from 1400 to 1800 h while having access to CF.
Results: Total weight gain and average daily gain of kids from CFA group (11.2±0.36 kg, 145.2±4.64 g) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than kids from CF (7.9±0.49 kg, 102.9±6.43 g) and DM (5.5±0.43 kg, 71.1±5.56 g) groups. The weaning weight of kids from CFA group (15.6±0.39 kg) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than those from CF (12.1±0.56 kg) and DM (9.9±0.59 kg) groups.
Conclusion: This result shows that supplementation of CF combined with alfalfa from birth to weaning enhances growth performance of cross-bred Boer goat kids.
Keywords: boer, creep feed, growth performance, pre-weaning, alfalfa.

Hematobiochemical changes in ehrlichiosis in dogs of Anand region, Gujarat

Research (Published online: 10-06-2015)
4.  Hematobiochemical changes in ehrlichiosis in dogs of Anand region, Gujarat - C. M. Bhadesiya and S. K. Raval
Veterinary World, 8(6): 713-717

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.713-717

Aim: The present research work was undertaken to study the diagnostic importance of hematobiochemical changes in naturally occurring ehrlichiosis in dogs of Anand region, Gujarat irrespective of their age, breed, and sex.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples from a total of 29 dogs of Anand region of Gujarat state were screened for detection of anti-Ehrlichia canis antibodies using Immunocomb® rapid diagnostic kit (Biogal Galed Laboratories, Israel) and subjected to estimation of hematobiochemical parameters by auto hematology analyzers at College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand. Statistical analysis, interpretation and comparison of hematobiochemical changes with scientific literature was carried out in order to understand the pathophysiology of the disease.
Results: Of 29 dogs, 18 were positive for naturally occurring ehrlichiosis based on the presence of anti-E. canis antibodies while 11 were negative. Haematology evinced that the mean values of hemoglobin, total erythrocyte counts, platelet count and packed cell volume in dogs with ehrlichiosis decreased significantly (p<0.01) in comparison to healthy dogs. Among differential leucocyte count, mean values of lymphocytes decreased, neutrophils increased, eosinophils decreased and basophils decreased significantly (p<0.05) in dogs with ehrlichiosis in comparison to healthy dogs while statistically nonsignificant (p>0.05) difference was observed in values of monocytes in dogs with ehrlichiosis and healthy dogs. Among various red blood cells indices, the mean values of mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration increased significantly (p<0.01) in dogs with ehrlichiosis in comparison to healthy dogs. Serum biochemistry revealed significant (p<0.01) increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase, serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and creatinine levels as well as decrease in total protein levels in dogs with ehrlichiosis as compared to healthy dogs.
Conclusion: Clinical importance of hematobiochemical changes in 18 natural cases of ehrlichiosis in dogs of Anand region, Gujarat irrespective of their age, breed and sex is discussed, which would aid new insights in diagnosis and therapeutic management.
Keywords: dogs, ehrlichiosis, anti-Ehrlichia canis antibodies, hematobiochemical changes.

A comparative study of two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography in evaluation of gastric affections in dogs

Research (Published online: 06-06-2015)
3.  A comparative study of two-dimensional and three-dimensional ultrasonography in evaluation of gastric affections in dogs - Madan Pal, Prem Singh, Rishi Tayal, Dinesh Dehmiwal, S. M. Behl, Sarvan Kumar and R. K. Chandolia
Veterinary World, 8(6): 707-712

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.707-712

Aim: The objective of the study was to obtain and compare the two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) ultrasonographic images of pathological conditions of the stomach in dogs in clinical cases.
Materials and Methods: In our study, 12 clinical conditions of the stomach were recorded using ultrasonography. The ultrasound machine used for this study was 3D ultrasound machine (Nemio-XG: Toshiba, Japan) having four-dimensional volumetric transducer.
Results: Present study was done to compare 2D and 3D ultrasonographic images in different gastric affections in dogs. In case of uremic gastropathy due to inflammatory response, the wall of the stomach was 0.6 cm thick and hyperechoic and gastric folds were also hyperechoic indicative of gastritis. In second, third, and fourth case of gastritis the wall of the stomach was 0.7, 0.6, and 0.55 cm, respectively thick and hyperechoic. In fifth and sixth case of gastritis, inflammatory response due to ingestion of polythene and sand led to gastritis and ultrasonographically, the wall of the stomach was 0.6 cm and 0.7 cm thick, respectively, and hyperechoic. In case of gastric ulcer, ultrasonographically, there was a disruption of gastric mucosal layer. In cases of gastric dilatation, anechoic content indicating fluid was seen in stomach area and due to dilatation boundary of the stomach was not clear and the increase in the lumen of the stomach was observed. In case of foreign body, ultrasonographically the wall of the stomach was 0.55 cm thick and hyperechoic. In the middle of the stomach, multiple hyperechoic shadows of the foreign bodies i.e. leather and bunch of straw of grass were observed. In case of pyloric stenosis ultrasonographically, anechoic lumen of the pylorus surrounded by 0.5 cm hypoechoic thickened muscle. In some cases, 3D ultrasonography was not diagnostic i.e. gastric foreign bodies and gastric dilatation. These conditions were better visualized on the 2D sonogram.
Conclusion: The appearance of clinical conditions of the stomach such as gastritis and pyloric stenosis were more distinct on 3D ultrasonogram than 2D ultrasonogram. The 3D ultrasonography was not diagnostic in cases of gastric foreign bodies and gastric dilatation.
Keywords: dogs, gastritis, gastric dilatation, gastric foreign bodies, gastric ulcer, three-dimensional ultrasonogram.

Isolation and molecular characterization of Salmonella spp. from chevon and chicken meat collected from different districts of Chhattisgarh, India

Research (Published online: 06-06-2015)
2. Isolation and molecular characterization of Salmonella spp. from chevon and chicken meat collected from different districts of Chhattisgarh, India - V. K. Naik, S. Shakya, A. Patyal, N. E. Gade and Bhoomika
Veterinary World, 8(6): 702-706

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.702-706

Aim: The aim was to assess the prevalence of Salmonella in raw chevon and chicken meat sold in the retail meat shops situated in and around Durg, Rajnandgaon, Dhamtari, Raipur, and Bilaspur districts of Chhattisgarh. Studies were also conducted to find out the antibiotic resistance in Salmonella isolates.
Materials and Methods: A total of 400 samples comprising of 200 chevon meat and 200 chicken meat samples were processed for isolation of Salmonella and all isolates were further confirmed on the basis of cultural and biochemical characters and by targeting invAgene of Salmonella. All Salmonella isolates were also examined for their antimicrobial drug susceptibility/resistance pattern against commonly used antibiotics.
Results: Out of 400 samples, the prevalence of Salmonella in chevon and chicken meat was found 9% and 7% respectively, with an overall prevalence of 8%. Polymerase chain reaction targeting invA gene of Salmonella showed positive result with 31 isolates. All 32Salmonella isolates were found to be highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin while 96.87%, 96.87% and 93.75% were sensitive to gentamicin, imipenem, and ceftazidime, respectively. 93.75% and 59.37% isolates were resistant to erythromycin and oxytetracycline, respectively. Out of 32, 14 isolates had multiple antibiotic resistance index equal to or more than 0.2.
Conclusion: Salmonella in chevon and chicken meat samples is prevailing in the areas of sampling due to poor hygienic conditions and also demonstrated the varied spectrum of antimicrobial resistance, including several multiple drug resistance phenotypes. Therefore, the present study emphasizes the need for continued  surveillance of zoonotic foodborne pathogens including antimicrobial-resistant variants throughout the food production chain.
Keywords: chevon, Chhattisgarh, chicken, isolation, molecular characterization, Salmonella. 

Isolation, identification, and characterization of Listeria spp. from various animal origin foods

Research (Published online: 06-06-2015)
1. Isolation, identification, and characterization of Listeria spp. from various animal origin foods - Deepti N. Nayak, C. V. Savalia, I. H. Kalyani, Rajeev Kumar and D. P. Kshirsagar
Veterinary World, 8(6): 695-701

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.695-701

Aim: The present study was undertaken with the prime objective of isolating and identifying Listeria spp. from various foods of animal origin sold at retail market outlets in the city of Navsari, Gujarat.
Materials and Methods: Total 200 samples comprising of milk, milk products, meat, and fish (50 each) collected aseptically from local market which were subjected first to pre-enrichment in half strength Fraser broth followed by enrichment in full strength Fraser broth and subsequent plating on PALCAM agar. The growth with the typical colony characteristics were further identified up to species level on the basis of their morphological and biochemical characteristics. Cultures identified as Listeria monocytogenes were further subjected toin vitro pathogenicity tests and detection of different virulence associated genes viz. actA, hlyA, and iap using polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Of the total 200 food samples of animal origin; 18 (9%) were found positive for Listeria sppwhich were identified as Listeria seeligeri (6, 33.3%), Listeria innocua (5, 27.7%), Listeria welshimeri (4, 22.2%), and L. monocytogenes (3, 16.6%). The highest prevalence was observed in milk samples (8). Species wise, 6 isolates of L. seeligeri which included two each from cow milk, buffalo milk, and meat samples; 5 L. innocua isolates included four recovered from fish and one from meat sample; 4 L. welshimeri comprised of two isolates from ice cream and one each from buffalo milk and meat sample; and 3 isolates of L. monocytogenes recovered from milk (1 cow and 2 buffalo milk). All 3 L. monocytogenes isolates screened for the presence of virulence genes vizactA, hlyA, and iapusing the specific primers revealed the presence of all the genes suggesting the possibility of danger of foodborne listeriosis among raw milk consumers.
Conclusion: Listeria sppwas isolated from 9% (18/200) of the animal origin food samples viz.; milk, milk products, meat, and fish with the highest prevalence in the milk samples. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 3 milk samples only. L. seeligeri was the predominant species isolated followed by L. innocua, L. welshimeri, and L. monocytogenes in this study. L. monocytogenes were found to carry virulence genes like actAhly A, and iap genes suggesting the pathogenic potential of these isolates.
Keywords: animal origin foods, Listeria monocytogenesListeria spp., polymerase chain reaction, virulence genes.