Tuesday, 31 October 2017

Genotyping of virulent Escherichia coli obtained from poultry and poultry farm workers using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction

Research (Published online: 01-11-2017)
1. Genotyping of virulent Escherichia coli obtained from poultry and poultry farm workers using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction
M. Soma Sekhar, N. Mohammad Sharif, T. Srinivasa Rao and M. Metta
Veterinary World, 10(11): 1292-1296
Aim: The aim of this study was to characterize virulent Escherichia coli isolated from different poultry species and poultry farm workers using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction (ERIC-PCR) genotyping.
Materials and Methods: Fecal swabs from different poultry species (n=150) and poultry farm workers (n=15) were analyzed for E. coli and screened for virulence genes (stx1stx2eaeA, and hlyA) by multiplex PCR. Virulent E. coli was serotyped based on their "O" antigen and then genotyped using ERIC-PCR.
Results: A total of 134 E. coli isolates (122/150 from poultry and 12/15 from farm workers) were recovered. Virulence genes were detected in a total of 12 isolates. Serological typing of the 12 virulent E. coli revealed nine different serotypes (O2, O49, O60, O63, O83, O101, O120, UT, and Rough). ERIC-PCR genotyping allowed discrimination of 12 virulent E. coli isolates into 11 ERIC-PCR genotypes. The numerical index of discrimination was 0.999.
Conclusion: Our findings provide information about the wide genetic diversity and discrimination of virulent E. coli in apparently healthy poultry and poultry farm workers of Andhra Pradesh (India) based on their genotype.
Keywords: Escherichia coli, enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-polymerase chain reaction, genotype, poultry, serotype, virulent.

Monday, 30 October 2017

Survivin expression in canine spontaneous cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors and its prognostic importance

Research (Published online: 31-10-2017)
20. Survivin expression in canine spontaneous cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors and its prognostic importance
N. Kavya, S. Rao, M. L. Sathyanarayana, H. D. Narayanaswamy, S. M. Byregowda, L. Ranganath, A. Kamaran, K. M. Purushotham and T. K. Kishore
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1286-1291

Aim: The present study was carried out to know the expression level of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein with an objective to determine its prognostic importance in cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue tumors of dogs.

Materials and Methods: Forty cases of canine cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue tumors on histopathological examination revealed various round cell, epithelial, and mesenchymal cell tumors. Survivin gene expression was detected in all tumors tested by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay by comparative cycle threshold method.

Results: The mean survivin gene expression value of benign tumors was 0.94±0.63 folds and that of malignant tumors was 18.87±5.30 folds. Postsurgical follow up of 30 malignant tumor cases revealed death in 8, recurrence in 7, and neoplastic free alive status in 15 dogs with mean survivin fold difference values of 48.49±12.39, 14.63±6.37, and 5.034±2.27, respectively. The mean survivin gene expression value was significantly higher in malignant (30 cases, 18.87±5.30) compared to benign tumors (10 cases, 0.94±0.63), and it varied between various postsurgical follow-up groups (p<0.05). Survival analysis, using survivin gene expression median cutoff value of 3.74 in 30 malignant tumors, was performed to predict probable survival period in malignant cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors of dogs.

Conclusion: Results of the present study indicated that the expression of survivin in canine cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors has prognostic value, and survivin expression greater than median cutoff value of 3.74 has a poor prognosis.

Keywords: cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors, prognostic value, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, survivin.

Friday, 27 October 2017

Virulence and extended-spectrum β-lactamase encoding genes in Escherichia coli recovered from chicken meat intended for hospitalized human consumption

Research (Published online: 28-10-2017)
19. Virulence and extended-spectrum β-lactamase encoding genes in Escherichia coli recovered from chicken meat intended for hospitalized human consumption
Gamal A. Younis, Rasha M. Elkenany, Mohamed A. Fouda and Noura F. Mostafa
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1281-1285
Aim: This study describes the prevalence of Escherichia coli in frozen chicken meat intended for human consumption with emphasis on their virulence determinants through detection of the virulence genes and recognition of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) encoding genes (blaOXA and blaTEM genes).
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 frozen chicken meat samples were investigated for isolation of E. coli. All isolates were subjected to biochemical and serological tests. Eight serotypes isolated from samples were analyzed for the presence of various virulence genes (stx1stx2, and eae A genes) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Moreover, the strains were evaluated for the ESBL encoding genes (blaTEMand blaOXA).
Results: Overall, 11.66% (14/120) chicken meat samples carried E. coli according to cultural and biochemical properties. The most predominant serotypes were O78 and O128: H2 (21.5%, each), followed by O121: H7 and O44: H18. Molecular method detected that 2 strains (25%) harbored stx1, 3 strains (37.5%) stx2, and 3 strains (37.5%) both stx1 and stx2, while 1 (12.5%) strain carried eae A gene. Particularly, only O26 serotype had all tested virulence genes (stx1stx2, and eae A). The results revealed that all examined 8 serotypes were Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The ESBL encoding genes (blaTEM and blaOXA) of STEC were detected in 4 (50%) isolates by multiplex PCR. The overall incidence of blaTEM and blaOXA genes was 3 (37.5%) and 2 (25%) isolates.
Conclusion: The present study indicates the prevalence of virulent and ESBL-producing E. coli in frozen chicken meat intended for hospitalized human consumption due to poor hygienic measures and irregular use of antibiotics. Therefore, the basic instructions regarding good hygienic measures should be adapted to limit public health hazard.
Keywords: blaOXAblaTEMeaeAEscherichia coli, extended-spectrum β-lactamases, stx1stx2.

Thursday, 26 October 2017

Bovine origin Staphylococcus aureus: A new zoonotic agent?

Research (Published online: 26-10-2017)
18. Bovine origin Staphylococcus aureus: A new zoonotic agent?
Relangi Tulasi Rao, Kannan Jayakumar and Pavitra Kumar
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1275-1280
Aim: The study aimed to assess the nature of animal origin Staphylococcus aureus strains. The study has zoonotic importance and aimed to compare virulence between two different hosts, i.e., bovine and ovine origin.
Materials and Methods: Conventional polymerase chain reaction-based methods used for the characterization of S. aureus strains and chick embryo model employed for the assessment of virulence capacity of strains. All statistical tests carried on R program, version 3.0.4.
Results: After initial screening and molecular characterization of the prevalence of S. aureus found to be 42.62% in bovine origin samples and 28.35% among ovine origin samples. Meanwhile, the methicillin-resistant S. aureus prevalence is found to be meager in both the hosts. Among the samples, only 6.8% isolates tested positive for methicillin resistance. The biofilm formation quantified and the variation compared among the host. A Welch two-sample t-test found to be statistically significant, t=2.3179, df=28.103, and p=0.02795. Chicken embryo model found effective to test the pathogenicity of the strains.
Conclusion: The study helped to conclude healthy bovines can act as S. aureus reservoirs. Bovine origin S. aureus strains are more virulent than ovine origin strains. Bovine origin strains have high probability to become zoonotic pathogen. Further, gene knock out studies may be conducted to conclude zoonocity of the bovine origin strains.
Keywords: chicken embryo model, Staphylococcus aureus, virulence, zoonotic agent.

Wednesday, 25 October 2017

Biochemical analysis of some serum trace elements in donkeys and horses in Eastern region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Research (Published online: 25-10-2017)
17. Biochemical analysis of some serum trace elements in donkeys and horses in Eastern region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Turke Shawaf, Faisal Almathen, Ahmad Meligy, Wael El-Deeb and Shahab Al-Bulushi
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1269-1274
Aim: Little is known about the serum levels of trace elements in donkeys and horses in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to investigate the levels of some trace elements in these two species in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia and to compare the obtained results with the reference values.
Materials and Methods: Seventeen Arabian horses and twenty eight Hassawi donkeys were randomly selected for this study. All of the studied healthy animals were kept under a uniform feeding protocol without any minerals supplementations. Atomic absorption spectrometer is used to estimate the serum concentrations of selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) in the analyzed samples.
Results: Significant differences between horses and donkeys were observed in three of the studied elements (Se, Mn, and Cr). Statistically significant differences were found in serum Se and Cr between male and female horses. The male donkey showed higher Mn, Cu, and Zn levels than female animals.
Conclusion: The obtained results of trace element levels in serum of Hassawi donkeys and Arabian horses in Saudi Arabia are considered as the first values to be published for these breeds. When compared to other animals, the measured amounts of Se, Mn, Cr, Cu, Fe, and Zn in the serum of horses and donkey are often differed, possibly because of the varying living or feeding conditions. Moreover, there were some differences in some of the trace elements concentrations related to animal's gender and species (horses and donkeys), which will be considered in the interpretation of the laboratory data.
Keywords: donkey, horse, serum, trace elements.

Tuesday, 24 October 2017

Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli recovered from traditional milk products in Kashan, Iran

Research (Published online: 24-10-2017)
16. Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli recovered from traditional milk products in Kashan, Iran
Farhad Sharafati Chaleshtori, Navid Mazroii Arani, Esmat Aghadavod, Afshin Naseri and Reza Sharafati Chaleshtori
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1264-1268
Aim: Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains as emerging groups of foodborne pathogens are responsible for most foodborne illnesses. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern in STEC isolated from traditional milk products and their molecular characterization.
Materials and Methods: A total of 116 samples were randomly purchased from local markets in Kashan, Iran, and evaluated for the occurrence of STEC by culturing and molecular methods. The antibiotic resistance of obtained isolates was determined by Kirby Bauer method. Furthermore, isolates were assayed for the presence of Shiga toxins (stx1 and stx2) and intimin gene (eae).
Results: The incidence of E. coli in 60 ice cream, 30 yoghurt, and 26 cheese samples was 8.33%, 10%, and 11.54%, respectively. The findings showed that 11 out of 11 (100%) E. coli had both stx1 and stx2 while eae gene was not found in E. coli isolated of traditional milk products. For E. coli strains carrying stx1 and stx2, highest antibiotic sensitive levels were related to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin, respectively.
Conclusion: The results showed relationship between the presence of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance. These results can be used for further studies on STEC as an emerging foodborne pathogen.
Keywords: Escherichia coli, milk products, molecular characterization.

Monday, 23 October 2017

Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya

Research (Published online: 23-10-2017)
15. Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya
Anderson Gitari, James Nguhiu, Vijay Varma and Eddy Mogoa
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1255-1263
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the treatments and their outcomes in horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya.

Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study to determine the occurrence, treatments, pain management, and outcomes of colic in horses in Nairobi County. Association between pain management protocols and the outcomes of colic with regard to recovery or death was also determined. Data collected from four equine practitioners were organized manually and given numerical codes as appropriate to facilitate entry into the computer. The coded data were entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 and exported to StatPlus pro 5.9.8 statistical package for analysis. Simple association tests were done between various factors and occurrence of colic.

Results: The incidence of colic for the 11 years was 3.1%, which constituted 68.0% spasmodic colic, 27.8% impaction colic, and 4.2% displacement colic. Flunixin meglumine as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) was used as the only pain management treatment in 85.3% of the cases, flunixin meglumine and butorphanol as NSAID-OPIOD combination in 6.4% of the cases, while buscopan as an antispasmodic was recorded in 5.9% of the cases mainly in spasmodic colic. Univariate analysis revealed simple association between various factors and the type of colic a horse was having. There was an association between the type of colic and the decision-making on the pain management protocol to use, whether single analgesic protocol (χ2=22.5, p<0.001) or use of analgesic combinations (χ2=18.3, p<0.001). The type of colic strongly influenced the decision for performing nasogastric intubation (χ2=265, p<0.001), but performing nasogastric intubation was weakly (χ2=4.9, p=0.03) associated with horse recovery from colic. Type of colic also strongly influenced the need for the use of metabolic stimulants, particularly vitamin B-complex (χ2=99.3, p<0.001). Recovery or death of the horse from colic was strongly associated with the type of colic (χ2=250, p<0.001). The possibility of recurrence of colic was weakly (χ2=4.6, p=0.04) determined by the type of colic, a horse had. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the main cause of death was intestinal displacement and the majority of the horses with intestinal displacement died (β-estimate 2.7, odds ratio=0.07, p=0.007) compared to horses that had impaction colic.

Conclusion: The incidence of colic is 3.1%, and the most common type of colic is spasmodic followed by impaction. The most common pain management protocol for colic is NSAIDs, mainly flunixin meglumine, followed by flunixin-butorphanol combination. Surgery for horses with colic in Nairobi County is not commonly done due to impeding poor prognoses. The horse owners tend to prefer euthanasia for such cases.

Keywords: pain management, colic, incidence, Nairobi, treatment.

Thursday, 19 October 2017

Factors influencing growth hormone levels of Bali cattle in Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa Islands, Indonesia

Research (Published online: 19-10-2017)
14. Factors influencing growth hormone levels of Bali cattle in Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa Islands, Indonesia
N. K. Suwiti, I N. K. Besung and G. N. Mahardika
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1250-1254
Aim: Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) are an Indonesian's native cattle breed that distributed in Asia to Australia. The scientific literature on these cattle is scarce. The growth hormone (GH) of Bali cattle is investigated from three separated islands, namely, Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa.
Materials and Methods: Forty plasma samples were collected from each island, and the GH was measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The data were analyzed based on the origin, sex, and cattle raising practices.
Results: We found that the GH level (bovine GH [BGH]) of animal kept in stall 1.72±0.70 μg/ml was higher than free-grazing animal 1.27±0.81 μg/ml. The GH level was lower in female (1.22±0.62 μg/ml) compared to male animals (1.77±0.83 μg/ml).
Conclusion: We conclude that the level of BGH in Bali cattle was low and statistically equal from all origins. The different level was related to sex and management practices. Further validation is needed through observing the growth rate following BGH administration and discovering the inbreeding coefficient of the animal in Indonesia.
Keywords: Bali cattle, growth hormone, Indonesia.

Tuesday, 17 October 2017

Epidemiology of bovine fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt: Its prevalence, evaluation of risk factors, and its economic significance

Research (Published online: 18-10-2017)
13. Epidemiology of bovine fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt: Its prevalence, evaluation of risk factors, and its economic significance
Abdelgawad S. El-Tahawy, Eman K. Bazh and Reda E. Khalafalla
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1241-1249

Aim: This study focuses on the risk factors associated with the prevalence of Fasciola affecting cattle population in three provinces belonging to the Nile Delta of Egypt and to estimate the economic losses as a result of fascioliasis.

Materials and Methods: From January 2015 to end of December 2015, records of 21 farms (4976 cattle) were analyzed to screen the prevalence of fascioliasis among cattle farms, to identify its associated risk factors and its economic impacts on Nile Delta region of Egypt.

Results: The overall prevalence of fascioliasis in the Nile Delta region of Egypt was 9.77%. The prevalence of fascioliasis was found to be statistically significantly associated with age, sex, breed, and type of farms. The highest prevalence was observed in <2 age group (10.91%), and the lowest was >3 age groups (8.35%). In terms of body condition scores, cattle with medium and poor conditions were associated with fascioliasis more than those with good body condition. Besides, cattle raised in organic farms were associated with lower risk of fascioliasis than those in conventional farms. The prevalence of fascioliasis was noted more prominent in districts with moderate temperatures and with relative humidity (>60%). The annual overall costs for fascioliasis were estimated to be 221.2 USD/cow due to the significant reduction in body weight, reduction in milk production, and the treatment costs for fascioliasis.

Conclusion: The results provided could be helpful for improving the control and preventive strategies.

Keywords: cattle, Egypt, fascioliasis, Nile Delta, prevalence, risk factors.

Monday, 16 October 2017

Organizational leadership perspectives in implementation of the One Health approach: A case of the Zoonotic Disease Unit and core One Health implementers in Kenya

Research (Published online: 17-10-2017)
10. Organizational leadership perspectives in implementation of the One Health approach: A case of the Zoonotic Disease Unit and core One Health implementers in Kenya - Thomas Manyibe Nyariki, Mathew Muturi, Athman Mwatondo, Michael Cheruiyot, Harry Oyas, Vincent Obanda, Francis Gakuya, Rees Murithi Mbabu and Mercy Muthoni Mugambi

International Journal of One Health, 3: 57-65

  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.57-65


This study examined organizational leadership as a cross-sectoral collaboration factor in the implementation of the One Health (OH) approach using Kenya’s Zoonotic Disease Unit and its core OH implementers as an example.

Materials and Method:

The study used a mixed methods research design. A semi-structured questionnaire was administered to 71 respondents, and key informants were interviewed using an interview guide. All the seven key informants and 53 (74%) of the respondents participated in the study. Data were checked for consistency, coded, entered into the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, and analyzed using descriptive and correlational statistics. Interview data were transcribed and analyzed thematically.

From the analysis, 41/53 (77.2%) of the respondents were senior personnel, 51/53 (85%) of them had worked for 5 years and above in their organizations, and 38/53 (71.7%) had at least a Master’s degree. The study established that although most leaders in the organizations had embraced the OH approach, they were not actively involved in its implementation due to constraints such as inadequate funding. There were moderate and statistically significant positive correlations between participation in leadership roles in implementing the OH approach and the level of awareness (Rs (51)=0.54, p<0.001) as well as level of sensitization (Rs (51)=0.52, p<0.001). Majority (86%) of respondents acknowledged that top government leaders were not well sensitized about the OH approach.


Organizational leadership plays an important role in the implementation of the OH approach. However, sensitization of leaders about the OH approach needs to be enhanced and expanded.


cross-sectoral collaboration, One Health approach, organizational leadership, sensitization.

Sunday, 15 October 2017

Occurrence of virulent and antibiotic-resistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in some food products and human stool in Egypt

Research (Published online: 15-10-2017)
12. Occurrence of virulent and antibiotic-resistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli in some food products and human stool in Egypt
Osman Mohamed Hamed, Maha Ahmed Sabry, Nawal A. Hassanain, Eman Hamza, Ahmed G. Hegazi and Marwa Badawy Salman
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1233-1240
Aim: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) represent a severe public health issue worldwide, causing life-threatening diseases in the human gastrointestinal tract. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of virulent and antibiotic-resistant STEC in retail meat and milk products and human stool samples and to characterize the genes encoding for virulence and antibiotic resistance among the identified STEC isolates.
Materials and Methods: A total of 260 food samples were randomly collected from retail markets in different localities of El Giza Governorate, Egypt. 50 stool specimens were obtained from children that had diarrhea at Embaba Fever Hospital. All collected samples were initially subjected to bacteriological examination and serotyping, and then subsequently, the isolates were exposed to polymerase chain reaction application and sequencing for the identification of the virulence-related genes. Finally, the virulent STEC isolates were tested for antibiotic susceptibility.
Results: Serotyping of the 76 biochemically identified isolates showed that 18 were STEC with a predominance of non- O157 (16) while 2 O157:K-serotype was detected only in one food and one human isolate. Molecular identification of the virulence genes illustrated that the minced meat showed the highest prevalence of STEC (8%) as compared to the other food products. In the humans, the O157 was the only serotype that expresses the Shiga toxin-associated gene (eaeA). Antibiotic susceptibility test displayed that 13 of the 17 food and human isolates (76.47%) were resistant to cephalothin (KF30). 9 of the 13 cephalothin-resistant isolates harbor the β lactamase (blaTEM)-resistant gene. All isolates were sensitive to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, amikacin, and gentamicin. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the stx2-positive minced meat isolate revealed a high genetic relatedness with beef minced meat from the USA and Australia.
Conclusion: This study showed the predominance of non-O157 among the identified isolates. Minced meat showed the highest prevalence of STEC as compared to the other food products, and this work illustrates the necessity to consider the food products as a potential source of the non-O157 STEC serotypes. DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed a high genetic relatedness with beef minced meat from the USA and Australia. This highlights the high probability of worldwide spread of such serotypes, signifying the importance of the one world concept.
Keywords: antibiotic resistance bacteria, cheese, DNA sequencing, human stool, meat, polymerase chain reaction, serotyping, shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

Saturday, 14 October 2017

Clinicopathological alterations in naturally occurring Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs of Middle-South Gujarat, India

Research (Published online: 14-10-2017)
11. Clinicopathological alterations in naturally occurring Babesia gibsoni infection in dogs of Middle-South Gujarat, India
Avinash K. Bilwal, Ghanshyam C. Mandali and Falguni B. Tandel
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1227-1232

Aim: The present research work was undertaken to describe various clinical signs and hematobiochemical alterations in dogs affected with Babesia gibsoni.

Materials and Methods: Blood smears from a total of 79 suspected dogs of Anand region as well as Surat region of Gujarat state (India) were screened for detection of intraerythrocytic piroplasm of small form of Babesia. Diagnosis was made on the basis of clinical signs and demonstration of B. gibsoni organism in Giemsa-stained thin blood smears. The clinical signs were recorded at the time of presentation, and blood samples were subjected to estimation of hematobiochemical parameters by auto hematology analyzers at College of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry, Anand. Statistical analysis, interpretation, and comparison of hematobiochemical changes with scientific literature were carried out to understand the pathophysiology of the disease.

Results: Out of 79 dogs, 16 were positive for naturally occurring babesiosis based on the presence of intraerythrocytic piroplasm of small form of Babesia in blood smears. The clinical cases were manifested by wide variety of non-specific clinical signs. The hematological evaluation revealed that the mean values of hemoglobin and total erythrocyte counts in dogs with babesiosis decreased significantly (p<0.01) in comparison to healthy dogs. Among differential leukocyte count, mean values of neutrophils and eosinophils increased while lymphocytes decreased (p<0.01) in dogs with babesiosis in comparison to healthy dogs. Serum biochemistry revealed increase (p<0.01) value of alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and globulin as well as decrease in albumin levels (p<0.05) in dogs with babesiosis as compared to healthy dogs.

Conclusion: B. gibsoni is having multisystemic effects with atypical hematobiochemical changes in dog are discussed here, which would aid new insights in diagnosis of disease.

Keywords: babesiosis, clinicopathological changes, dogs, intraerythrocytic piroplasm.

Thursday, 12 October 2017

West African donkey's liveweight estimation using body measurements

Research (Published online: 12-10-2017)
10. West African donkey's liveweight estimation using body measurements
Pierre Claver Nininahazwe, Adama Sow, Rakiswende Constant Roamba, Miguiri Kalandi, Hachi Dirir Ahmed, Georges Anicet Ouedraogo and Germain Jerome Sawadogo
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1221-1226
Aim: The objective of this study was to determine a formula for estimating the liveweight in West African donkeys.
Materials and Methods: Liveweight and a total of 6 body measurements were carried out on 1352 donkeys from Burkina Faso, Mali, Niger, and Senegal. The correlations between liveweight and body measurements were determined, and the most correlated body measurements with liveweight were used to establish regression lines.
Results: The average weight of a West African donkey was 126.0±17.1 kg, with an average height at the withers of 99.5±3.67 cm; its body length was 104.4±6.53 cm, and a heart girth (HG) of 104.4±6.53 cm. After analyzing the various regression lines and correlations, it was found that the HG could better estimate the liveweight of West African donkeys by simple linear regression method. Indeed, the liveweight (LW) showed a better correlation with the HG (R2=0.81). The following formulas (Equations 1 and 2) could be used to estimate the LW of West Africa donkeys. Equation 1: Estimated LW (kg) = 2.55 x HG (cm) - 153.49; Equation 2: Estimated LW (kg) = Heart girth (cm)2.68 / 2312.44.
Conclusion: The above formulas could be used to manufacture weighing tape to be utilized by veterinary clinicians and farmers to estimate donkey's weight in the view of medication and adjustment of load.
Keywords: body measurements, donkey, estimated liveweight, West Africa.

Wednesday, 11 October 2017

Protective efficacy of combined trivalent inactivated ISA 71 oil adjuvant vaccine against avian influenza virus subtypes (H9N2 and H5N1) and Newcastle disease virus

Research (Published online: 11-10-2017)
9. Protective efficacy of combined trivalent inactivated ISA 71 oil adjuvant vaccine against avian influenza virus subtypes (H9N2 and H5N1) and Newcastle disease virus
Zeinab Mohamed Ali, Mervat Abd El Monaem Hassan, Hussein Ali Hussein, Basem Mohamed Ahmed and Ahmed Abd El-Ghany El Sanousi
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1212-1220
Aim: The objective of the present study was to prepare a trivalent inactivated vaccine of Newcastle disease virus (NDV), H5N1, and H9N2 viruses.
Materials and Methods: Three monovalent and a trivalent vaccines were prepared by emulsifying inactivated NDV (LaSota strain), reassortant H5N1, and H9N2 viruses with Montanide ISA 71 oil adjuvant. Parameters used for evaluation of the efficacy of the prepared vaccines in specific pathogen-free chickens were cellular immunity assays (blastogenesis, interferon gamma, interleukin 1 [IL1], and IL6), humoral immunity by hemagglutination inhibition, protection percentage, and shedding.
Results: A single immunization with trivalent vaccine-enhanced cell-mediated immunity as well as humoral immune response with 90% protection against challenges with highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1 and low pathogenic (LP) avian influenza H9N2 viruses with 100% protection after challenge with NDV.
Conclusion: Development and evaluation of the trivalent vaccine in the study reported the success in preparation of a potent and efficacious trivalent vaccine which is a promising approach for controlling HPAI H5N1, LP H9N2, and ND viral infections.
Keywords: avian influenza, immunization, Newcastle disease virus, shedding, trivalent vaccine.

Monday, 9 October 2017

Polymerase chain reaction detection of genes responsible for multiple antibiotic resistance Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food of animal origin in Egypt

Research (Published online: 09-10-2017)
8. Polymerase chain reaction detection of genes responsible for multiple antibiotic resistance Staphylococcus aureus isolated from food of animal origin in Egypt
Fawzy R. El Seedy, A. A. Samy, Hala S. H. Salam, Eman A. Khairy and Aya A. Koraney
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1205-1211
Aim: The aim of our study was polymerase chain reaction (PCR) detection of the genes responsible for the multiple antibiotic resistance S. aureus isolated from food of animal origin in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: A total of 125 samples were randomly collected from milk, meat, and their products from Giza and Beni-Suef Governorates markets. The S. aureus isolates were subjected to antimicrobial sensitivity tests using four antibacterial disks (Oxoid), and then the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed for detection of antibiotic resistance genes.
Results: Out of 125 samples, 19 S. aureus isolates were detected. All detected isolates were multiple drug resistance (MDR). The penicillin-, erythromycin-, kanamycin-, and tetracycline-resistant isolates were examined by PCR for resistance genes blaZ, (msrAermB, and ermC), aac(6')aph (2''), and tetK. The isolates harbored these resistance genes with percentage of 100% (100%, 0%, and 100%), 62.5%, and 100%, respectively.
Conclusion: Contaminated foods of animal origin may represent a source of MDR S. aureus that can be a major threat to public health.
Keywords: food of animal origin, multiple antibiotic resistance, polymerase chain reaction, resistance genes, Staphylococcus aureus.

Sunday, 8 October 2017

Public health concerns of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 endemicity in Africa

Review (Published online: 08-10-2017)
7. Public health concerns of highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 endemicity in Africa
Olubunmi Gabriel Fasanmi, Ismail Ayoade Odetokun, Fatima Adeola Balogun and Folorunso Oludayo Fasina
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1194-1204
Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) H5N1 was first officially reported in Africa in 2006; thereafter this virus has spread rapidly from Nigeria to 11 other African countries. This study was aimed at utilizing data from confirmed laboratory reports to carry out a qualitative evaluation of the factors responsible for HPAI H5N1 persistence in Africa and the public health implications; and to suggest appropriate control measures. Relevant publications were sought from data banks and repositories of FAO, OIE, WHO, and Google scholars. Substantiated data on HPAI H5N1 outbreaks in poultry in Africa and in humans across the world were mined. HPAI H5N1 affects poultry and human populations, with Egypt having highest human cases (346) globally. Nigeria had a reinfection from 2014 to 2015, with outbreaks in Cote d'Ivoire, Ghana, Niger, Nigeria, and Burkina Faso throughout 2016 unabated. The persistence of this virus in Africa is attributed to the survivability of HPAIV, ability to evolve other subtypes through genetic reassortment, poor biosecurity compliance at the live bird markets and poultry farms, husbandry methods and multispecies livestock farming, poultry vaccinations, and continuous shedding of HPAIV, transboundary transmission of HPAIV through poultry trades; and transcontinental migratory birds. There is, therefore, the need for African nations to realistically reassess their status, through regular surveillance and be transparent with HPAI H5N1 outbreak data. Also, it is important to have an understanding of HPAIV migration dynamics which will be helpful in epidemiological modeling, disease prevention, control and eradication measures.
Keywords: Africa, highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1, public health implications.

Friday, 6 October 2017

Seroprevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection in bovines using cysteine proteinase dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

Research (Published online: 06-10-2017)
6. Seroprevalence of Fasciola gigantica infection in bovines using cysteine proteinase dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
Niranjan Kumar, Anju Varghese and J. B. Solanki
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1189-1193
Aim: The objective of the present study was to know the seroprevalence status of Fasciola gigantica infection in cattle and buffaloes using cysteine proteinase (CP) antigen in dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) format under field conditions.

Materials and Methods: As per the standard protocol, the sera were collected from the blood of 112 cattle and 38 buffaloes of coastal areas of Navsari district, South Gujarat, India. The indirect ELISA was performed on the strip of nitrocellulose paper blotted with 1 μl of CP antigen, to detect F. gigantica seropositive animals.

Results: The native CP of F. gigantica revealed a single visible band on 10% sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. There was no any noted cross-reaction between the selected antigen and sera of Gastrothylax crumenifer-infected animals in ELISA. Out of 150 screened bovines, the sera of 47 (31.33%) were found to be reactive in dot-ELISA, with a prevalence rate of 31.25% and 31.58% in cattle and buffaloes, respectively. The seropositive bovines with heavy, moderate, and light level of infection were 44.68%, 34.04%, and 21.28%, respectively (p<0.05 between heavy and light; p>0.05 between moderate and heavy or light). The share of F. gigantica seropositive and negative animals was 31% and 69%, respectively. The optical density at 450 nm of pooled sera of seropositive bovines with heavy, moderate, and light reactivity in plate-ELISA was significantly higher with field or reference negative sera.

Conclusion: The CP-based dot-ELISA can be useful for field veterinarians for quick and timely isolation of the animals requiring urgent flukicide therapy.

Keywords: bovines, cysteine proteinase, dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Fasciola gigantica.

Wednesday, 4 October 2017

Effect of antioxidants supplementation on the quality of Beetal buck semen stored at 4°C

Research (Published online: 05-10-2017)
5. Effect of antioxidants supplementation on the quality of Beetal buck semen stored at 4°C
Archana Sarangi, Pardeep Singh, Meenakshi Virmani, A. S. Yadav, Subhasish Sahu, H. M. Ajithakumar, Anuradha Kumari and A. P. Rath
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1184-1188
Aim: An experiment was designed to evaluate the role of Vitamin E and glutathione in improving the seminal parameters during hypothermic storage of liquid semen at 4°C for 72 h.

Materials and Methods: Thirty-six semen ejaculates were collected by artificial vagina from 6 bucks (Beetal) during the normal reproduction season (September to November) at weekly interval. The samples were centrifuged, and the seminal plasma was removed. The sperm pellet was diluted with Tris-based extender and divided into three groups. Group T1: Control samples without antioxidants, Group T2: Samples supplemented with tocopherol at 3 mM, and Group T3: Samples supplemented with glutathione at 1 mM. The samples were evaluated for progressive motility, percent liveability, percent abnormal spermatozoa, and acrosome integrity after liquid preservation for 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. The level of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes, namely, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were estimated after liquid preservation for 0 and 72 h.

Results: It was observed that, after storage of semen at 4°C up to 72 h, the progressive sperm motility, percent liveability, percent abnormal spermatozoa, and percent intact acrosomes were significantly (p<0.05) higher in group T2 and T3 samples as compared to control. However, the level of lipid peroxidation in T2 and T3 groups was significantly (p<0.05) lower after 72 h of incubation at 4°C. Similarly, GPx and SOD values were significantly (p<0.05) increased in T2 and T3 groups after 72 h of storage at 4°C.

Conclusion: Thus, it can be concluded that Vitamin E and glutathione supplementation at 3 mM and 1 mM, respectively, while preserving the semen samples at 4°C helped in maintaining the seminal parameters up to 72 h and protected the spermatozoa from oxidative damage.

Keywords: Beetal buck, glutathione and liquid preservation, oxidative stress, semen, seminal parameters, Vitamin E.

Analysis of spatial dynamic of epizootic process of bluetongue and its risk factors

Research (Published online: 04-10-2017)
4. Analysis of spatial dynamic of epizootic process of bluetongue and its risk factors
Fayssal Bouchemla, Olga Mikhailovna Popova and Valerey Alexandrovich Agoltsov
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1173-1183
Aim: The study was undertaken to find out the spatial dynamic occurrence and patterns of the global spread of bluetongue (BT) disease for the period from 1996 to 2016, as well as the assessment of the risk of occurrence and its spread in 2017-2018.
Materials and Methods: Outbreaks (serum samples were collected from clinically healthy as well as suspected animals in infected points) were confirmed and reported officially by veterinary departments which represent different geographical regions in the world to World Organization for Animal Health. These reports explained that ELISA and polymerase chain reaction were used to identify the BT disease, taking in the account number of infected, dead animals, and focus of BT infection in all susceptible animals from 1996 to 2016. Once conventional statistical population was defined (an observational study), we had classified data as well as possible to answer to our aim, using descriptive statistics methods, including the test of the relationship between different epizootiological indicators.
Results: The spatial dynamic study of BT's occurrence and its spread in the world over the two past decades was presented by different epizootic indicators. The given analysis includes assessment and measurement of risk factors. It was built too, regression models, and allowed to put different forecasts on the different epizootic indicators in the years 2017-2018 by the extrapolation method. We had also determined that, in 2017, BT continues to spread with the total expectancy of 3.4 focus of infection (number of diseased animals in a single unfavorable point) and mortality of about 26 %; these rates tend to decrease in 2018. At abused points by BT, up to 78.4% of animals are mixed (more than one type) and in 21.6% - uniform. By this way, the relative risk of the incidence of appearance-abused points in mixed households has 3.64, which might be considered higher for the BT dissemination. Moreover, between the enzootic index and other epizootiological indicators had revealed an inverse correlation, i.e., to an increase in the level of enzootic index among the cattle population would be formed population less sensitive to BT. Cluster analysis was done, which had demonstrated the zoning of risk levels in the world and the occurrence of the disease intensity in the period 1996-2016 years. Then, assess connection degree of the dynamic of BT tension with geographical and socioeconomic conditions background 0.66 and 0.68, respectively.
Conclusion: It is important to define a variety of BT risk factors and assess their influence on BT occurrence. However, the most important is to define the overlapping coinfluence between them that cause serious losses. To have an out of BT territory needs to make an emphasis of co-influence of risk factors on this zone. Was predicted a continue hits of disease in the next year with weight moderation through one year. Far from statists, to assess the given forecast may have a serious variety, taken in account problems of actual climate change in the world.
Keywords: bluetongue, extrapolation, outbreaks, regression model, risk factors.

Tuesday, 3 October 2017

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antimicrobial susceptibility of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chickens

Research (Published online: 03-10-2017)
3. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of antimicrobial susceptibility of avian pathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from broiler chickens
Gamal Younis, Amal Awad and Nada Mohamed
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1167-1172
Aim: Avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) is pathogenic strains of E. coli that are responsible for one of the most common bacterial diseases affecting poultry worldwide. This study was designed to determine the occurrence, antibiotic resistance profile, and antibiotic resistance genes of E. coli isolated from diseased and freshly dead broilers.
Materials and Methods: In that context, a total of 200 broilers samples were examined by standard microbiological techniques for isolation of E. coli, and tested for their antimicrobial susceptibility against 15 antimicrobial agents using disc diffusion method. In addition, E. coli isolates were screened by multiplex polymerase chain reaction for detection of a number of resistance genes including aadA1 gene encodes streptomycin/neomycin, tetA encodes resistance to tetracycline, sul1 encodes sulfonamides, and β-lactamase encoding genes (blaTEM and blaSHV).
Results: A total of 73 (36.5%) isolates were biochemically identified as E. coli strains. O78, O2, and O1 are the most prevalent serotypes detected. E. coli displayed a high resistance against penicillin (100%), followed by cefepime (95.8%) and a low resistance to norfloxacin (36.9%), and chloramphenicol (30%). Depending on the results of PCR, sul1 gene was the most predominant antibiotic resistant gene (87%) followed by blaTEM (78%), tetA genes (60%), and aadA (54%). However, blaSHV had the lowest prevalence (23%).
Conclusion: The obtained results demonstrated the importance of studies on APEC and antibiotic resistance genes in our region which associated with intensive poultry industry, aiming to acquire preventive measures to minimize losses due to APEC and associated multidrug-resistance and resistance genes that of high significance to the rational use of antibiotics in clinical and public health.
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, broilers, Escherichia coli, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, resistant genes.