Wednesday, 30 November 2016

Surface plasmon resonance based biosensor: A new platform for rapid diagnosis of livestock diseases

Review (Published online: 01-12-2016)
1. Surface plasmon resonance based biosensor: A new platform for rapid diagnosis of livestock diseases - Pravas Ranjan Sahoo, Parthasarathi Swain, Sudhanshu Mohan Nayak, Sudam Bag and Smruti Ranjan Mishra
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1338-1342

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1338-1342

Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) based biosensors are the most advanced and developed optical label-free biosensor technique used for powerful detection with vast applications in environmental protection, biotechnology, medical diagnostics, drug screening, food safety, and security as well in livestock sector. The livestock sector which contributes the largest economy of India, harbors many bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases impacting a great loss to the production and productive potential which is a major concern in both small and large ruminants. Hence, an accurate, sensitive, and rapid diagnosis is required for prevention of these above-mentioned diseases. SPR based biosensor assay may fulfill the above characteristics which lead to a greater platform for rapid diagnosis of different livestock diseases. Hence, this review may give a detail idea about the principle, recent development of SPR based biosensor techniques and its application in livestock sector.
Keywords: biosensor, livestock sector, surface plasmon resonance.

Amelioration of Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) induced renal toxicity by Camellia sinensis in Wistar rats

Research (Published online: 30-11-2016)
27. Amelioration of Gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (Lindane) induced renal toxicity by Camellia sinensis in Wistar rats - W. L. N. V. Vara Prasad, Ch. Srilatha, N. Sailaja, N. K. B. Raju and N. Jayasree
Veterinary World, 9(11): 1331-1337

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1331-1337

Aim: A study to assess the toxic effects of gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH) (lindane) and ameliorative effects of Camellia sinensis on renal system has been carried out in male Wistar rats.
Materials and Methods: Four groups of rats with 18 each were maintained under standard laboratory hygienic conditions and provided feed and water ad libitum. γ-HCH was gavaged at 20 mg/kg b.wt. using olive oil as vehicle to Groups II. C. sinensis at 100 mg/kg b.wt. was administered orally in distilled water to Group IV in addition to γ-HCH 20 mg/kg b.wt. up to 45 days to study ameliorative effects. Groups I and III were treated with distilled water and C. sinensis (100 mg/kg b.wt.), respectively. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at fortnight intervals. Serum was collected for creatinine estimation. The kidney tissues were collected in chilled phosphate buffer saline for antioxidant profile and in also 10% buffered formalin for histopathological studies.
Results: γ-HCH treatment significantly increased serum creatinine and significantly reduced the renal antioxidative enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase. Grossly, severe congestion was noticed in the kidneys. Microscopically, kidney revealed glomerular congestion, atrophy, intertubular hemorrhages, degenerative changes in tubular epithelium with vacuolated cytoplasm, desquamation of epithelium and urinary cast formation. A significant reduction in serum creatinine levels, significant improvement in renal antioxidant enzyme activities and near to normal histological appearance of kidneys in Group IV indicated that the green tea ameliorated the effects of γ-HCH, on renal toxicity.
Conclusion: This study suggested that C. sinensis extract combined with γ-HCH could enhance antioxidant/detoxification system which consequently reduced the oxidative stress thus potentially reducing γ-HCH toxicity and tissue damage.
Keywords: Camellia sinensis, gamma-hexachlorocyclohexane, kidney.

Tuesday, 29 November 2016

Honeybee product therapeutic as stem cells homing for ovary failure

Research (Published online: 29-11-2016)
26. Honeybee product therapeutic as stem cells homing for ovary failure - Erma Safitri, Thomas V. Widiyatno and R. Heru Prasetyo
Veterinary World, 9(11): 1324-1330

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1324-1330

Aim: Complexity of the method of isolation, cultivation in vitro and the expensive cost of transplantation process of stem cells, it would require an innovation to homing and differentiation of stem cells and increase folliculogenesis. The stem cells homing was achieved through the provision of food or beverages derived from natural materials like honeybee product. Through honeybee product, there will be homing of stem cells and accompany with the sources from the body itself will take place in regeneration of the ovary.
Materials and Methods: Female rats model of degenerative ovary was obtained through food fasting but still have drinking water for 5 days. It caused malnutrition and damage of the ovarian tissue. The administration of 50% honeybee product (T1) was performed for 10 consecutive days, while the positive control group (T0+) was fasted and not given honeybee product and the negative control (T0−) not fasted and without honeybee product. Observations were taken for homing of stem cells, raised of folliculogenesis, differentiation of stem cells, and regeneration of the ovarian tissue using routine H&E staining.
Results: Homing of stem cells shown the vascular endothelial growth factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor expression; enhancement of folliculogenesis was indicated by an increase of follicle dee Graaf count; enhancement of differentiation of stem cells was indicated by growth differentiation factor-9 expression; and regeneration of ovarian tissue indicated by intact ovarian tissue with growing follicles.
Conclusion: Honeybee product can be induced endogenous stem cells in regeneration of ovary failure due to malnutrition.
Keywords: honeybee product, ovary failure, stem cells homing.

Steroid and metabolic hormonal profile of porcine serum vis-à-vis ovarian follicular fluid

Research (Published online: 29-11-2016)
25. Steroid and metabolic hormonal profile of porcine serum vis-à-vis ovarian follicular fluid - Soumen Naskar, S. Borah, Y. Vashi, R. Thomas, D. K. Sarma, J. Goswami and S. K. Dhara
Veterinary World, 9(11): 1320-1323

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1320-1323

Aim: This study was conducted to understand whether serum level of the steroid and metabolic hormones may be indicative of their level in ovarian follicular fluid (FF) in porcine, and its influence on fertility.
Materials and Methods: Ovaries from pigs (n=32) of two genetic groups, namely, native (Ghungroo; n=16) and crossbred (Hampshire × Ghungroo; n=16) were collected. Both the genetic groups comprised gilts (n=8) and sows (n=8), and sows were in luteal phase of estrus cycle. FF was aspirated from small, medium and large follicles, and centrifuged for the collection of supernatant for further analysis. Blood samples were collected from the same animals, and serum was separated. Hormones, namely, cortisol, T3, T4 and testosterone were estimated by radioimmunoassay. Two-way ANOVA was used for analysis of data considering genetic background (native or crossbred), stage of reproductive life (gilt or sow), and source of sample (serum or FF) as fixed effects.
Results: It was observed that all the hormones except cortisol differed significantly (p<0.01) based on genetic background. Stage of reproductive life and source of sample did not affect the studied hormonal level. Within the genetic groups, stage of reproductive life influenced T3 (p<0.01), cortisol (p<0.05) and testosterone (p<0.01) level in crossbred pigs as compared to T3 (p<0.01) only in native pigs. The level of T3 in serum, as well as FF, was higher (p<0.01) in Ghungroo gilts compared to sows. However, a reverse of this was observed in the case of crossbred pigs. The level of cortisol (p<0.05) and testosterone (p<0.01) was higher in crossbred sows than gilts in both serum and FF.
Conclusion: The study revealed that serum level of the steroid and metabolic hormones is indicative of their level in the ovarian FF. Further, varying level of steroid and metabolic hormones in pigs based on genetic background may be due to variation in body size, rate of energy metabolism and stage of (re)productive life.
Keywords: cortisol, follicular fluid, pig, serum, T3, T4, testosterone.

Monday, 28 November 2016

Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu state, Nigeria

Research (Published online: 28-11-2016)
24. Occurrence and antimicrobial resistance of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu state, Nigeria - O. Josephine Okorie-Kanu, E. Vivienne Ezenduka, C. Onwuchokwe Okorie-Kanu, L. Chinweokwu Ugwu and U. John Nnamani
Veterinary World, 9(11): 1312-1319

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1312-1319

Aim: This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli and Salmonella species in retail raw table eggs sold for human consumption in Enugu State and to determine the resistance of these pathogens to antimicrobials commonly used in human and veterinary practices in Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A total of 340 raw table eggs comprising 68 composite samples (5 eggs per composite sample) were collected from five selected farms (13 composite samples from the farms) and 10 retail outlets (55 composite samples from the retail outlets) in the study area over a period of 4-month (March-June, 2014). The eggs were screened for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species following standard procedures within 24 h of sample collection. Isolates obtained were subjected to in-vitro antimicrobial susceptibility test with 15 commonly used antimicrobials using the disk diffusion method.
Results: About 37 (54.4%) and 7 (10.3%) of the 68 composite samples were positive for pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species, respectively. The shells showed significantly higher (p<0.05) contaminations than the contents for both microorganisms. The eggs from the farms showed higher contamination with pathogenic E. coli than eggs from the retail outlets while the reverse was the case for Salmonella species even though they were not significant (p>0.05). The organisms obtained showed a multiple drug resistance. They were completely resistant to nitrofurantoin, sulfamethoxazole/ trimethoprim, penicillin G and oxacillin. In addition to these, Salmonellaspp. also showed 100% resistance to tetracycline. The pathogenic E. coli isolates obtained were 100% susceptible to gentamicin, neomycin, ciprofloxacin, and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid while Salmonella spp. showed 100% susceptibility to erythromycin, neomycin, and rifampicin. Both organisms showed varying degrees of resistance to streptomycin, amoxicillin, vancomycin, and doxycycline.
Conclusion: From the results of the study, it can be concluded that the raw table eggs marketed for human consumption in Enugu State, Nigeria is contaminated with pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella species that showed multiple drug resistance to antimicrobial agents commonly used in veterinary and human practice.
Keywords: antimicrobial agents, farms, pathogenic Escherichia coli, retail outlets, Salmonella species, table eggs.

Sunday, 27 November 2016

Prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa against lead acetate induced changes in spermiogram, reproductive hormones and gonadal histology of rats

Research (Published online: 27-11-2016)
23. Prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa against lead acetate induced changes in spermiogram, reproductive hormones and gonadal histology of rats - Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Assi, Mohammed Noor Mohd Hezmee, Yusuf Abba, Md Sabri Md Yusof, Abd Wahid Haron, Mohamed Ali Rajionand Mashaan Abbas Al-Zuhairy
Veterinary World, 9(11): 1305-1311

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1305-1311

Aim: This study was designed to evaluate the prophylactic effect of Nigella sativa (NS) treatment on toxic effects induced by lead acetate (LA) on the reproductive hormones, spermiogram and gonadal histology of rats.
Materials and Methods: A total of 20 Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups of five rats each. Group 1 (negative control [NC]) was the NC and was given distilled water, Group 2 served as the positive control (PC) and was administered 10 mg/kg/day of LA per overall survival (OS), Group 3 (T1) was administered 200 mg/kg/daily of NS per OS for a month, and Group 4 (T2) was pretreated with 200 mg/kg/daily of NS per OS for 1 month, followed by 10 mg/kg/daily of LA alone per OS for another. The rats were euthanized at the end of the experimental period for collection of blood and the right caudal epididymis and testis. Serum was used for determination of reproductive hormones by using radioimmunoassay kits. The epididymal segment was cut and homogenized in phosphate-buffered saline, and the homogenate was used for determination of the spermiogram parameters such as sperm concentration, sperm viability, percentage of live sperm, motility and abnormality. Both the epididymis and testis were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for histological processing.
Results: The sperm concentration, general, and individual motilities were higher (p<0.05) in the NC and T1 animals, while the T2 had intermediate and the PC had lower (p<0.05) values of each parameter. The percentage sperm viability was higher (p<0.05) in the T1 and lower (p<0.05) in the PC group. However, percentage abnormality was lower in T1, comparable in NC and T2, and higher (p<0.05) in PC. Spermatogenic cell population and epididymal sperm reserve (ESR) were optimal in control and pretreated animals, while the PC had lower spermatids and ESR. The concentration of estradiol (EST) was lower (p<0.05) in the PC and T2, while leuteinizing hormone (LH) concentration was lower (p<0.05) in the PC, and comparable (p>0.05) between control and T2. The concentration of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) was comparable (p>0.05) in all groups, while testosterone (TS) hormone concentration was lower (p<0.05) in the PC and higher in the control and T1 groups.
Conclusion: This study showed the preventive effects of NS administration against alterations in reproductive hormnes, sperm parameters and gonadal histology caused by LA in rats.
Keywords: histology, lead acetate, infertility, Nigella sativa, spermiogram, toxicity.

Seroprevalence of Rotavirus infection in pig population of Arunachal Pradesh

Research (Published online: 27-11-2016)
22. Seroprevalence of Rotavirus infection in pig population of Arunachal Pradesh - G. B. Garam, D. P. Bora, B. Borah, M. Bora and S. K. Das
Veterinary World, 9(11): 1300-1304

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1300-1304

Aim: This study was conducted to find out the seroprevalence of Rotavirus(RV) infection among the pig population of Arunachal Pradesh.
Materials and Methods: Serums samples were collected from piglets of age ranging from 1 week to 6 months and the sows associated with the piglets that were reared under organized and unorganized system of management in six different districts of Arunachal Pradesh. The prevalence of RV specific antibodies was detected using a polyclonal antibody-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA).
Results: The study revealed that out of 394 serum samples, 255 (64.72%) samples were found to be positive for RV-specific antibody in i-ELISA. Considering the samples from different districts, Papumpare district of Arunachal Pradesh showed highest numbers of seropositive animals (68.75%) followed by upper Subansiri (64.91%) while West Siang district showed lowest positivity rate (61.22%).
Conclusion: As considerable seropositivity was recorded among pig population of Arunachal Pradesh in this study, there is urgent need to establish high-impact and cost-effective public health intervention tools, key among them being the introduction of strict hygiene practice and RV vaccination program, to greatly reduce the number of deaths due to diarrheal diseases. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report on the prevalence of RV infection from pigs of Arunachal Pradesh.
Keywords: antibody, Arunachal Pradesh, pig population, Rotavirus, seropositive.

Friday, 25 November 2016

Allelic and genotypic frequencies in polymorphic Booroola fecundity gene and their association with multiple birth and postnatal growth in Chhotanagpuri sheep

Research (Published online: 25-11-2016)
21. Allelic and genotypic frequencies in polymorphic Booroola fecundity gene and their association with multiple birth and postnatal growth in Chhotanagpuri sheep - Thanesh Oraon, D. K. Singh, Mayukh Ghosh, S. S. Kullu, Rajesh Kumar and L. B. Singh
Veterinary World, 9(11): 1294-1299

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1294-1299

Aim: Chhotanagpuri breed of sheep reared for mutton in Jharkhand, India, having problem of low litter size and body weight. The response of genetic improvement for traits with low heritability through traditional selection method is timeconsuming. Therefore, marker-assisted selection based on a polymorphism study of suitable candidate gene can response quickly. Thus, this study was aimed at identification of different allelic and genotypic frequencies of Booroola fecundity (FecB) gene and its association with multiple birth and postnatal growth in Chhotanagpuri sheep.
Materials and Methods: DNA isolation and gene-specific amplification of FecB gene was performed from blood samples of from 92 Chhotanagpuri lambs maintained under similar feeding and  management conditions. Custom nucleotide sequencing and single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis were performed to identify different genotypes with respect to the target gene. Statistical analysis was performed for determination of allelic and genotypic frequencies of FecB gene polymorphisms and its association with multiple birth and postnatal growth of lambs from birth to 52 weeks age.
Results: “AA” “AB” and “BB” genotypes were found at locus-1 as it is polymorphic for FecB gene while locus-2 was found to be monomorphic for FecBgene. Higher frequency of “A” allele at locus-1 was found in single born lambs, whereas “B” allele was predominant among multiple born lambs. The lambs having “BB” genotype weighed significantly (p≤0.01) heavier than those of “AB” and “AA” genotype at 52 weeks of age.
Conclusion: “BB” genotype has emerged as favored genotype for multiple births and better growth indicator. Therefore, homozygous lambs for “B” allele should be selected and utilized in breeding program for better growth rate.
Keywords: body growth, Booroola fecundity gene, Chhotanagpuri sheep, multiple births, single-strand conformational polymorphism.

Tuesday, 22 November 2016

Value added by Spirulina platensis in two different diets on growth performance, gut microbiota, and meat quality of Japanese quails

Research (Published online: 23-11-2016)
20. Value added by Spirulina platensis in two different diets on growth performance, gut microbiota, and meat quality of Japanese quails -Mohamed S. Yusuf, Marwa A. Hassan, Mohamed M. Abdel-Daim, Adel S. El nabtiti, Ali Meawad Ahmed, Sherief A. Moawed, Ahmed Kamel El-Sayed and Hengmi Cui
Veterinary World, 9(11): 1287-1293

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1287-1293

Aim: The growth promoting effect of the blue-green filamentous alga Spirulina platensis (SP) was observed on meat type Japanese quail with antibiotic growth promoter alternative and immune enhancing power.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 180 Japanese quail chicks for 4 weeks to find out the effect of diet type (vegetarian protein diet [VPD] and fish meal protein diet [FMPD])- Spirulina dose interaction (1 or 2 g/kg diet) on growth perfor-mance, gut microbiota, and sensory meat quality of growing Japanese quails (1-5 weeks old).
Results: Data revealed improvement (p<0.05) of weight gain, feed conversion ratio and European efficiency index due to 1, 2 g (SP)/kg VPD, and 2 g (SP)/kg FMPD, respectively. There was a significant decrease of ileum mean pH value by 1 g (SP)/kg VPD. Concerning gut microbiota, there was a trend toward an increase in Lactobacilli count in both 1; 2 g (SP)/kg VPD and 2 g (SP)/kg FMPD. It was concluded that 1 or 2 g (SP)/kg vegetarian diet may enhance parameters of performance without obvious effect on both meat quality and gut microbiota. Moreover, 1 and/or 2 g (SP) may not be invited to share fish meal based diet for growing Japanese quails.
Conclusion: Using of SP will support the profitable production of Japanese quails fed vegetable protein diet.
Keywords: isocaloric, isonitrogenous, meat quality, performances, quails, spirulina.

Monday, 21 November 2016

Emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing strains belonging to cefotaxime-M-1 class from intensive care units patients and environmental surfaces in Pakistan

Research (Published online: 22-11-2016)
10. Emergence of extended spectrum beta-lactamases-producing strains belonging to cefotaxime-M-1 class from intensive care units patients and environmental surfaces in Pakistan - Aqsa Ashraf Bukhari, Muhammad Imran Arshad, Shahbaz Raza, Mariya Azam, Sajjad-ur-Rahman and Mashkoor Mohsin
International Journal of One Health, 2: 69-74

  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2016.69-74


Aim: The emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria is the most dangerous threat for the treatment of infectious diseases. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBLs) and carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli among patients and environment of intensive care units (ICUs) of three tertiary care hospitals in Pakistan.
Materials and Methods: A total of 82 samples from ICU’s patients and inanimate environment (injection trays, wash basins, door handles, hand swabs of professionals, and ICU fridges) were screened for ESBL by culturing on CHROMagar-ESBL. ESBL and carbapenemases production were confirmed by double disc synergy test and modified Hodge’s test, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction was used to detect ESBL encoding genes bla cefotaxime (CTX-M), blaCTX-M-1, blaCTX-M-2, blaCTX-M-9, blaTEM, blaSHV and carbapenemase genes blaKPC, bla New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1, blaOXA-48 and blaVIM.
Results: Overall, ESBL production was found high 30/82 (36.5%) among isolates of which 15.8% K. pneumoniae and 20.7% E. coli were identified. All the K. pneumoniae and majority of E. coli isolates were MDR, i.e., resistance to three or more antimicrobial categories. Molecular characterization showed the blaCTX-M-1 as the predominant genotype found in 17/21 (80%) of the isolates. None of the strains was found positive for carbapenemase-encoding genes.
Conclusion: In conclusion, this study demonstrates the emergence of MDR ESBL producing strains among ICU patients and hospital environment, posing a serious threat for the control of nosocomial infections.
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, Escherichia coli, extended spectrum beta lactamase, Klebsiella pneumoniae, nosocomial infections.

Chronic exposure to indoxacarb and pulmonary expression of toll-like receptor-9 in mice

Research (Published online: 21-11-2016)
19. Chronic exposure to indoxacarb and pulmonary expression of toll-like receptor-9 in mice - Sandeep Kaur, C. S. Mukhopadhyay and R. S. Sethi
Veterinary World, 9(11): 1282-1286

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1282-1286

Aim: Chronic exposure to indoxacarb and pulmonary expression of toll-like receptor 9 (TLR-9) in mice.
Materials and Methods: In this study, healthy male Swiss albino mice (n=30) aging 8-10 weeks were used to evaluate TLR-9 expression in lungs of mice following indoxacarb exposure with and without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Indoxacarb was administered orally dissolved in groundnut oil at 4 and 2 mg/kg/day for 90 days. On day 91, five animals from each group were challenged with LPS/normal saline solution at 80 μg/animal. The lung tissues were processed for real time and immunohistochemical studies.
Results: LPS resulted increase in fold change m-RNA expression level of TLR-9 as compare to control, while indoxacarb (4 mg/kg) alone and in combination with LPS resulted 16.21-fold change and 29.4-fold change increase in expression of TLR-9 m-RNA, respectively, as compared to control. Similarly, indoxacarb (2 mg/kg) alone or in combination with LPS also altered TLR-9 expression. Further at protein level control group showed minimal expression of TLR-9 in lungs as compare to other groups, however, LPS group showed intense positive staining in bronchial epithelium as well as in alveolar septal cells. Indoxacarb at both doses individually showed strong immuno-positive reaction as compare to control, however when combined with LPS resulted intense staining in airway epithelium as compare to control.
Conclusion: Chronic oral administration of indoxacarb for 90 days (4 and 2 mg/kg) alters expression of TLR-9 at m-RNA and protein level and co-exposure with LPS exhibited synergistic effect.
Keywords: indoxacarb, lipopolysaccharide, lungs, mice, toll-like receptor-9.

Sunday, 20 November 2016

Bacterial canine vector-borne zoonotic diseases in “One Health” concept

Review (Published online: 20-11-2016)
9Bacterial canine vector-borne zoonotic diseases in “One Health” concept - George Valiakos
International Journal of One Health, 2: 58-68

  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2016.58-68


Canine vector-borne diseases constitute a large group of diseases transmitted by arthropods with worldwide distribution. A wide range of bacterial, viral, and parasitic agents that are transmitted by vectors cause disease to dogs, many of which can also affect humans and thus have an important zoonotic potential. Bacterial agents that are transmitted by vectors have been considered less important than viral or parasitic agents and are not commonly discussed in companion animal practice. However, close contact between pet animals and people offers favorable conditions for transmission of these bacteria. Many of these diseases have become a focus of interest for scientists in recent years. Increase in reservoir abundance, climate change, changing habitat structure, socio-political changes, and imports of dogs for welfare reasons and trade as well as traveling are considered to be potential factors for the pathogens and vectors introduction into new areas. Apart from, the veterinary aspect of these diseases, domestic dogs could play a central epidemiological role in the transmission of bacterial agents to humans, acting as reservoirs and sentinels, a circumstance that requires a One Health approach. This review highlights the most important of these bacterial agents, presenting updated current knowledge with special reference to treatment approach and One Health aspect.
Keywords: bacteria, canine, One Health, vectors, zoonoses.

Saturday, 19 November 2016

One Health and cancer: A comparative study of human and canine cancers in Nairobi

Research (Published online: 19-11-2016)
8. One Health and cancer: A comparative study of human and canine cancers in Nairobi - Nyariaro Kelvin Momanyi, Rugutt Anne Korir and Riungu Erastus Mutiga
International Journal of One Health, 2: 42-57

  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2016.42-57


Aim: Recent trends in comparative animal and human research inform us that collaborative research plays a key role in deciphering and solving cancer challenges. Globally, cancer is a devastating diagnosis with an increasing burden in both humans and dogs and ranks as the number three killer among humans in Kenya. This study aimed to provide comparative information on cancers affecting humans and dogs in Nairobi, Kenya.
Materials and Methods: Dog data collection was by cancer case finding from five veterinary clinics and two diagnostic laboratories, whereas the human dataset was from the Nairobi Cancer Registry covering the period 2002-2012. The analysis was achieved using IBM SPSS Statistics® v.20 (Dog data) and CanReg5 (human data). The human population was estimated from the Kenya National Census, whereas the dog population was estimated from the human using a human:dog ratio of 4.1:1.
Results: A total of 15,558 human and 367 dog cancer cases were identified. In humans, females had higher cancer cases 8993 (an age-standardized rate of 179.3 per 100,000) compared to 6565 in males (122.1 per 100,000). This order was reversed in dogs where males had higher cases 198 (14.9 per 100,000) compared to 169 (17.5 per 100,000) in females. The incident cancer cases increased over the 11-year study period in both species. Common cancers affecting both humans and dogs were: Prostate (30.4, 0.8), the respiratory tract (8.3, 1.3), lymphoma (5.6, 1.4), and liver and biliary tract (6.3, 0.5), whereas, in females, they were: Breast (44.5, 3.6), lip, oral cavity, and pharynx (8.8, 0.6), liver and biliary tract (6.5, 1.2), and lymphoma (6.0, 0.6), respectively, per 100,000.
Conclusion: The commonality of some of the cancers in both humans and dogs fortifies that it may be possible to use dogs as models and sentinels in studying human cancers in Kenya and Africa. We further infer that developing joint animalhuman cancer registries and integrated cancer surveillance systems may lead to accelerated detection of the risks of cancer in Africa.
Keywords: Africa, cancer, cancer registry, comparative oncology, Kenya, Nairobi, One Health.

Thursday, 17 November 2016

Comparison of veterinary health services expectations and perceptions between oncologic pet owners, non-oncologic pet owners and veterinary staff using the SERVQUAL methodology

Research (Published online: 18-11-2016)
18. Comparison of veterinary health services expectations and perceptions between oncologic pet owners, non-oncologic pet owners and veterinary staff using the SERVQUAL methodology - Hugo Gregório, Patricia Santos, Isabel Pires, Justina Prada and Felisbina Luísa Queiroga
Veterinary World, 9(11): 1275-1281

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1275-1281

Aim: Client satisfaction gained great importance in health care as a measurement of service quality. One of the most popular methods to evaluate client satisfaction is the SERVQUAL inquiry which measures service quality by evaluating client expectations and services towards a service in five dimensions: Tangibles, Empathy, Assurance, Reliability and Responsiveness.
Materials and Methods: In order to evaluate if owners of pets with cancer constitute a distinctive group from the general pet owner population and if these differences were perceived by the hospital staff we applied a SERVQUAL questionnaire to 51 owners of pet with cancer, 68 owners from the general pet population and 14 staff members.
Results: Owners of oncologic pets had different expectations of an ideal service granting importance to Assurance questions (6.75 vs 6.5, p= 0.045) while showing unmet needs in Reliability and Empathy dimensions. Veterinarians failed to understand these specificities and over evaluated characteristics of Tangible dimension (6.75 vs 6.25, p=0.027).
Conclusion: Owners of pet with cancer seem to constitute a specific subpopulation with special needs and veterinary staff should invest resources towards Assurance instead of privileging tangible aspects of veterinary services. By aligning professionals expectations with those of pet owners veterinarians can achieve better client satisfaction, improved compliance and stronger doctor-owner relationships.
Keywords: expectations, oncology, perceptions, SERVQUAL, veterinary.