Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
24. Comparative effects of amiodarone and dronedarone treatments on cardiac function in a rabbit model
Worakan Boonhoh, Anusak Kijtawornrat and Suwanakiet Sawangkoon
Veterinary World, 12(2): 345-351
Aim: The objective of the study was to compare the effects of amiodarone (AM) and dronedarone (DR) on heart rate variability (HRV) and cardiac contractility in a rabbit model.
Materials and Methods: A total of 16 male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into two groups, treated either with AM or DR at incremental dosages of 50 mg/kg/day (AM50 and DR50) and 100 mg/kg/day (AM100 and DR100), orally administrated for 7 days. At the end of each period, electrocardiograms were recorded during consciousness and analyzed using the short-term time and frequency domains of HRV. Standard echocardiography and speckle-tracking echocardiography were studied during immobilization with xylazine and ketamine.
Results: The results showed that AM100 and DR100 significantly decreased heart rate, total power, low-frequency component, and low-to-high frequency ratio compared with baselines. Most echocardiogram parameters revealed no significant difference from baselines, except for the global circumferential plane strain rate and time to peak standard deviation of strain, which had statistical significances after treating with AM.
Conclusion: Both AM and DR possess negative chronotropy and reduce HRV, which may be explained by their sympathetic suppression and calcium channel blocking activities. Theoretically, both antiarrhythmic drugs may also possess negative inotropy, but only AM is shown to have a negative inotropic effect and reduces cardiac dyssynchrony in this model.
23. Resveratrol mitigates hypercholesterolemia exacerbated hyperthermia in chronically heat-stressed rats
Hosam Al-Tamimi, Amani Al-Dawood, Saddam Awaishesh and Tony Abdalla
Veterinary World, 12(2): 337-344
Background and Aim: Hypercholesterolemia (HC) is the major leading cause of cardiovascular disease worldwide. Such atherogenic aberration deeply impacts blood circulation. Resveratrol (R) is a polyphenol that has received attention as a hypolipidemic, antioxidant, and vascular agility advocate. Efficient blood redistribution is a key element in mammalian thermoregulation. We hypothesized that R treatment may aid in mitigating hyperthermic responses under both acute and chronic heat stress (HS) conditions in HC male rats.
Materials and Methods: All rats were initially fitted with miniaturized thermologgers to measure core body temperature (Tcore). With a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, four groups were randomly allotted, in which half of the animals ingested an HC diet (C+), while the other half ingested a control (C-) diet, throughout the whole study duration of 35 days. Seven rats from each dietary treatment, however, received R (R+; 13 mg/kg BW/day), while the rest received normal saline (R-) for 5 continuous days. All animals were maintained at thermoneutrality (TN; ambient temperature; Ta=23.15±0.04°C) for a period of 30 continuous days (days 0-29). On day 29, an acute HS (HS; Ta=35.86±0.37°C; for 9 nocturnal h) was imposed. Then, from day 29, a chronic HS protocol (Ta=32.28±1.00°C) was maintained until the past day of the trial (day 34), after which blood samples were drawn for analyses of platelet (PL) count, total antioxidant activity (TAO), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TGs), and lipid peroxidation (LP).
Results: Switching animals from TN to HS resulted in abrupt rises in Tcore. The HC diet induced a significant (p<0.01) hyperlipidemia over the control of diet-consuming rats. Interestingly, the hyperthermic response to acute HS was highly pronounced in the rats consuming the C- diet, while the C+ diet exacerbated the chronic HS-induced hyperthermia. Despite failure to improve TAO in the C+ diet, R+ treatment caused a marked (p<0.05) decline in nighttime - hyperthermia in C+ rats, likely by enhancing blood flow to extremities (for heat dissipation) as delineated by drastic downregulations of C+ related rises in PL, TC, TG, and LP (HC diet by R+ interaction; p<0.03).
Conclusion: The hyperthermic response in C- groups was attributed to higher amount of feed intake than those consuming the C+ diet. Yet, the R+ improvement of thermoregulation in the C+ group was likely related to enhancement of vascular hemodynamics. Resveratrol intake mitigated chronic HS-evoked hyperthermia in rats. Such an approach is worthy to follow-up in other mammals and humans.
Aim: The purpose of this study was to isolate and characterize the Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida from blood, nasal discharge, and lung tissue of pneumonic goats.
Materials and Methods: A total of 14 goats were investigated for pneumonic pasteurellosis. Of 14 goats, nasal swabs and blood samples were collected from 10 clinically diseased animals. Moreover, lung tissue and heart blood samples were collected during necropsy of four goats died with pneumonia. All the samples were processed for the isolation of M. haemolytica and P. multocida in the laboratory. Bacterial isolates were identified by cultural and biochemical characters and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. All the isolates were subjected to susceptibility testing using commonly used antimicrobials. M. haemolytica isolates were characterized by PHSSA gene detection. P. multocida isolates were characterized by KMT1 gene detection and capsule typing.
Results: On necropsy of dead goats, the pneumonia was characterized as acute fibrinous bronchopneumonia. Bacterial culture revealed the isolation of M. haemolytica (7) and P. multocida (5) of 10 clinical cases. Moreover, M. haemolytica and P. multocida were coisolated from two of the lung tissues. Furthermore, one of the other two lung tissues showed the isolation of M. haemolytica while the other showed recovery of P. multocida. Bacterial isolates were specifically identified by the 16S rRNA sequence analysis. The isolates showed reduced susceptibility to β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones . Moreover, the PHSSA and KMT1 genes were specifically detected among M. haemolytica, and P. multocida isolates, respectively. All P. multocida isolates belonged to serogroup A.
Conclusion: The present study reported an occurrence of pneumonic pasteurellosis caused by M. haemolytica and P. multocida in a goat flock.
21. Comparative efficacy of two-dimensional mode and color Doppler sonography in predicting gender of the equine fetus
M. Mebarki, R. Kaidi, A. Azizi and M. Basbaci
Veterinary World, 12(2): 325-330
Background and Aim: Ultrasonographic fetal sexing is of utmost economic importance for horse breeders. Relatively, a few studies have been conducted to determine fetal sex in mare using transrectal Doppler ultrasound. This study aimed to compare two sexing techniques, two-dimensional (2D) mode and color Doppler ultrasonography.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 39 mares under field conditions. Examinations were performed using the ultrasonic model device (Medison SonoAce Pico, South Korea), equipped with real-time 3-7 MHz convex multifrequency transducer. Fetal sex diagnosis was carried out in two periods of pregnancy, early period (57-80 days of gestation) and late period (80-150 days of gestation).
Results: No difference (p=0.4) was observed between the efficiency of the 2D mode and Doppler ultrasound in sex determination with the respective frequency of 74% and 85%. The best time to sex the early fetus was between 57 and 70 days of gestation and between 90 and 120 days for the older fetus.
Conclusion: The accuracy of sex determination can be increased using Doppler mode compared to 2D mode, especially in the early period between 57 and 70 days, in male more than female sex.
Keywords: Doppler mode, fetal sex, mare, two-dimensional mode, ultrasound.
20. Chemotherapeutic control of Gram-positive infection in white sea bream (Diplodus sargus, Linnaeus 1758) broodstock
Nadia G. M. Ali, Ibrahim M. Aboyadak and Heba S. El-Sayed
Veterinary World, 12(2): 316-324
Aim: This study aimed to identify the pathogenic bacteria responsible for the septicemic disease affecting white sea bream brooders and determining the sensitivity of the recovered isolates to different antibiotics followed by estimation of long-acting oxytetracycline (OTC) efficacy in controlling this disease, and finally, determining the proper dose regimen.
Materials and Methods: Biolog microbial identification system was used for determination of the pathogens which are responsible for this disease. Agar disk diffusion test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) were used to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of recovered isolates. Oxytetracycline (OTC) was used at a dose level of 100 mg/kg body weight for the treatment of diseased fish, and the OTC concentration in the serum samples was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results: Fifteen Staphylococcus epidermidis and 11 Bacillus cereus isolates were recovered from the lesion of muscle, tail, eye, and heart blood. S. epidermidis isolates were sensitive to OTC, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, spiramycin, erythromycin (E), and florfenicol. B. cereus isolates were sensitive to all mentioned antibiotics except E. Based on the MIC test, all B. cereus isolates were sensitive to OTC with MIC ranging between <0.125 and 4 μg/ml and 11 S. epidermidis isolates were sensitive with MIC ranging between <0.125 and 8 μg/ml, while four isolates were resistant. Different degrees of degenerative changes were present in the hepatopancreas, posterior kidney, eye, and skin tissues of diseased fish.
Conclusion: Single intraperitoneal injection of long-acting OTC at a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight was effective in termination of S. epidermidis and B. cereus infection in white sea bream (D. sargus) broodstock.
19. Antiretroviral activity of Pterois volitans (red lionfish) venom in the early development of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome antiretroviral alternative source
Andy Noorsaman Sommeng, R. Muhammad Yusuf Arya, Mikael Januardi Ginting, Diah Kartika Pratami, Heri Hermansyah, Muhamad Sahlan and Anondho Wijanarko
Veterinary World, 12(2): 309-315
Aim: This study aimed to investigate the antiviral activity of Pterois volitans phospholipase A2 (PV-PLA2) from Indonesia to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Materials and Methods: Fresh venomous fin parts of wild PV specimens were collected from Java Sea waters. Then, it washed using phosphate buffer pH 7.0 and immersed in phosphate buffer pH 7.0 0.01 m containing CaCl2 0.001 m for 24 h. The immersed fin then allowed for extraction process by sonicating for 2×8 min with 80% pulse and 20 kHz output with temperature controlling to avoid denaturation. The crude venom (CV) extracted from the fin is allowed for purification by 80% ethanol (ET) precipitation and ammonium sulfate fractionation method. The purified PV-PLA2 then analyzed using Lowry's method, Marinette's method, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and 3-(4, 5-dimethyl thiazol-2yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay. After determining the purest and safest sample of six samples analyzed, the chosen sample then tested into simian retrovirus-2 (SRV2)-A549 culture (48×104 cells/mL at 1-4 ppm), and compared to the CV sample (1-4 ppm) and lamivudine (100 ppm). The culture then is analyzed using a quantitative real time-polymerase chain reaction to find out the copy number of SRV-2 virus in each culture.
Results: The protein's activity, concentration, and purity analysis revealed that the PV-PLA2 purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation has the highest activity (1.81 times higher than the CV at 80% fractionation) and has higher purity than the sample from ET fractionation. The testing of the sample purified using ammonium sulfate fractionation at 80% saturation level shown that it has a 97.78% inhibition level toward SRV2-A549 culture at 4 ppm. However, in comparison to lamivudine which has 99.55% inhibition level at 100 ppm, it needs much lower concentration to achieve the same result.
Conclusion: The significant inhibition of SRV2-A549 culture shown that the PV-PLA2 extracted from PV venom has the potential to become anti-HIV substances. It would be worthwhile to further evaluate the antiretroviral activity of PV-PLA2 in the in vivo studies.
18. Reproductive performance of pigs raised by intensive management system in Abuja, Nigeria
Kenneth Owoicho Abah, Joy Iyojo Itodo, Simon Azubuike Ubah and Ibrahim Shettima
Veterinary World, 12(2): 305-308
Background: Population growth led to an increase in the number of people raising pigs, resulting in increased demand for piglets/pigs for breeding and pork for consumption.
Aim: This study was carried out to determine the reproductive performance of pigs raised by the intensive management system in Abuja, Nigeria, with a view to assist farmers in ensuring improved productivity and profitability.
Materials and Methods: Using an interview-based questionnaire, data from 121 sows and 649 preweaning piglets were collected in 12 herds, from September 2017 to March 2018. Measures of reproductive and production performance assessed in this study were interfarrowing interval (IFI), number of liveborn piglets (NLB), preweaning piglet mortality (PPM), age at weaning (AAW), weaning to service interval (WSI), age at first farrowing (AFF), number of piglets weaned per litter (NPWL), and number of piglets weaned per sow per year (NPWPY).
Results: The results obtained in this study were IFI 6.2±0.84 months, NLB 7.2±1.11, PPM 31%, AAW 40.2±3.12 days, NPWL 5.3±0.73, WSI 39.4±4.59 days, AFF 9.1±0.60 months, and NPWPY 8.1±1.21. The identified causes of PPM were maternal overlay 31.34%, splay leg/hypoglycemia 22.39%, cannibalism 20.40%, starvation 14.93%, and unknown cause 10.94%.
Conclusion: The result showed that the reproductive performance of the sow (especially, NPWPY and PPM) needs to be improved on. There is a need to promote extension and herd health services by veterinarians and livestock personnel to potential and existing farmers in the area. This is more so because organized pig production in the studied area is relatively new and more people are establishing pig farms in the studied area.
17. Assessment of safety and quality of fermented milk of camels, cows, and goats sold and consumed in five localities of Burkina Faso
Hama Cissé, Jean Ulrich Muandze-Nzambe, Namwin Siourime Somda, Adama Sawadogo, Soungalo Moustapha Drabo, Francois Tapsoba, Cheikna Zongo, Yves Traore and Aly Savadogo
Veterinary World, 12(2): 295-304
Background and Aim: Fermented milk is food produced and consumed all over the world and plays an important role in human nutrition. This work aimed to evaluate the microbiological and physicochemical quality and mineral composition of fermented milk consumed in Burkina Faso.
Materials and Methods: A total of 114 samples of fermented milk from camels, goats, and cows were purchased in the market in five localities in Burkina Faso; Bobo Dioulasso, Djibo, Dori, Gorom-Gorom, and Sebba. Microbiological and physical parameters were monitored using standards methods.
Results: Microbiological analysis of fermented milks showed high average values of 7.60±1.50×109 colony-forming unit per milliliter (CFU/ml), 5.72±3.60×107 CFU/ml, 5.53±2.00×105 CFU/ml, 1.97±0.18×103 CFU/ml, 1.98±0.25×103 CFU/ ml, and 0.10±0.09×103 CFU/ml for total microbial flora, lactic acid bacteria, yeasts and molds, Staphylococcus aureus, total coliforms, and thermotolerant coliforms, respectively. None of the samples were contaminated by Salmonella or Shigella. The average values of pH, acidity, dry matter, ash, fats, proteins, and total carbohydrates content of samples were ranged, respectively: 3.830-4.137, 1.888-2.822%, 8.271-13.004%, 0.199-0.476%, 1.210-3.863%, 2.125-3.764%, and 3.080- 5.428 % (w/w). Na/K and Ca/Mg ratio ranged from 0.104 to 0.909 and from 3.392 to 16.996, respectively. Total microbial flora, yeasts and molds, total coliforms, fats, calcium, potassium, iron, and zinc were significantly different.
Conclusion: This research contributed in the evaluation of the hygienic and nutritional qualities of local fermented milk. Results obtained in this study confirm the need to set up the training program on the sanitary condition to traditional maker's to ensure the good fermented milk with high organoleptic and nutritional qualities.
16. Toxocara vitulorum cuticle glycoproteins in the diagnosis of calves' toxocariasis
Eman E. El Shanawany, Soad E. Hassan, Adel A.- H. Abdel-Rahman and Eman H. Abdel-Rahman
Veterinary World, 12(2): 288-294
Aim: The current study was designed to isolate and characterize Toxocara vitulorum glycoprotein antigens and then to evaluate its potency in accurate diagnosis of toxocariasis.
Materials and Methods:T. vitulorum glycoprotein fractions were isolated using Con-A affinity chromatography. The fractions characterized using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), and immunoblot assay. Mass spectrometric analysis was used for identification of proposed structure of the N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) fraction. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to assess the diagnostic potential of the isolated fractions.
Results: Surface of T. vitulorum adult worm revealed two glycoprotein fractions rich in glucose (Glc) and GlcNAc. Three bands of molecular weight 212kDa, 107 kDa, and 93 kDa were detected in Glc fraction by SDS-PAGE. These bands were also detected in GlcNAc fraction with an additional band of 49 kDa. GlcNAc fraction showed more diagnostic potency of calves' toxocariasis; 79% than Glc fraction; 46.9% by indirect ELISA. The additional band of 49 kDa in GlcNAc fraction is probably responsible for its higher diagnostic potentials. Western blotting verified the immunoreactivity of the Glc and GlcNAc isolated fraction as they reacted with calves sera infected with toxocariasis. The proposed structure of GlcNAc fraction was Ser-Meth-Arg-O-methylated GlcNAc.
Conclusion: GlcNAc-rich fraction of T. vitulorum can be successfully utilized in the diagnosis of calves' toxocariasis.
Keywords: affinity chromatography, calves toxocariasis, Con A, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, mass spectrometric analysis, N-acetylglucosamine.
15. Molecular characterization of pathogenic 4/91-like and QX-like infectious bronchitis virus infecting commercial poultry farms in Indonesia
Michael H. Wibowo, Teridah E. Ginting and Widya Asmara
Veterinary World, 12(2): 277-287
Background and Aim: Existing data on the characteristics of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) gathered throughout Indonesia have been recognized to indicate variants similar to globally distributed vaccine strains. Despite past and current intensive vaccination programs, IBV infections in the country's poultry industry have not been effectively controlled. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the genotype of several isolates based on partial S1 gene sequences. In particular, the investigation is directed to focus on layer chickens in actively vaccinated farms indicating IBV symptoms.
Materials and Methods: Samples were isolated from ten different layer chicken flocks experiencing respiratory problem, drops in egg production, and a "penguin-like" stance, which were collected from commercial poultry farms in Central Java and Yogyakarta regions, Indonesia, within the periods of 2012-2018. Fragment of the S1 gene of IBV sampled from actively vaccinated commercial poultry farms was amplified using primer 5'-aca tgg taa ttt ttc aga tgg-3' (forward) and 5'-cag att gct tac aac cac c-3' (reverse) with the length of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product at 383 bp. The sequence of samples was then compared with the sequence of reference S1 gene nucleotides of IBV from NCBI GenBank database. The amino acid analysis and multiple alignment sequence were conducted using Mega X.
Results: During necropsy, enlargement of the oviduct and swollen kidney were observed. Reverse transcription-PCR diagnosis of their 383 bp S1 gene showed that all samples were IBV positive. Phylogenetic analysis of the S1 gene discovered seven samples to be clustered as 4/91-like strains. Meanwhile, the remaining three samples were grouped in QX-like strain cluster.
Conclusion: This study is a pioneering report providing molecular evidence of pathogenic QX-like and 4/91-like strains circulating in Indonesia. Findings discovered, in this study, strongly suggested the importance of improving protections by available IBV vaccines through updated circulating strain clusters. It is critical to ensure the delivery of an effective control measurement of and vaccination protocols against IBV infections in the country's commercial poultry industry in particular and worldwide in general.
14. Stimulation of non-specific immunity, gene expression, and disease resistance in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758), by the methanolic extract of the marine macroalga, Caulerpa scalpelliformis
Omita Yengkhom, Konda Subramanian Shalini, P. A. Subramani and R. Dinakaran Michael
Veterinary World, 12(2): 271-276
Aim: The objective of the present study was to test the immunostimulating potential of marine macroalga, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, in terms of non-specific immune responses, gene expression, and disease resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758).
Materials and Methods:O. niloticus was injected intraperitoneally with three different doses of methanol extract of C. scalpelliformis (CSME) (2 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, or 200 mg/kg body weight), or MacroGardTM(commercial immunostimulant, positive control, and 20 mg/kg body weight), or distilled water (untreated control). In one set of fish, 5 days post-injection, serum lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, and antiprotease activities were assayed. 24 h after injection, gene expression was analyzed in a separate set of fish. To another set of fish, 1 week post-administration of the products, fish were challenged with lethal dose 50 (LD50) dose of a live virulent pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila and subsequent resistance to it was noted in terms of cumulative percent mortality.
Results: CSME increased serum lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, and antiprotease activities. There was an increase in the expression of lysozyme gene in the spleen of treated fish. Mid dose of CSME caused the minimum mortality of 10% (consequent relative percentage survival = 73) which is comparable to that of the positive control.
Conclusion: CSME is considered to have the potential to be developed into an immunostimulant for finfish aquaculture.
13. A preliminary molecular survey of Babesia divergens and first evidence of Theileria annulata in cattle from Saudi Arabia
Mohamed W. Ghafar and Sayed A. M. Amer
Veterinary World, 12(2): 266-270
Background and Aim:Babesia divergens causes human babesiosis in Europe where the parasite utilizes cattle as animal reservoir and Ixodes ricinus as tick vector. Importation of infected animals and passive carriage of infected ticks through migratory birds can lead to tick/pathogen geographic expansion and emergence of diseases in naive land. Given the information that Saudi Arabia imports cattle from the European countries and that two global bird flyways pass through the country geographic coordinates, we speculate that B. divergens might be introduced into the Kingdom. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to molecularly detect and characterize B. divergens and other piroplasms (including Theileria spp.) in cattle from Taif district, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples from 20 cattle residing Taif district were collected, and polymerase chain reaction tested using wide and species-specific primers. Amplicons from a positive genus-wide reaction were purified, sequenced, and analyzed. Phylogenetic trees were constructed, and similarity to existing GenBank zoonotic piroplasms was also assessed.
Results: All samples were negative for B. divergens, and only one sample proved positive for Theileria annulata in a wide reaction. Phylogeny clustered our strain with T. annulata from Spanish dog and another one detected in a cow from France. BLAST analysis showed genetic distance from zoonotic piroplasms with identity ranged from 88% to 91%.
Conclusion: Although B. divergens was not detected, we are not able to rule out or affirm the existence of the pathogen in the country. On the other hand, identifying T. annulata strain with a southern European origin strongly supports our speculation that bovine zoonotic Babesia might be introduced into KSA. This study is not only the first molecular survey of B. divergens but also the first report of the molecular identity of T. annulata in Saudi Arabia. A national-wide bovine and tick surveillance are needed to further prove our speculation.
Keywords:Babesia divergens, cattle, molecular, Saudi Arabia, Theileria annulata.
12. Antibiotic resistance: A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude, and practices among veterinarians of Haryana state in India
Thulasiraman Parkunan, Manju Ashutosh, Bharathy Sukumar, Jatinder Singh Chera, Sendhil Ramadas, B. Chandrasekhar, S. Ashok Kumar, Rachana Sharma, M. Santhosh Kumar and Sachinandan De
Veterinary World, 12(2): 258-265
Aim: The current study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices pertaining to antibiotic usage among the field veterinarians who serve as nodal officers playing a crucial role in disseminating knowledge to the farmers regarding livestock management practices in India.
Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted in which 106 of the 173 field veterinarians of Haryana, India, agreed to contribute through their valuable participation in the study. The collected data were critically analyzed by simple descriptive statistics, and the responses were ranked using Garrett's ranking method.
Results: Our study found that most of the clinicians were aware of the fundamental clinical aspects of antibiotic resistance (AR), i.e., the general causes and transmission of resistance, response during treatment failure, and safe disposal of hospital waste. Further, implementation of "antibiotic stewardship" (rational/responsible use of antibiotics) and interruption of AR transmission by means of cross-kingdom pathogens are two ways to restrict the spread of resistant pathogens which were not in the clinical purview of majority of the clinicians. This highlights a lack of awareness and scope of improving clinician's knowledge pertaining to AR. Moreover, we got to know the methodology adopted by farmers for disposal of infected milk from diseased udders as well as their attitude toward diseased and unproductive animals.
Conclusion: This study provides snippets of the current animal husbandry practices prevalent at the field level which would assist to plug in the gaps of knowledge regarding AR among the veterinarians as well as the general public and serve to reduce its deleterious impacts in Indian animal farming as well as in the world through the concept of "One World, One Health."
11. Alteration in behavior of rat after chronic exposure to acetamiprid
Samiran Mondal, Saktipada Pradhan and Sunit K. Mukhopadhayay
Veterinary World, 12(2): 254-257
Background and Aim: Acetamiprid is a chemical of neonicotinoid group which binds with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and alters the brain function. The present study was taken up to enlight the understanding of nociception behavior in Sprague Dawley (SD) rat after multiple exposures to acetamiprid.
Materials and Methods: For experiment purpose, a total of 48 SD rats were divided into four dose groups having 12 animals each. Group I was control group received only distilled water. Group II, Group III, and Group IV were treated with acetamiprid at a dose rate of 5, 20, and 40 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Rats were tested in induced pain by formalin injection and tail flick test.
Results: The flinch counts in formalin-induced pain in acetamiprid-treated rat were reduced in a dose-dependent manner, whereas, in tail flick test, no such altered pain behavior was observed in treated group compared to control animals.
Conclusion: Acetamiprid alters the centralized nociception through nAChR but could not trigger the associated signal to inhibit the nociception peripherally.
10. Morphology and morphometry of adult nematodes on Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) in Way Kambas National Park area, Indonesia
Rahmania Prahardani, Lintang Winantya Firdausy, Yanuartono and Wisnu Nurcahyo
Veterinary World, 12(2): 249-253
Background and Aim: Worms from nematodes are the most numerous and the most detrimental in elephants. Most adult worms are located in the digestive tract. Nematode infection is at higher risk in young elephants, which caused several cases such as anemia, hypoalbuminemia, enteritis, and even death. This study aimed to determine the morphology and morphometry of adult nematodes on Sumatran elephants in Way Kambas National Park area.
Materials and Methods: Nematode samples were obtained from Sumatran elephants' feces (Elephas maximus sumatranus) in Way Kambas National Park, Lampung Province, after being given Kalbazen® containing albendazole 1000 mg at a dose of 10 mg/kg by the veterinarian in charge of the National Park area. For the morphological and morphometric examinations, we used an Olympus BX 51 microscope equipped with Olympus DP 12 camera and were conducted at the Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis was carried out at the Biology Research Center of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia).
Results: The results of macroscopic observations of the obtained nematodes showed that the nematodes which were found have the characteristics of round, slim, and white color. The size of a female worm was larger than a male worm. Microscopic examination in four anterior papillae indicated that the dorsal lobe in the copulatory bursa was longer than lateral lobe. The result of inspection with the SEM showed a leaf crown consisting of 10 elements, a pair of amphids laterally, and two pairs of papilla in a submedian region.
Conclusion: Based on our morphology and morphometry examinations of adult nematodes in Sumatran elephant (E. maximus sumatranus) in Way Kambas National Park area, the adult nematodes which were found are species of Quilonia travancra.
9. Analysis of bacterial contamination and antibiotic residue of beef meat from city slaughterhouses in East Java Province, Indonesia
Koesnoto Soepranianondo, Dhandy Koesoemo Wardhana, Budiarto and Diyantoro
Veterinary World, 12(2): 243-248
Aim: This research aimed to analyze the presence of microbial contamination and antibiotic residue in beef meat from city slaughterhouses in East Java Province, Indonesia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 40 samples from city slaughterhouses were used in this study. The tests for microbial contamination used several methods including total plate count (TPC), most probable number of Escherichia coli, detection of Staphylococcus aureus using Mannitol Salt Agar media, Salmonella spp. detection using Bismuth Sulfite Agar media and Triple Sugar Iron Agar media, and detection of the antibiotic residue by screening tests.
Results: Most of the samples were contaminated with E. coli (32.5% positive samples) and S. aureus (20.0% positive samples). The mean values of TPC and S. aureus contamination were lower than the maximum limit of contamination, which were 41.58 CFU/g and 13.93 CFU/g, respectively, while the mean value of E. coli contamination was 27.03 CFU/g which was higher than the maximum limit. A low frequency of TPC (5% positive samples) and Salmonella spp. contamination (2.5% positive samples) was found in meat samples. Meat samples from two of the surveyed slaughterhouses were tested positive for antibiotic residue and six of the 40 samples (15%) were also tested positive for the antibiotic residue.
Conclusion: It was concluded that most of the microbial contamination in beef meat from city slaughterhouses was below the maximum limit of contamination and only two slaughterhouses were found antibiotic residues in the meat samples.
Keywords: antibiotic residue, beef meat, city slaughterhouse, microbial contamination.
8. Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of the Syzygium polyanthum leaf extract from Malaysia
Muhammad Luqman Nordin, Abdul Aziz Othman, Arifah Abdul Kadir, Rumaizi Shaari, Abdinasir Yusuf Osman and Maizan Mohamed
Veterinary World, 12(2): 236-242
Background and Aim: The increasing prevalence of drug resistance eventually leads scientist to discover new drugs that could solve the problem. Since ancient immemorial times, medicinal plants generally known as herbs were widely used in every culture throughout the world. In fact, currently up to 70,000 plant species have been screened for biological activities and about 70% ends up for commercialization. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the potential cytotoxic and antibacterial effect of Syzygium polyanthum leaves which are local Malaysia plants, against 4T1 and MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells, respectively, and also against bacteria causing mastitis in cows.
Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic effect of hydromethanolic extract of S. polyanthum against 4T1 and MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells was evaluated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The cells were treated with the concentration of extracts ranging from 15.63 μg/mL to 1000 μg/ml for 72 h, and the percentage of cell survivability was determined based on minimum concentration that was able to allow at least 50% growth of cancer cells (IC50) after 72 h. The antibacterial activity was tested against common bacteria causing mastitis in cow. The bacteria were isolated from milk samples. The antibacterial activity of the extract was determined by disk diffusion method and susceptibility test based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).
Results:Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus hyicus, and Staphylococcus intermedius were isolated from the milk samples that positive for mastitis. The MIC values range from 7.12 mm to 13.5 mm. The extract exhibits the widest zone of inhibition (13.5±0.20 mm) at 1000 mg/ml of concentrations. The extract relatively has low cytotoxicity effect against 4T1 and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values ranging from 672.57±59.42 and 126.05±50.89 μg/ml, respectively.
Conclusion:S. polyanthum exerts weak antibacterial activity and cytotoxic effect to mammary carcinoma cells. The extract does not toxic to cells. However, further study is recommended, especially, this plant should be tested for in vivo.
7. Genetic characterization of S1 gene of infectious bronchitis virus isolated from commercial poultry flocks in West Java, Indonesia
Rahajeng Setiawaty, Retno Damajanti Soejoedono and Okti Nadia Poetri
Veterinary World, 12(2): 231-235
Background and Aim: Infectious bronchitis (IB) is still a major problem among poultry industry in Indonesia, IB outbreaks continue to happen even in vaccinated flocks. The emergence of new IB virus (IBV) variants might lead to mismatching between vaccine virus strain and circulating virus strain, this may be a reason of vaccination failure. Information about circulating IBV in a region is important to decide which IB vaccine should be used. However, information about recent IBV strains which circulated in Indonesia and their genetic characters were limited; therefore, the aim of our research was to determine the genetic characterization of S1 gene of IBV isolated from commercial poultry flocks in West Java, Indonesia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 47 viral isolate samples collected from chickens with clinical sign and reduced in egg production. Six IB live vaccines were used as control, the reference vaccines represent IBV strains including H120, H52, 4/91, CR88, 233A, and 1-96. Primers XCe2+ and XCe2- were used to amplify S1 gene partially.
Results: Twenty-six of 47 samples showed positive result to S1 gene of IBV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Three IBV isolates, Indonesia/K233A31/18, Indonesia/K4A9/17, and Indonesia/P3/17, were selected for nucleotide sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 352 nucleotides of the partial S1 gene shows that isolates Indonesia/K4A9/17 and Indonesia/K233A31/18 have 100% homology with IBV vaccine strain 4/91, while isolate Indonesia/P3/17 has 100% homology with IBV vaccine strain 233A.
Conclusion: Our result indicates that at least two IBV strains were circulating among poultry in West Java, Indonesia, which is IBV close to vaccine strain 4/91 and 233A. The present study provides updates on the circulating IBV in commercial poultry flocks in West Java, Indonesia, and might use as guidance on selecting a proper IB vaccine strain to improve IB vaccination efficacy in certain region.
Keywords: genetic characterization, Indonesia, infectious bronchitis virus, poultry, S1 gene, West Java.
6. Coinfection of diarrheagenic bacterial and viral pathogens in piglets of Northeast region of India
Hosterson Kylla, Tapan K. Dutta, Parimal Roychoudhury and Prasant K. Subudhi
Veterinary World, 12(2): 224-230
Aim: This study aimed to study the prevalence of the coinfection of enteric bacterial and viral pathogens, namely Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Rotavirus, and Picobirnavirus from fecal samples of pre-weaned piglets in Northeast region of India.
Materials and Methods: A total of 457 fresh fecal samples were collected from piglets under 9 weeks old during 2013-2015 from organized (n=225) and unorganized (n=232) farms of Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland. Samples were collected from diarrheic (n =339) and non-diarrheic (n=118) piglets including local indigenous (n=130) and crossbreed (n=327) piglets in different seasons during the study period. The samples were processed for the isolation of E. coli and Salmonella and detection of their putative virulence genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Samples were also processed for the detection of Rotavirus and Picobirnavirus by RNA-polyacrylamide agarose gel electrophoresis and reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR).
Results: A total of 11 (2.40%) samples were found positive for two or more coinfecting enteric bacterial and viral pathogens. All the 11 positive fecal samples were recovered from diarrheic piglets. SalmonellaTyphimurium (enterotoxin, stn gene) and Picobirnavirus genogroup 1 were found to be more frequent as coinfecting agents. Coinfection was recorded higher in unorganized (3.87%) compared to organized farm (0.88%). Again, higher detection was recorded in crossbreed (2.75%) than local indigenous piglets (1.53%). The occurrence of coinfection was found to be more common during summer (4.68%) followed by winter (2.27%) season.
Conclusion: The present study highlighted the significance of E. coli, Salmonella, Rotavirus, and Picobirnavirus as important diarrheagenic pathogens causing coinfection in piglets in Northeast region of India. Probably, this is the first systematic study of the coinfection of four important diarrheagenic bacterial and viral agents associated with piglet diarrhea in India.