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15. Molecular characterization of pathogenic 4/91-like and QX-like infectious bronchitis virus infecting commercial poultry farms in Indonesia
Michael H. Wibowo, Teridah E. Ginting and Widya Asmara
Veterinary World, 12(2): 277-287
Background and Aim: Existing data on the characteristics of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) gathered throughout Indonesia have been recognized to indicate variants similar to globally distributed vaccine strains. Despite past and current intensive vaccination programs, IBV infections in the country's poultry industry have not been effectively controlled. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the genotype of several isolates based on partial S1 gene sequences. In particular, the investigation is directed to focus on layer chickens in actively vaccinated farms indicating IBV symptoms.
Materials and Methods: Samples were isolated from ten different layer chicken flocks experiencing respiratory problem, drops in egg production, and a "penguin-like" stance, which were collected from commercial poultry farms in Central Java and Yogyakarta regions, Indonesia, within the periods of 2012-2018. Fragment of the S1 gene of IBV sampled from actively vaccinated commercial poultry farms was amplified using primer 5'-aca tgg taa ttt ttc aga tgg-3' (forward) and 5'-cag att gct tac aac cac c-3' (reverse) with the length of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product at 383 bp. The sequence of samples was then compared with the sequence of reference S1 gene nucleotides of IBV from NCBI GenBank database. The amino acid analysis and multiple alignment sequence were conducted using Mega X.
Results: During necropsy, enlargement of the oviduct and swollen kidney were observed. Reverse transcription-PCR diagnosis of their 383 bp S1 gene showed that all samples were IBV positive. Phylogenetic analysis of the S1 gene discovered seven samples to be clustered as 4/91-like strains. Meanwhile, the remaining three samples were grouped in QX-like strain cluster.
Conclusion: This study is a pioneering report providing molecular evidence of pathogenic QX-like and 4/91-like strains circulating in Indonesia. Findings discovered, in this study, strongly suggested the importance of improving protections by available IBV vaccines through updated circulating strain clusters. It is critical to ensure the delivery of an effective control measurement of and vaccination protocols against IBV infections in the country's commercial poultry industry in particular and worldwide in general.
14. Stimulation of non-specific immunity, gene expression, and disease resistance in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758), by the methanolic extract of the marine macroalga, Caulerpa scalpelliformis
Omita Yengkhom, Konda Subramanian Shalini, P. A. Subramani and R. Dinakaran Michael
Veterinary World, 12(2): 271-276
Aim: The objective of the present study was to test the immunostimulating potential of marine macroalga, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, in terms of non-specific immune responses, gene expression, and disease resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758).
Materials and Methods:O. niloticus was injected intraperitoneally with three different doses of methanol extract of C. scalpelliformis (CSME) (2 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, or 200 mg/kg body weight), or MacroGardTM(commercial immunostimulant, positive control, and 20 mg/kg body weight), or distilled water (untreated control). In one set of fish, 5 days post-injection, serum lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, and antiprotease activities were assayed. 24 h after injection, gene expression was analyzed in a separate set of fish. To another set of fish, 1 week post-administration of the products, fish were challenged with lethal dose 50 (LD50) dose of a live virulent pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila and subsequent resistance to it was noted in terms of cumulative percent mortality.
Results: CSME increased serum lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, and antiprotease activities. There was an increase in the expression of lysozyme gene in the spleen of treated fish. Mid dose of CSME caused the minimum mortality of 10% (consequent relative percentage survival = 73) which is comparable to that of the positive control.
Conclusion: CSME is considered to have the potential to be developed into an immunostimulant for finfish aquaculture.
13. A preliminary molecular survey of Babesia divergens and first evidence of Theileria annulata in cattle from Saudi Arabia
Mohamed W. Ghafar and Sayed A. M. Amer
Veterinary World, 12(2): 266-270
Background and Aim:Babesia divergens causes human babesiosis in Europe where the parasite utilizes cattle as animal reservoir and Ixodes ricinus as tick vector. Importation of infected animals and passive carriage of infected ticks through migratory birds can lead to tick/pathogen geographic expansion and emergence of diseases in naive land. Given the information that Saudi Arabia imports cattle from the European countries and that two global bird flyways pass through the country geographic coordinates, we speculate that B. divergens might be introduced into the Kingdom. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to molecularly detect and characterize B. divergens and other piroplasms (including Theileria spp.) in cattle from Taif district, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples from 20 cattle residing Taif district were collected, and polymerase chain reaction tested using wide and species-specific primers. Amplicons from a positive genus-wide reaction were purified, sequenced, and analyzed. Phylogenetic trees were constructed, and similarity to existing GenBank zoonotic piroplasms was also assessed.
Results: All samples were negative for B. divergens, and only one sample proved positive for Theileria annulata in a wide reaction. Phylogeny clustered our strain with T. annulata from Spanish dog and another one detected in a cow from France. BLAST analysis showed genetic distance from zoonotic piroplasms with identity ranged from 88% to 91%.
Conclusion: Although B. divergens was not detected, we are not able to rule out or affirm the existence of the pathogen in the country. On the other hand, identifying T. annulata strain with a southern European origin strongly supports our speculation that bovine zoonotic Babesia might be introduced into KSA. This study is not only the first molecular survey of B. divergens but also the first report of the molecular identity of T. annulata in Saudi Arabia. A national-wide bovine and tick surveillance are needed to further prove our speculation.
Keywords:Babesia divergens, cattle, molecular, Saudi Arabia, Theileria annulata.
12. Antibiotic resistance: A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude, and practices among veterinarians of Haryana state in India
Thulasiraman Parkunan, Manju Ashutosh, Bharathy Sukumar, Jatinder Singh Chera, Sendhil Ramadas, B. Chandrasekhar, S. Ashok Kumar, Rachana Sharma, M. Santhosh Kumar and Sachinandan De
Veterinary World, 12(2): 258-265
Aim: The current study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices pertaining to antibiotic usage among the field veterinarians who serve as nodal officers playing a crucial role in disseminating knowledge to the farmers regarding livestock management practices in India.
Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted in which 106 of the 173 field veterinarians of Haryana, India, agreed to contribute through their valuable participation in the study. The collected data were critically analyzed by simple descriptive statistics, and the responses were ranked using Garrett's ranking method.
Results: Our study found that most of the clinicians were aware of the fundamental clinical aspects of antibiotic resistance (AR), i.e., the general causes and transmission of resistance, response during treatment failure, and safe disposal of hospital waste. Further, implementation of "antibiotic stewardship" (rational/responsible use of antibiotics) and interruption of AR transmission by means of cross-kingdom pathogens are two ways to restrict the spread of resistant pathogens which were not in the clinical purview of majority of the clinicians. This highlights a lack of awareness and scope of improving clinician's knowledge pertaining to AR. Moreover, we got to know the methodology adopted by farmers for disposal of infected milk from diseased udders as well as their attitude toward diseased and unproductive animals.
Conclusion: This study provides snippets of the current animal husbandry practices prevalent at the field level which would assist to plug in the gaps of knowledge regarding AR among the veterinarians as well as the general public and serve to reduce its deleterious impacts in Indian animal farming as well as in the world through the concept of "One World, One Health."
11. Alteration in behavior of rat after chronic exposure to acetamiprid
Samiran Mondal, Saktipada Pradhan and Sunit K. Mukhopadhayay
Veterinary World, 12(2): 254-257
Background and Aim: Acetamiprid is a chemical of neonicotinoid group which binds with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and alters the brain function. The present study was taken up to enlight the understanding of nociception behavior in Sprague Dawley (SD) rat after multiple exposures to acetamiprid.
Materials and Methods: For experiment purpose, a total of 48 SD rats were divided into four dose groups having 12 animals each. Group I was control group received only distilled water. Group II, Group III, and Group IV were treated with acetamiprid at a dose rate of 5, 20, and 40 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Rats were tested in induced pain by formalin injection and tail flick test.
Results: The flinch counts in formalin-induced pain in acetamiprid-treated rat were reduced in a dose-dependent manner, whereas, in tail flick test, no such altered pain behavior was observed in treated group compared to control animals.
Conclusion: Acetamiprid alters the centralized nociception through nAChR but could not trigger the associated signal to inhibit the nociception peripherally.
10. Morphology and morphometry of adult nematodes on Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) in Way Kambas National Park area, Indonesia
Rahmania Prahardani, Lintang Winantya Firdausy, Yanuartono and Wisnu Nurcahyo
Veterinary World, 12(2): 249-253
Background and Aim: Worms from nematodes are the most numerous and the most detrimental in elephants. Most adult worms are located in the digestive tract. Nematode infection is at higher risk in young elephants, which caused several cases such as anemia, hypoalbuminemia, enteritis, and even death. This study aimed to determine the morphology and morphometry of adult nematodes on Sumatran elephants in Way Kambas National Park area.
Materials and Methods: Nematode samples were obtained from Sumatran elephants' feces (Elephas maximus sumatranus) in Way Kambas National Park, Lampung Province, after being given Kalbazen® containing albendazole 1000 mg at a dose of 10 mg/kg by the veterinarian in charge of the National Park area. For the morphological and morphometric examinations, we used an Olympus BX 51 microscope equipped with Olympus DP 12 camera and were conducted at the Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis was carried out at the Biology Research Center of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia).
Results: The results of macroscopic observations of the obtained nematodes showed that the nematodes which were found have the characteristics of round, slim, and white color. The size of a female worm was larger than a male worm. Microscopic examination in four anterior papillae indicated that the dorsal lobe in the copulatory bursa was longer than lateral lobe. The result of inspection with the SEM showed a leaf crown consisting of 10 elements, a pair of amphids laterally, and two pairs of papilla in a submedian region.
Conclusion: Based on our morphology and morphometry examinations of adult nematodes in Sumatran elephant (E. maximus sumatranus) in Way Kambas National Park area, the adult nematodes which were found are species of Quilonia travancra.
9. Analysis of bacterial contamination and antibiotic residue of beef meat from city slaughterhouses in East Java Province, Indonesia
Koesnoto Soepranianondo, Dhandy Koesoemo Wardhana, Budiarto and Diyantoro
Veterinary World, 12(2): 243-248
Aim: This research aimed to analyze the presence of microbial contamination and antibiotic residue in beef meat from city slaughterhouses in East Java Province, Indonesia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 40 samples from city slaughterhouses were used in this study. The tests for microbial contamination used several methods including total plate count (TPC), most probable number of Escherichia coli, detection of Staphylococcus aureus using Mannitol Salt Agar media, Salmonella spp. detection using Bismuth Sulfite Agar media and Triple Sugar Iron Agar media, and detection of the antibiotic residue by screening tests.
Results: Most of the samples were contaminated with E. coli (32.5% positive samples) and S. aureus (20.0% positive samples). The mean values of TPC and S. aureus contamination were lower than the maximum limit of contamination, which were 41.58 CFU/g and 13.93 CFU/g, respectively, while the mean value of E. coli contamination was 27.03 CFU/g which was higher than the maximum limit. A low frequency of TPC (5% positive samples) and Salmonella spp. contamination (2.5% positive samples) was found in meat samples. Meat samples from two of the surveyed slaughterhouses were tested positive for antibiotic residue and six of the 40 samples (15%) were also tested positive for the antibiotic residue.
Conclusion: It was concluded that most of the microbial contamination in beef meat from city slaughterhouses was below the maximum limit of contamination and only two slaughterhouses were found antibiotic residues in the meat samples.
Keywords: antibiotic residue, beef meat, city slaughterhouse, microbial contamination.
8. Antibacterial and cytotoxic activities of the Syzygium polyanthum leaf extract from Malaysia
Muhammad Luqman Nordin, Abdul Aziz Othman, Arifah Abdul Kadir, Rumaizi Shaari, Abdinasir Yusuf Osman and Maizan Mohamed
Veterinary World, 12(2): 236-242
Background and Aim: The increasing prevalence of drug resistance eventually leads scientist to discover new drugs that could solve the problem. Since ancient immemorial times, medicinal plants generally known as herbs were widely used in every culture throughout the world. In fact, currently up to 70,000 plant species have been screened for biological activities and about 70% ends up for commercialization. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the potential cytotoxic and antibacterial effect of Syzygium polyanthum leaves which are local Malaysia plants, against 4T1 and MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells, respectively, and also against bacteria causing mastitis in cows.
Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic effect of hydromethanolic extract of S. polyanthum against 4T1 and MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells was evaluated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The cells were treated with the concentration of extracts ranging from 15.63 μg/mL to 1000 μg/ml for 72 h, and the percentage of cell survivability was determined based on minimum concentration that was able to allow at least 50% growth of cancer cells (IC50) after 72 h. The antibacterial activity was tested against common bacteria causing mastitis in cow. The bacteria were isolated from milk samples. The antibacterial activity of the extract was determined by disk diffusion method and susceptibility test based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).
Results:Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus hyicus, and Staphylococcus intermedius were isolated from the milk samples that positive for mastitis. The MIC values range from 7.12 mm to 13.5 mm. The extract exhibits the widest zone of inhibition (13.5±0.20 mm) at 1000 mg/ml of concentrations. The extract relatively has low cytotoxicity effect against 4T1 and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values ranging from 672.57±59.42 and 126.05±50.89 μg/ml, respectively.
Conclusion:S. polyanthum exerts weak antibacterial activity and cytotoxic effect to mammary carcinoma cells. The extract does not toxic to cells. However, further study is recommended, especially, this plant should be tested for in vivo.
7. Genetic characterization of S1 gene of infectious bronchitis virus isolated from commercial poultry flocks in West Java, Indonesia
Rahajeng Setiawaty, Retno Damajanti Soejoedono and Okti Nadia Poetri
Veterinary World, 12(2): 231-235
Background and Aim: Infectious bronchitis (IB) is still a major problem among poultry industry in Indonesia, IB outbreaks continue to happen even in vaccinated flocks. The emergence of new IB virus (IBV) variants might lead to mismatching between vaccine virus strain and circulating virus strain, this may be a reason of vaccination failure. Information about circulating IBV in a region is important to decide which IB vaccine should be used. However, information about recent IBV strains which circulated in Indonesia and their genetic characters were limited; therefore, the aim of our research was to determine the genetic characterization of S1 gene of IBV isolated from commercial poultry flocks in West Java, Indonesia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 47 viral isolate samples collected from chickens with clinical sign and reduced in egg production. Six IB live vaccines were used as control, the reference vaccines represent IBV strains including H120, H52, 4/91, CR88, 233A, and 1-96. Primers XCe2+ and XCe2- were used to amplify S1 gene partially.
Results: Twenty-six of 47 samples showed positive result to S1 gene of IBV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Three IBV isolates, Indonesia/K233A31/18, Indonesia/K4A9/17, and Indonesia/P3/17, were selected for nucleotide sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis of 352 nucleotides of the partial S1 gene shows that isolates Indonesia/K4A9/17 and Indonesia/K233A31/18 have 100% homology with IBV vaccine strain 4/91, while isolate Indonesia/P3/17 has 100% homology with IBV vaccine strain 233A.
Conclusion: Our result indicates that at least two IBV strains were circulating among poultry in West Java, Indonesia, which is IBV close to vaccine strain 4/91 and 233A. The present study provides updates on the circulating IBV in commercial poultry flocks in West Java, Indonesia, and might use as guidance on selecting a proper IB vaccine strain to improve IB vaccination efficacy in certain region.
Keywords: genetic characterization, Indonesia, infectious bronchitis virus, poultry, S1 gene, West Java.
6. Coinfection of diarrheagenic bacterial and viral pathogens in piglets of Northeast region of India
Hosterson Kylla, Tapan K. Dutta, Parimal Roychoudhury and Prasant K. Subudhi
Veterinary World, 12(2): 224-230
Aim: This study aimed to study the prevalence of the coinfection of enteric bacterial and viral pathogens, namely Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Rotavirus, and Picobirnavirus from fecal samples of pre-weaned piglets in Northeast region of India.
Materials and Methods: A total of 457 fresh fecal samples were collected from piglets under 9 weeks old during 2013-2015 from organized (n=225) and unorganized (n=232) farms of Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and Nagaland. Samples were collected from diarrheic (n =339) and non-diarrheic (n=118) piglets including local indigenous (n=130) and crossbreed (n=327) piglets in different seasons during the study period. The samples were processed for the isolation of E. coli and Salmonella and detection of their putative virulence genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Samples were also processed for the detection of Rotavirus and Picobirnavirus by RNA-polyacrylamide agarose gel electrophoresis and reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR).
Results: A total of 11 (2.40%) samples were found positive for two or more coinfecting enteric bacterial and viral pathogens. All the 11 positive fecal samples were recovered from diarrheic piglets. SalmonellaTyphimurium (enterotoxin, stn gene) and Picobirnavirus genogroup 1 were found to be more frequent as coinfecting agents. Coinfection was recorded higher in unorganized (3.87%) compared to organized farm (0.88%). Again, higher detection was recorded in crossbreed (2.75%) than local indigenous piglets (1.53%). The occurrence of coinfection was found to be more common during summer (4.68%) followed by winter (2.27%) season.
Conclusion: The present study highlighted the significance of E. coli, Salmonella, Rotavirus, and Picobirnavirus as important diarrheagenic pathogens causing coinfection in piglets in Northeast region of India. Probably, this is the first systematic study of the coinfection of four important diarrheagenic bacterial and viral agents associated with piglet diarrhea in India.
5. Investigation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in Arabian dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius)
Mohamed A. Salem, Wael M. El-Deeb, Ahmed A. Zaghawa, Fadel M. Housawi and Ahmed M. Alluwaimi
Veterinary World, 12(2): 218-223
Aim:Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease in ruminants. This study aimed to investigate Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in clinically infected camels on the immunological, conventional bacteriological, and molecular biological basis.
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 Arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius) were examined in this study. The camels were suffering from signs ranging from mild to severe infections (that did not respond to antibiotic treatment) to chronic or intermittent diarrhea. Camels were grouped into three groups based on their age, sex, and breed. Detection of anti-MAP antibodies in camels' serum, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining technique on rectal scraps, direct recognition of MAP in stool and tissue specimens by IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and finally isolation and molecular description of MAP from fecal and tissue samples were carried out.
Results: Five MAP isolates were recovered from these investigated camel samples giving an isolation rate of 16.6%, while eight camels were identified by PCR (26.6%). Five camels yielded MAP in their feces by ZN fecal staining (16.6%), whereas ELISA detected anti-MAP antibodies in nine camels only (30%).
Conclusion: From the obtained results, we concluded that the gold standard for the diagnosis of MAP is the culture method despite its limitations. Molecular diagnosis (PCR) could be a useful tool in the identification of truly positive and negative camels; however, great care should be given regarding the primers specificity and sensitivity.
4. Reduction of proteolysis of high protein silage from Moringa and Indigofera leaves by addition of tannin extract
Anuraga Jayanegara, Aldi Yaman and Lilis Khotijah
Veterinary World, 12(2): 211-217
Aim: The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of the addition of tannin extract to Moringa and Indigofera leaf silages on their chemical composition, silage quality characteristics, and in vitro rumen fermentation parameters and digestibility.
Materials and Methods: Moringa and Indigofera leaves were cut (3 cm length) and added with either 0, 2, or 4% chestnut tannin in three replicates. The leaves were then inserted into lab-scale silos (1 L capacity) and kept for 30 days. Silage samples were subjected to silage quality determination, chemical composition analysis, and in vitro rumen fermentation and digestibility evaluation using a gas production technique. Data obtained were subjected to the analysis of variance with a factorial statistical model in which the first factor was different silage species and the second factor was tannin addition levels.
Results: Tannin addition at 4% dry matter (DM) increased neutral detergent insoluble crude protein (NDICP) and acid detergent insoluble CP (ADICP) of Indigofera silage. A similar response was observed in Moringa silage, but it required less tannin, i.e., 2% DM to increase its NDICP and ADICP. Moringa silage had lower pH than that of Indigofera silage (p<0.05), and tannin addition did not change pH of both Indigofera and Moringa silages. Higher addition level of tannin decreased total volatile fatty acid (VFA) and ammonia concentrations of both Indigofera and Moringa silages (p<0.05). A higher level of tannin addition reduced ruminal total VFA concentration, ammonia, in vitro DM digestibility, and in vitro organic matter digestibility of Indigofera and Moringa silages (p<0.05). Tannin addition also decreased ruminal methane emission of both Indigofera and Moringa silages (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Tannin extract can reduce proteolysis of high protein silage from Moringa and Indigofera leaves.
Keywords: deamination, feed fermentation, polyphenol, protein degradation.
3. Staphylococcus aureus isolated from selected dairies of Algeria: Prevalence and susceptibility to antibiotics
Asmaa Manel Matallah, Leila Bouayad, Sofiane Boudjellaba, Faiza Mebkhout, Taha Mossadak Hamdi and Nadjia Ramdani-Bouguessa
Veterinary World, 12(2): 205-210
Aim: The objectives of this study were to assess the prevalence of Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk in Algerian dairies, to study the effect of seasons on the contamination of milk and the susceptibility of isolated strains to antibiotics, and to estimate the risk on the health consumer.
Materials and Methods: The ISO method 6888-1 (1) was used for Staphylococcus screening. Antimicrobial susceptibility to the 11most used antibiotics in veterinary medicine was assessed using the disk diffusion assay.
Results: The overall prevalence was 31.56% (95/301); 34.84% (85/244) from raw milk collectors cisterns (MCC), 22.73% (5/22) from mixing tank milk before pasteurization, and 14.29% (5/35) from pasteurized tank milk (p<0.05). A significant difference (p<0.001) of contamination on MCC was observed between dairies without season influence (p≥0.05). It was observed that 49.47% of S. aureus isolates were resistant to penicillin, 5.26% to tetracycline, 4.21% to erythromycin, 3.15% to neomycin, 2.10% to cefoxitin, 2.10% to clindamycin, and 1.05% to ofloxacin. No resistance was observed for vancomycin, gentamicin, chloramphenicol, and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
Conclusion: A high prevalence of S. aureus from MCC was observed without significant effect of season. The pasteurization does not ensure the elimination of bacteria in all samples. Half of the isolates were resistant to penicillin. These findings emphasize the importance of S. aureus control in Algerian milk industry at different levels to improve public health.
Keywords: antibiotic susceptibility, pasteurized milk, raw milk, Staphylococcus aureus.
2. Prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal protozoa in Madura cattle at Bangkalan Regency, East Java, Indonesia
Poedji Hastutiek, Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti, Mufasirin Djaeri, Nunuk Dyah Retno Lastuti, Endang Suprihati and Lucia Tri Suwanti
Veterinary World, 12(2): 198-204
Aim: This study aimed to describe the gastrointestinal protozoa in Madura cattle at Bangkalan Regency, East Java, Indonesia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 500 samples of Madura cattle feces were collected from 10 districts at Bangkalan Regency. Those ten districts represent the lowland and upland areas, and each district was represented by one village. The collected feces were examined using native, sedimentation, and floating methods. The species identification was determined by their morphology.
Results: There were 357 (71.4%) samples positively infected with protozoan. The highest rate of sample with protozoan infection was at Kamal District (88.23%), and Bangkalan District (52.83%) was the lowest one. There were six species of protozoa that infected gastrointestinal tract; those are Eimeria spp., Balantidium spp., Isospora spp., Blastocystis spp., Entamoeba spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. The highest number of protozoa found in this research was Eimeria (53.42%) followed by Blastocystis (14.43%). In this study, we found that 295 samples (58.76%) infected by one kind of protozoa, 53 samples (10.56%) infected by two kinds of protozoa, and 11 samples (2.19%) infected by three kinds of protozoa. In addition, there were 65.54% of bulls infected with protozoa, considerably lower than cows (72.97%). Cattle aged 6 months-2 years old (73.39%) and >2 years old (71.25%) are known more prone to protozoan infections than cattle aged <6 months (66.15%).
Conclusion: The present study revealed that protozoan infection of cattle is common in Bangkalan Regency. Studies focused on determining that the prevalence of protozoan, risk factors for the parasitism, and the geographic distribution are needed and will be effective guide for prevention and control measures.
1. Foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in Egypt during 2013-2014: Molecular characterization of serotypes A, O, and SAT2
Emad Diab, Abdel-Hamid I. Bazid, Mohamed Fawzy, Wagdy R. El-Ashmawy, Adel A. Fayed and Magdy M. El-Sayed
Veterinary World, 12(2): 190-197
Background and Aim: Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes A, O and South African Territories (SAT2) are endemic in Egypt; each is presented by a number of partially related topotypes and lineages, depending on their geographical origin. Continuous mutations and the emergence of new topotypes that lead to occasional vaccination failures were frequently recorded, so this study aimed to genetically characterize the circulating FMD virus strains in Egypt during 2013 and 2014 outbreaks, focusing on amino acids variations in VP1 region.
Materials and Methods: A total of 51 oral tissue samples were collected from cattle and buffaloes in 13 farms, and 38 individual cases showed clinical signs suspected to be FMD in six Egyptian Governorates (Cairo, Giza, Qaliubia, Fayoum, Sharquia, and Assiut). FMDV in collected samples was characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of full VP1 region, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis.
Results: Out of 51 samples, 44 (86.27%) were positive by RT-PCR using universal primers. Serotype O was predominant and detected in 31 samples (70.45%), serotype A was detected in 9 samples (20.45%), and then serotype SAT2 was identified in 4 samples (9.10%). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of VP1 demonstrated clustering of serotype O, A, and SAT2 in EA-3 topotype, ASIA topotype, and topotype VII, respectively. Serotype O is closely related to O/SUD/8/2008 with 94.6% identity but showed 14.6% differences from vaccine strain (O/PanAsia-2) of ME-SA topotype. Furthermore, Serotype A and SAT2 were closely related to recent circulating Egyptian isolates and vaccine strains type A/EGY/1/2012 (Asia topotype, lineage Iran-05) with identity 96.4% and vaccine strain of SAT2/EGY/A/2012 (topotype VII, lineage SAT2/VII/ALX-12) with identity 95.3%, respectively.
Conclusion: The present study recommended further studies of serotype O to determine the immunogenic relationship between the vaccine strain and the new strains to attain maximum protection against circulating viruses.