Saturday, 9 February 2019

Investigation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in Arabian dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius)

Research (Published online: 09-02-2019)
5. Investigation of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis in Arabian dromedary camels (Camelus dromedarius)
Mohamed A. Salem, Wael M. El-Deeb, Ahmed A. Zaghawa, Fadel M. Housawi and Ahmed M. Alluwaimi
Veterinary World, 12(2): 218-223
Aim: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) causes Johne's disease in ruminants. This study aimed to investigate Mycobacterium paratuberculosis infection in clinically infected camels on the immunological, conventional bacteriological, and molecular biological basis.
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 Arabian camels (Camelus dromedarius) were examined in this study. The camels were suffering from signs ranging from mild to severe infections (that did not respond to antibiotic treatment) to chronic or intermittent diarrhea. Camels were grouped into three groups based on their age, sex, and breed. Detection of anti-MAP antibodies in camels' serum, Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) staining technique on rectal scraps, direct recognition of MAP in stool and tissue specimens by IS900 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay, and finally isolation and molecular description of MAP from fecal and tissue samples were carried out.
Results: Five MAP isolates were recovered from these investigated camel samples giving an isolation rate of 16.6%, while eight camels were identified by PCR (26.6%). Five camels yielded MAP in their feces by ZN fecal staining (16.6%), whereas ELISA detected anti-MAP antibodies in nine camels only (30%).
Conclusion: From the obtained results, we concluded that the gold standard for the diagnosis of MAP is the culture method despite its limitations. Molecular diagnosis (PCR) could be a useful tool in the identification of truly positive and negative camels; however, great care should be given regarding the primers specificity and sensitivity.
Keywords: isolation, Johne's disease, Mycobacterium avium, paratuberculosis, polymerase chain reaction.

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