Tuesday, 27 October 2015

Application of hyaluronic acid in the healing of non-experimental open wounds: A pilot study on 12 wounds in 10 client-owned dogs

Research (Published online: 28-10-2015)
16. Application of hyaluronic acid in the healing of non-experimental open wounds: A pilot study on 12 wounds in 10 client-owned dogs -Roberta Ferrari, Patrizia Boracchi, Stefano Romussi, Giuliano Ravasio and Damiano Stefanello
Veterinary World, 8(10): 1247-1259

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1247-1259

Aim: Veterinarians have frequently to deal with wounds to the skin, subcutis, and underlying muscle. The aim was to explore the application of hyaluronic acid (HA)-containing dressing on open skin wounds in dogs. The progress of healing was assessed by wound area reduction and two scoring scales applied in human medicine.
Materials and Methods: Ten client-owned dogs with 12 cutaneous open wounds healed by the second intention were included. All wounds were treated using available in commerce HA-containing wound dressing from admission to complete re-epithelialization. At every clinical examination, wound area and scale scoring assessments were performed.
Results: After debridement, an increased wound size was obtained while an improvement was determined by both grading systems. The median numbers of return to the clinic for bandage change were 5 times. The median time to complete wound healing was 34.5 days. The mean wound area at day 7, 14, 21, and 28 were, respectively, 90.4%, 47.7%, 22.4%, and 14.8% of the original size (for linear measurement) and 95.5%, 54.4%, 23.10%, and 14.8% of the original size (for software measurement). Regarding wound healing assessment tools, the agreement between two operators was considered high for both scales.
Conclusions: HA-containing dressing may be a possible wound treatment for cutaneous open wounds in dogs. The assessment of wound quality using scale scoring system could be useful especially in the 1st week and to direct clinical decision-making process.
Keywords: advance wound dressing, canine, wound assessment.

Conventional and fluorescent based semen quality assessment in Karan Fries bulls

Research (Published online: 28-10-2015)
15. Conventional and fluorescent based semen quality assessment in Karan Fries bulls - A. Panmei, A. K. Gupta, P. R. Shivahre, M. Bhakat and A. Upadhyay
Veterinary World, 8(10): 1243-1246

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1243-1246

Aim: The present study was carried out on semen ejaculates of 15 Karan Fries (KF) bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, India with an objective to evaluate the relationship between the conventional and fluorescent based semen quality analysis of the bulls.
Materials and Methods: A total of 96 ejaculates were collected from 15 KF (Holstein Friesian [HF] crossbred) bulls. Semen were evaluated for color, volume, mass activity (MA) and percentage of individual motility (IM), sperm concentration, percent live spermatozoa, hypo-osmotic swelling test and acrosome integrity, chromatin integrity, sperm viability, and membrane integrity. Data were analyzed using SPSS software package for descriptive analysis. The correlation between rankings of sires based on conventional and fluorescent semen parameters were calculated by Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient.
Results: The average ejaculates volume (ml), sperm concentration (106/ml), MA, IM (%), live (%), morphological abnormalities (%), host (%), acrosome integrity (%), chromomycin A3 (CMA3) (%), SYBR-PI (%), and fluorescent isothiocyanate-peanut agglutinin (FITC-PNA) (%) were 4.57±0.36, 1162.98±97.93, 2.95±0.09, 60.8±1.22, 71.41±2.10, 9.31±1.15, 65.5±1.81, 86.6±1.59, 3.53±0.43, 65.39±2.23 and 74.47±2.53, respectively. Rank correlations were found to be significant for SYBR-PI and FITC-PNA with most of the parameters evaluated by conventional methods. Overall, among conventional criteria, IM revealed ranking of bulls almost similar to that of fluorescent criteria.
Conclusion: Overview of our results indicated that, among conventional criteria, MA and IM revealed ranking of bulls almost similar to that of fluorescent criteria.
Keywords: conventional method, fluorescent technique, Karan Fries, semen quality.

A study on the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and its enterotoxin genes in samples of well water, tap water, and bottled water

Research (Published online: 28-10-2015)
14. A study on the prevalence of Aeromonas sppand its enterotoxin genes in samples of well water, tap water, and bottled water -Hareesh Didugu, Madhavarao Thirtham, Krishnaiah Nelapati, K Kondal Reddy, Baba Saheb Kumbhar, Anusha Poluru and Guruvishnu Pothanaboyina
Veterinary World, 8(10): 1237-1242

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1237-1242

Aim: The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and its enterotoxin genes in various water sources.
Materials and Methods: 125 samples (50 from well water, 50 from tap water, and 25 from bottled water) were collected from various sources in and around Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation and examined for the presence of aeromonads by both cultural and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Alkaline peptone water with ampicillin was used as enrichment. Aeromonas isolation medium and ampicillin dextrin agar were used as selective media. The boiling and snap chilling method was used for DNA extraction. Primers targeted against 16S rRNA, aer, and ast were used to identify aeromonads and its enterotoxins.
Results: 48%, 18%, and 12% of well water, tap water, and bottled water samples were found positive by cultural assay with an overall prevalence of 28.8%. Aeromonads were detected in 32 % (52% in well water, 20% in tap water, and 16% in bottled water) of samples by PCR assay. Aerolysin (aer) gene was noticed in 34.6%, 20%, and 0% of well water, tap water, and bottled water samples, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 27.5%. Thermostable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast) was observed in 37.5% (42.3% in well water, 30% in tap water, and 25% in bottled mineral water) of samples.
Conclusions: Presence of aeromonads and its toxin genes in various sources of water is of public health concern and emphasizes the need for necessary preventive measures to tackle the problem.
Keywords: Aeromonas spp., enterotoxins, polymerase chain reaction, prevalence, water.

Saturday, 24 October 2015

Zoonotic gastrointestinal parasite burden of local dogs in Zaria, Northern Nigeria: Implications for human health

Research (Published online: 25-10-2015)
5Zoonotic gastrointestinal parasite burden of local dogs in Zaria, Northern Nigeria: Implications for human health - Christopher I. Ogbaje, Raphael A. Ofukwu and Ikwe A. Ajogi
International Journal of One Health, 1: 32-36


Background: Zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs are of the global problem particularly in the developing countries. Dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide and have been reported to be hosts of many intestinal parasites of zoonotic importance globally. In Nigeria, gastrointestinal helminthes of dogs is currently endemic in 20 of the 36 states.
Aim: In general, dogs are the closest animals to humans and for that reason we decided to carry out a survey study to check the incidence of these parasites in dogs and to ascertain the level of environmental contamination in the study area.
Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from dog patients presented to small animal clinic of Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University Zaria, dog’s fecal droppings from the streets, and residential Quarters of the University and gastrointestinal tracts (GIT) of dogs from dogs slaughtering house at Basawa Barrack, Zaria. Three methods were used in the analysis of the samples; simple flotation, sedimentation, and GIT processing methods within 48 h of collection.
Results: Out of 224 samples analyzed 76(33.9%) were positive of at least one of the parasites. Of the 101 samples from streets and residential quarters of ABU, Zaria, Isospora spp. 12(11.9%) recorded the highest prevalence rate followed by Taenia spp. 6(5.9%), then Toxocara canisAncylostoma caninum, and Dipylidium caninum were 5.0%, 4.0%, and 1.0%, respectively. Isospora spp. (19.0%) recorded the highest prevalence rate for the 100 samples collected from small animal clinic. Other parasites encountered were T. canis(8.0%), A. caninum (8.0%) and Taenia spp. (5.0%). Parasites observed from the 23 gastrointestinal contents from “dog slaughtered houses” were T. canis (17.3%), Isospora spp.(13.1%) and A. caninum (4.3).
Conclusion: The study revealed that zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites of dogs are endemic in Zaria and the general public in the area are at high risk of being infected with these parasites.However, there are no statistically significant differences in the level of zoonotic parasitic infestation in the three sample sites at p<0.05.
Keywords: dog, gastrointestinal, helminthes, parasite, zoonosis.

Friday, 23 October 2015

Evaluation of antigout activity of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extracts on potassium oxonate-induced gout rat model

Research (Published online: 23-10-2015)
13. Evaluation of antigout activity of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extracts on potassium oxonate-induced gout rat model Vaidehi N. Sarvaiya, Kamlesh A. Sadariya, Prakash G. Pancha, Aswin M. Thaker, Aashish C. Patel and Ankit S. Prajapati
Veterinary World, 8(10): 1230-1236

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1230-1236

Aim: The present study has been conducted to evaluate antigout activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Phyllanthus emblica fruits following its 28 days repeated oral administration on potassium oxonate-induced gout rat model.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 42 male Sprague-Dawely rats dividing them in seven groups having six rats in each group. Groups I, II, and III served as vehicle control group, gout control group, and standard treatment control group, respectively. Rats of all the groups except vehicle control group were administered potassium oxonate at 250 mg/kg (IP), throughout the study period (28 days) for induction of gout. Groups IV and V received aqueous extract of P. emblica at 200 and 400 mg/kg, and Groups VI and VII received alcoholic extract of P. emblica at 200 and 400 mg/kg (daily oral for 28 days). At the end of study, all the rats were subjected to blood collection; blood and serum sample were analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, respectively. After collection of blood samples on the 29th day, all the rats were sacrificed and subjected to post mortem examination to determine the presence or absence of gross and histopathological lesions in kidney tissues.
Results: At the end of study, rats of gout control group showed increase in platelets counts, serum creatinine, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and xanthine oxidase (XO) enzyme level along with alterations in kidney tissues as compared to vehicle control group. Gouty rats treated with aqueous and alcoholic extracts of P. emblica at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and standard treatment allopurinol at 5 mg/kg body weight showed reduction in platelets counts, serum creatinine, uric acid, BUN, and XO enzyme level along with significant improvements in histological structure of kidney as compared to rats of gout control group.
Conclusion: Oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of P. emblica fruits for 28 days has shown protection against gout in dose-dependent manner in rats.
Keywords: antigout activity, gout rat model, Phyllanthus emblica fruits, potassium oxonate.

Clinical and hemato-biochemical studies on fever of unknown origin in buffaloes

Research (Published online: 23-10-2015)
12. Clinical and hemato-biochemical studies on fever of unknown origin in buffaloes - Parmod Kumar, V. K. Jain, Ankit Kumar, Neelesh Sindhu, Tarun Kumar, Gaurav Charaya, Surbhi, Sandeep Kumar, Divya Agnihotri and Sridhar
Veterinary World, 8(10): 1225-1229

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1225-1229

Aim: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the clinical observation and haemato-biochemical studies on fever of unknown origin (FUO) in buffaloes which were presented for treatment at the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex (TVCC), Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences (LUVAS), Hisar.
Materials and Methods: The investigation was conducted on total 106 clinical cases presented at “TVCC, LUVAS, Hisar.” Diseased animals having history of fever and increased rectal temperature were considered for the current study. Diagnosis of FUO was done on the basis of negative parasitological examination, culture examination, fecal and urine test. The cases in which etiology could not be established (such as pneumonia, metritis, traumatic reticuloperitonitis, urinary tract infection, trypanosomosis, diaphragmatic hernia, Brucellosis, and foreign body) were considered as true cases of FUO.
 Results: Out of 106 clinical cases different etiologies were identified in 76 (71.70%) cases including pneumonia, traumatic pericarditis, trypanosomosis, bacteremia, etc. and 30 cases (28.30%) remained undiagnosed even after detailed investigation. The mean rectal temperature (104.43±0.16°F), respiration rate (56.57±1.51/min) and pulse rate (83.40±1.77/min) of animals (n=30) suffering from FUO were significantly higher, whereas ruminal movement (1.00±0.23) was significantly lower compared to healthy control group. The mean value of hemoglobin, lymphocytes, and packed cell volume were significantly lower, whereas mean value of neutrophils was significantly higher compared to that of healthy control animals. Mean value of serum levels of glucose, phosphorus, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), creatine phosphokinase (CPK), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine were found to be significantly higher, whereas mean value of calcium value was significantly lower in all clinically affected animals compared to the healthy control group.
Conclusion: About 28.30% cases of fever in buffaloes were found to be of unknown origin. Haemato-biochemical findings in cases of FUO in buffaloes revealed relative neutrophilia with lymphopenia, hyperglycemia, hypocalcemia, hyperphosphatemia, significantly increased AST, ALT, and CPK along with adversely altered kidney function indicators (elevated BUN and serum creatinine).
Keywords: biochemical parameters, buffaloes, clinical observation, fever of unknown origin haematology.

Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season

Research (Published online: 22-10-2015)
11. Efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material for broiler chicks during summer season - Gourav Sharma, Asma Khan, Surender Singh and Ashok Kumar Anand
Veterinary World, 8(10): 1219-1224

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1219-1224

Aim: The aim was to assess the efficacy of pine leaves as an alternative bedding material on the performance of broiler chicks.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in summer. Total 120, day old Vencobb straight run chicks were procured, and after 5 days of brooding, chicks were randomly distributed into four treatment groups viz. paddy husk (Group I), paddy straw (Group II), pine leaves (Group III), and combination of paddy straw and pine leaves (Group IV), each having 30 chicks with 3 replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were reared under intensive conditions in houses that have a semi-controlled environment, with optimum temperature and adequate ventilation. Food and water were provided as per NRC (1994) requirement.
Results: The average body weight after 6 weeks of the experiment was 2018.83±31.11, 1983.80±33.27, 2007.36±35.73, and 1938.43±36.35 g. The bedding type had no significant effect on the carcass characteristics viz. evisceration rate and proportion of cut-up parts of the carcass except giblet yield. The experiment suggested that performance of broiler chicks reared on paddy straw and pine leaves as litter material, had improved body weight and feed conversion ratio as compared to rearing on paddy husk as bedding material. Bacterial count, parasitic load and the N, P, K value of manure of different bedding material shows no significant difference.
Conclusion: Pine leaves have a potential to be used as an alternative source of litter material to economize poultry production in a sustainable way, so as to make poultry farming as a profitable entrepreneur.
Keywords: litter material, paddy husk, paddy straw, pine leaves.

Factors affecting survivability of local Rohilkhand goats under organized farm

Research (Published online: 22-10-2015)
10. Factors affecting survivability of local Rohilkhand goats under organized farm - D. Upadhyay, B. H. M. Patel, S. Sahu, G. K. Gaur and M. Singh
Veterinary World, 8(10): 1215-1218

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1215-1218

Aim: To study the pattern of mortality as affected by age, season and various diseases in local goats of Rohilkhand region maintained at the Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Bareilly.
Materials and Methods: Post-mortem records of 12 years (2000-01 to 2011-12) were used, and total 243 mortality data were collected and analyzed. The causes of mortality were classified into seven major classes viz. digestive disorders, respiratory disorders, cardiovascular disorders, musculoskeletal disorder, parasitic disorders, mixed disorders (combination of digestive, respiratory, parasitic, and cardiovascular disorders) and miscellaneous disorders (cold, hypoglycemia, emaciation, endometritis, traumatic injury, etc.).
Results: The average mortality was 10.93%. The overall mortality was more during rainy season followed by winter and summer season. The mortality in 4-6 months of age was high (2.52%) followed by 0-1 month (2.34%) and 2-3 months (1.35%). The average mortality among adult age groups (>12 months) was 3.42%. The mortality showed declining trend with the advancement of age up to 3 months and then again increased in 4-6 months age group. The digestive diseases (3.51%) followed by respiratory diseases (1.89%) and parasitic diseases (1.48%) contributed major share to the total mortality occurred and the remaining disorders were of lesser significance in causing death in goats. There is significant (p<0.01; χ2=55.62) association between year with season and age with the season (p<0.05, χ2=16.083) found in the present study.
Conclusion: This study confirms that overall mortality rate averaged 10.93% (ranged between 1.10% and 25.56%) over 12 years under semi-intensive farm condition. It was generally higher in rainy season. The mortality remains higher in kids particularly under 1 month of age. The digestive diseases contributed major share to overall mortality.
Keywords: digestive disease, goat, mortality, Rohilkhand.

Saturday, 17 October 2015

Effect of drinking water temperature on physiological variables of crossbred dairy cattle at high altitude temperate region of Himalayas

Research (Published online: 17-10-2015)
9. Effect of drinking water temperature on physiological variables of crossbred dairy cattle at high altitude temperate region of HimalayasD. M. Golher, P. Thirumurugan, B. H. M. Patel, V. K. Upadhyay, S. Sahu, G. K. Gaur and S. H. Bhoite
Veterinary World, 8(10): 1210-1214

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1210-1214

Aim: The objective of study was to investigate the effects of drinking water on certain physiological parameters such as heart rate (HR), respiration rate (RR), rectal temperature (RT) and, ruminal motility (RM).
Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out on 18 farm bred lactating crossbred cows. The animals selected for the study were divided into three groups of six animals each on the basis of milk yield and parity and were allotted to three treatment group of six each such as ambient drinking water temperature at 10.25±0.28°C (ambient water, T1), drinking water temperature at 15-20°C (T2) and drinking water temperature at 35-40°C (T3). All the managemental practices were kept similar during experiment except drinking water temperatures physiological variables such as HR, RR, RT, and RM of the individual cow was measured and recorded twice in a day at 800 h and again at 1400 h two consecutive days in a week 15 min after providing drinking water.
Result: HR and RR at morning and at evening recorded were within the normal physiological level for all the treatment groups. However, RT at morning was comparable in all the treatments whereas at evening it was significantly (p<0.01) higher for cows consuming in T2and in T3 than cows consumed (T1). The RM during morning among the treatments were non-significant as compared to the rumen motility at evening was significantly higher for (T1) and (T2) than for cows in (T3).
Conclusion: It can be concluded that offering warm drinking water at 35-40°C to crossbred lactating dairy cow is beneficial during winter at high altitude temperate region.
Keywords: ambient, lactating, relative humidity, ruminal motility, temperate region.

Prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants in Tamil Nadu, India

Research (Published online: 17-10-2015)
8. Prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants in Tamil Nadu, India - R. Velusamy, N. Rani, G. Ponnudurai and P. Anbarasi
Veterinary World, 8(10): 1205-1209

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1205-1209

Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of small ruminants (Sheep and Goats) in North Western part of Tamil Nadu, India.
Materials and Methods: A total of 630 faecal samples (251-sheep, 379-goats) and 554 blood smears (242-sheep, 312-goats) were examined, for the presence of eggs of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites, respectively. The samples were received from the Veterinary college hospital and Veterinary dispensaries in North Western part of Tamil Nadu. Faecal samples were processed by sedimentation technique and examined under low power objective (×10), and blood smears were stained using Giemsa’s technique and examined under oil immersion (×100).
Result: The analysis of data on the prevalence of intestinal and haemoprotozoan parasites of sheep and goats in North Western part of Tamil Nadu for the period from 2004 to 2013, showed an overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was found to be 67% and 35% in sheep and goats, respectively, whereas only 11% of sheep and 3% of goats had the haemoprotozoan parasitic infection. Highly, significant difference (p<0.01) in the prevalence of intestinal (χ2=65), and hemoprotozoan (χ2=15.4) parasitism was observed between sheep and goats. Intestinal parasites such as strongyles, Trichuris, Moniezia, amphistome, and coccidia were identified in which the highest prevalence was observed with coccidia, followed by strongyles, Monezia, Trichuris, and least with amphistome in both the sheep and goats. The haemoprotozoan parasites recorded were Theileria and Anaplasma species, of which, Anaplasma spp. being the highest and Theileria spp. the least prevalent in both the sheep and goats. The seasonal prevalence of intestinal parasites showed highest in rainy season, followed by moderate in winter and least with summer in both the sheep and goats, whereas the haemoprotozoan parasites recorded were the highest in summer followed by winter and least with rainy season.
Conclusion: The present study suggests that North Western part of Tamil Nadu is highly endemic for intestinal parasites such as coccidia and strongyles and haemoprotozoans such as Anaplasma and Theileria species in small ruminants.
Keywords: helminths, haemoprotozoan parasites, prevalence, sheep, goats.

Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in ovine population of Kashmir Valley

Research (Published online: 17-10-2015)
7. Prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infections in ovine population of Kashmir Valley - S. R. Tramboo, R. A. Shahardar, I. M. Allaie, Z. A. Wani and M. S. Bushra
Veterinary World, 8(10): 1199-1204

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1199-1204

Aim: Gastrointestinal (GI) helminth parasitism is one of the major constraints for profitable sheep production. Due to variations in the prevalence of GI helminths from region to region, it becomes important to map out accurately the parasitic fauna of a particular region for development of suitable control measures.
Materials and Methods: An extensive study of GI helminths was carried out in Budgam district of Kashmir Valley over a period of 1 year. A total of 1200 fresh ovine faecal samples from both sexes of young ones and adults were collected in sterilized plastic bags and examined by standard sedimentation and floatation techniques. Positive faecal samples (15-20%) in each season were examined by Stoll’s dilution method to determine the parasitic load. A total of 120 faecal samples (30 samples in each season) positive for strongyle eggs were subjected to coproculture using Petridish method and the third stage larvae were harvested to find out prevalence of different genera of strongyle worms.
Results: The overall prevalence of GI helminths was found to be 77% with platyhelminths and nemathelminthes in 26.58 and 60.92% animals, respectively. The overall prevalence of mixed GI helminths was found to be 8.67%. Eggs of various helminths encountered in the present study were those of Fasciola spp. (3.58%), Dicrocoelium spp. (11.58%), paramphistomes (4.83%), Moniezia spp. (7.92%), strongyle worms including Nematodirus spp. (57.75%), Strongyloides spp. (1.67%), and Trichuris spp. (1.5%). On coprocultural examination Haemonchus spp. (55%) was found to be most predominant strongyle worm followed by Trichostrongylus spp. (17.5%), Ostertagia spp. (11.67%), Oesophagostomum spp. (9.17%), and Chabertia spp. (6.67%). On seasonal basis, highest prevalence of GI helminths was recorded in summer (83.00%) followed by spring (78.67%), winter (76.33%), and autumn (70.00%), the difference being statistically nonsignificant (p>0.05). The prevalence of platyhelminths (Fasciola spp., Dicrocoelium spp. and Moniezia spp.) was found to be non-significantly higher in winter, but paramphistomes showed the highest prevalence in the summer season. Nemathelminth infection was found highest in summer season and lowest during the winter season. Eggs per gram (EPG) ranged from 0 to 1800, and an average EPG count was found to be 454.35±27.85. EPG was found to be highest in summer (684.00±69.83) and lowest in winter (202.38±18.82). The overall prevalence of GI helminths was found more in adult sheep (83.00%) compared to young ones (53.11%), the difference being statistically significant (p<0.05). Similarly, the prevalence of helminths was found to be higher in females (78.32%) as compared to males (72.97%), the variation being statistically non-significant (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Seasonal variation plays an important role in the prevalence of GI helminths in addition to age and sex of the animal.
Keywords: coproculture, gastrointestinal, Kashmir, nemathelminths, ovine, prevalence, platyhelminths.

Thursday, 15 October 2015

Comparative study on the immunopotentiator effect of ISA 201, ISA 61, ISA 50, ISA 206 used in trivalent foot and mouth disease vaccine

Research (Published online: 15-10-2015)
6. Comparative study on the immunopotentiator effect of ISA 201, ISA 61, ISA 50, ISA 206 used in trivalent foot and mouth disease vaccine - Ehab El-Sayed Ibrahim, Wael Mossad Gamal, Amr Ismail Hassan, Safy El-Din Mahdy, Akram Zakria Hegazy and Magdy Mahmoud Abdel-Atty
Veterinary World, 8(10): 1189-1198

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1189-1198

Aim: A comparison study was conducted to explore the best internationally available adjuvant that could be used in production of a highly potent foot and mouth disease (FMD) vaccine, that could stimulate a strong immune response and possibly give greater protection against FMD.
Materials and Methods: Four experimental batches of trivalent FMD vaccine were prepared with different available oil adjuvants which included Montanide ISA 201, 206, 61 and 50.
Results: The results indicated that vaccines emulsified using Montanide ISA 201 and Montanide ISA 206 adjuvants elicited a protective humoral immune response from the 2nd week postvaccination (WPV) as for ISA 201 with serum neutralization test (SNT) and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) antibody titers of 1.62±0.047a and 1.8±0.049a, 1.59±0.076a and 1.836±0.077a, and 1.71±0.06band 1.96±0.074b for serotypes O, A, SAT2, respectively, and for ISA 206 at SNT and ELISA antibody titers of 1.5±0.082a and 1.84±0.084a, 1.56±0.037a and 1.818±0.052a, and 1.5±0.106a,b and 1.81±0.104a,b for FMD virus serotypes O, A and SAT2, respectively. For ISA 61 and ISA 50, the protective antibody titer appeared in the 3rd WPV. In the ISA 61 FMD vaccine, SNT and ELISA titer were 1.59±0.076a and 1.9±0.094a, 1.53±0.056a and 1.83±0.070a, and 1.5±0.082a and 1.84±0.094a for serotypes O, A and SAT2, respectively, and in the case of ISA 50 FMD vaccine, the SNT, and ELISA titer were recorded for serotypes O, A and SAT2 respectively, 1.59±0.037a and 1.8±0.030a, 1.68±0.056a,b and 1.916±0.065a,b, and 1.65±0.082a and 1.9±0.09a. On estimating the cellular immune response, the highest delta optical density levels for ISA 201 (0.395-0.460) and ISA 206 (0.375-0.428) were observed on 14 and 21 days post vaccination (DPV) respectively, while the highest levels of lymphoproliferation for ISA 61 (0.375-0.455) and ISA 50 (0.411-0.430) were on 21 and 28 DPV, respectively.
Conclusion: The duration of immunity from Montanide ISA oils (201, 206, 61 and 50) FMD vaccines is a long-lived immunity which ranged between 32 and 38 weeks post vaccination but the Montanide ISA 201 FMD vaccine is superior to the others in the rapid cellular immune response of the vaccinated animals which showed its highest level within 14 days post vaccination.
Keywords: cellular immunity, FMD Montanide ISA vaccines, SNT, ELISA.

Friday, 9 October 2015

Genotyping of major histocompatibility complex Class II DRB gene in Rohilkhandi goats by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing

Research (Published online: 09-10-2015)
5. Genotyping of major histocompatibility complex Class II DRB gene in Rohilkhandi goats by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism and DNA sequencing - Kush Shrivastava, Pushpendra Kumar, Nihar Ranjan Sahoo, Amod Kumar, Mohd. Faheem Khan, Amit Kumar, Arvind Prasad, B. H. M. Patel, A. Nasir, Bharat Bhushan and Deepak Sharma
Veterinary World, 8(10): 1183-1188

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1183-1188

Aim: To study the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) Class II DRB1 gene polymorphism in Rohilkhandi goat using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) and nucleotide sequencing techniques.
Materials and Methods: DNA was isolated from 127 Rohilkhandi goats maintained at sheep and goat farm, Indian Veterinary Research Institute, Izatnagar, Bareilly. A 284 bp fragment of exon 2 of DRB1 gene was amplified and digested using BsaI and TaqI restriction enzymes. Population genetic parameters were calculated using Popgene v 1.32 and SAS 9.0. The genotypes were then sequenced using Sanger dideoxy chain termination method and were compared with related breeds/species using MEGA 6.0 and Megalign (DNASTAR) software.
Results: TaqI locus showed three and BsaI locus showed two genotypes. Both the loci were found to be in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium (HWE), however, population genetic parameters suggest that heterozygosity is still maintained in the population at both loci. Percent diversity and divergence matrix, as well as phylogenetic analysis revealed that the MHC Class II DRB1 gene of Rohilkhandi goats was found to be in close cluster with Garole and Scottish blackface sheep breeds as compared to other goat breeds included in the sequence comparison.
Conclusion: The PCR-RFLP patterns showed population to be in HWE and absence of one genotype at one locus (BsaI), both the loci showed excess of one or the other homozygote genotype, however, effective number of alleles showed that allelic diversity is present in the population. Sequence comparison of DRB1 gene of Rohilkhandi goat with other sheep and goat breed assigned Rohilkhandi goat in divergence with Jamanupari and Angora goats.
Keywords: DRB1, major histocompatibility complex Class II, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, Rohilkhandi goat, sequencing.

Hemato-biochemical and pathological changes on avian influenza in naturally infected domestic ducks in Egypt

Research (Published online: 09-10-2015)
4. Hemato-biochemical and pathological changes on avian influenza in naturally infected domestic ducks in Egypt - Essam A. Mahmoud
Veterinary World, 8(10): 1177-1182

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1177-1182

Aim: Few studies have been made in regard to avian influenza (AI) in ducks, thus the aim of this work was planned to investigate the hematological, biochemical, and pathological changes in domestic Egyptian ducks naturally infected with AI.
Materials and Methods: 30 duck from private backyards 3-month-old 15 were clinically healthy (Group 1) and the other fifteen (Group 2) were naturally diseased with AI (H5N1). The disease was diagnosed by polymerase chain reaction as H5N1.
Results: Duck showed cyanosis, subcutaneous edema of head and neck with nervous signs (torticollis). Hematological studies revealed a microcytic hypochromic anemia. Biochemical studies revealed a significant decrease in total protein, albumin and globulin concentration with significant increase of activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, Υ-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactic acid dehydrogenase and creatine phsphokinase. Prominent increase in creatinine and uric acid in addition to hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia were significantly detected in the infected ducks. Histopathological finding confirm these investigations.
Conclusion: The highly pathogenic AIV (A/H5N1) became more severe infectious to ducks than before and causes nervous manifestations and blindness which were uncommon in ducks. Besides the significant increases of hepatic enzymes, brain, heart, and renal markers as a response to virus damage to these organs.
Keywords: aminotranseferases, anemia, avian influenza, creatinine, ducks, uric acid.