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10. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase and ampicillin Class C beta lactamase-producing Escherichia colifrom food animals: A review
Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus, Peter Anjili Mshelia, Iliya Dauda Kwoji, Mohammed Dauda Goni and Saleh Mohammed Jajere
International Journal of One Health, 5: 65-75
Antimicrobial resistance has gained global notoriety due to its public health concern, the emergence of multiple drug-resistant bacteria, and lack of new antimicrobials. Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)/ampicillin Class C (AmpC)- producing Escherichia coli and other zoonotic pathogens can be transmitted to humans from animals either through the food chain, direct contact or contamination of shared environments. There is a surge in the rate of resistance to medically important antibiotics such as carbapenem, ESBL, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones among bacteria of zoonotic importance. Factors that may facilitate the occurrence, persistence and dissemination of ESBL/AmpC-Producing E. coli in humans and animal includes; 1). oral administration of antimicrobials to humans primarily (by physician and health care providers) and secondarily to animals, 2). importation of parent stock and day-old chickens, 3). farm management practice and lack of water acidification in poultry, 4). contamination of feed, water and environment, 5). contamination of plants with feces of animals. Understanding these key factors will help reduce the level of resistance, thereby boosting the therapeutic effectiveness of antimicrobial agents in the treatment of animal and human infections. This review highlights the occurrence, risk factors, and public health importance of ESBL/AmpC-beta-lactamase producing E. coli isolated from livestock.
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, Escherichia coli, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase/ampicillin Class C.
30. Occurrence, characterization, and antibiogram of Staphylococcus aureus in meat, meat products, and some seafood from Libyan retail markets
Hesham T. Naas, Ramadan A. Edarhoby, Aboubaker M. Garbaj, Salah M. Azwai, Said K. Abolghait, Fatim T. Gammoudi, Ashraf A. Moawad, Ilaria Barbieri and Ibrahim M. Eldaghayes
Veterinary World, 12(6): 925-931
Aim: The aim of the current investigation was to screen the presence of Staphylococci spp., especially S. aureus in meat, meat products of different animal species, and some seafood sold in some retail markets in Libya using cultural and molecular techniques, and to study their antibiotics resistance profiles.
Materials and Methods: A total of 139 samples from red meat, meat products, and seafood were collected from many areas in Libya. Enumeration and isolation of Staphylococci spp. and S. aureus by normal cultural methods followed by molecular identification using molecular techniques by bacterial DNA extraction and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA.
Results: Out of 139 samples, 112 (80.6%) were contaminated with different species of Staphylococci based on cultural characteristics of Staphylococci on Baird-Parker medium, for which S. aureus was detected in only 32 samples (23%). However, only six out of 18 (33.3%) isolates sent for sequencing were confirmed to be S. aureus using the molecular technique. The six identified isolates of S. aureus were tested for antimicrobial resistance against 24 most commonly used antibiotics. All isolates were resistant to only two antibiotics (cefotaxime and clindamycin). Among these six isolates, only one confirmed to be Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.
Conclusion: Results of this study suggest that food of animal origin could be a source of S. aureus with antimicrobial resistance characteristics that can be spread through the food chain, and raise the importance of these results for public health.
29. Comparison of biotechnological culture of hypoxia-conditioned rat mesenchymal stem cells with conventional in vitro culture of normoxia-conditioned rat mesenchymal stem cells for testicular failure therapy with low libido in rats
Erma Safitri and Mas'ud Hariadi
Veterinary World, 12(6): 916-924
Aim: Biotechnological culture of hypoxia-conditioned (CH) rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSC-CH) for testicular failure therapy with low libido improves the functional outcome of the testicle for producing spermatogenic cells and repairs Leydig cells in rats (Rattus norvegicus).
Materials and Methods: In the first group (T1), rats with testicular failure and low libido were injected with normoxia-conditioned (CN) rMSCs (21% oxygen); in the second group (T2), rats with testicular failure and low libido were injected with rMSC-CH (1% oxygen); in the negative control group (T–), rats with normal testis were injected with 0.1 mL phosphate-buffered saline (PBS); and in the sham group (TS), rats with testicular failure and low libido were injected with 0.1 mL of PBS.
Results: Vascular endothelial growth factor expression, as the homing signal, in the groups T2, T–, T1, and TS was 2.00±0.5%, 2.95±0.4%, 0.33±0.48%, and 0±0%, respectively. The number of cluster of differentiation (CD)34+ and CD45+ cells in the groups T– and TS was <20%, whereas that in T1 and T2 groups was >30% and >80%, respectively, showing the mobilization of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). The number of spermatogenic cells (spermatogonia, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, and spermatid) decreased significantly (p<0.05) in TS compared with that in T–, T1, and T2, whereas that in T2 did not show a significant (p>0.05) decrease compared to that in T–. The improvement in libido, based on the number of Leydig cells producing the hormone testosterone for libido expression, did not increase in T1, whereas T2 was able to maintain the number of Leydig cells significantly compared to that between TS and T1.
Conclusion: rMSC-CH culture for testicular failure with low libido showed improvement in the functional outcome of the testicle and in repairing Leydig cells.
Keywords: hypoxia-conditioned rat mesenchymal stem cells, low libido, normoxia-conditioned rat mesenchymal stem cells, rat, testicular failure.
28. Prevalence and molecular characterization of infectious bronchitis virus isolated from chicken in Bangladesh
Zafar Ahmed Bhuiyan, Md. Zulfekar Ali, Mohammad Moktader Moula, Md. Giasuddin and Zahed Uddin Mahmood Khan
Veterinary World, 12(6): 909-915
Aim: The present study was aimed to determine the prevalence of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) as well as virus isolation, identification, and molecular characterization of various strains circulating in Bangladesh.
Materials and Methods: A total of 371 swabs and organ samples were collected from four types of chicken including layer, Sonali (local), broiler, and broiler breeder under eight districts (Rangpur, Bogura, Tangail, Dhaka, Gazipur, Mymensingh, Jamalpur, and Cumilla) during 2014-2016 in Bangladesh.
Results: Out of 371 samples, 65 samples were positive in reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for molecular identification of IBV. The overall prevalence was 17.52% recorded and among the selected types of chicken, the highest prevalence of IBV was found in layer that was 42.22% followed by 17.24% in Sonali, 14.93% in broiler breeder, and lowest prevalence was 11.94% in broiler chicken, respectively. Moreover, the prevalence of IBV was recorded highest in aged chicken at 41-60 weeks, which was 54.55% in layer, 27.27% in Sonali, and, afterward, 14.68% was found in broiler breeder, respectively. Frequency of IBV more frequently in winter (22.67%) followed by rainy (15.87%) and summer season (11.58%). The highest prevalence of IBV was found Tangail district (41.67%) followed by Mymensingh (24.42%), Gazipur (19.32%), Dhaka (15.38%), Jamalpur (16.67%), Bogura (13.68%), Cumilla (5.88%), and Rangpur (9.26%), respectively. Samples that were found high positive in IBV RT-PCR (Ct value below 30) were subjected to inoculation into chicken egg embryo to observe characteristic changes in chicken embryo. Swabs and organ samples were processed and passaged in 9-day-old embryonated chicken eggs through allantoic cavity route. IBV virus suspected samples inoculated into chicken egg embryos after 3-5 passages showed dwarfing and curling of the embryos which are characteristic lesions of IBV. Allantoic fluid was collected from all inoculated eggs and performed partial sequencing of S1 gene for three isolates. After sequencing, the phylogenetic tree was constructed from the nucleotide sequences of IBV isolates. Two of the isolates are 4/91 IBV and another one matched with QX-like IBV.
Conclusion: The results revealed that the three isolates from different places in Bangladesh were identified for the 1st time as which will help for IBV control strategy.
27. Comparative study between the excision-ligation and autoligation of vas deferens technique for teaser rams preparation
Dhurgham Hameed Al Haideri, Hussein Kareem Ibraheim and Falah Baiee
Veterinary World, 12(6): 901-908
Aim: The present study was designed to demonstrate the autoligation (AL) of vas deferens and the excision-ligation (EL) technique to generate vasectomized rams to reduce the complications, operative time, and price of the vasectomy techniques.
Materials and Methods: A total of 12 healthy and mature Iraqi Awassi rams were used, which divided into two groups, six rams for each one. The former group was performed the EL technique while the latter group, the AL of vas deferens technique was used.
Results: The results of the present study found that both techniques were same with the reproductive efficient examinations that mean the two techniques had same ability to close the male genital passage for teaser rams preparation. However, the methods were different with the histopathological changes, operation time, prices, and complications, which were minor in the AL of vas deferens compared with the EL technique.
Conclusion: The AL technique of vas deferens to prepare teaser animal is recommended over the EL technique due to different aspects such as cost, fewer complications, and active teaser for a long period are the main aspects of AL technique.
Keywords: ram infertility, testes, vas occlusion, vasectomy techniques.
26. Genetic variation and phylogenetic analysis of Indonesian indigenous catfish based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit III gene
Rini Widayanti, Aris Haryanto, Wayan Tunas Artama and Suhendra Pakpahan
Veterinary World, 12(6): 896-900
Aim: This study aimed to analyze the genetic variation and phylogenetic reconstruction of Indonesian indigenous catfish using mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit III sequences.
Materials and Methods: A total of 19 samples of catfish were collected from seven rivers (Elo [EM], Progo [PM], Kampar [KR], Musi [MP], Mahakam [MS], Kapuas [KS], and Bengawan Solo [BSBJ]) in five different geographical locations in Indonesia. The genome was isolated from the tissue. Mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit III was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with CO3F and CO3R primers. The PCR products were sequenced and continued to analyze genetic variation and phylogenetic relationship using MEGA version 7.0 software.
Results: Cytochrome c oxidase (COX)-III gene sequencing obtained 784 nucleotides encoding 261 amino acids. Sequenced COX-III gene fragments were aligned along with other catfish from Genbank using ClustalW program and genetic diversity among species was analyzed using the MEGA Version 7.0 software. Among all samples, there were substitution mutations at 78 nucleotide sites, and there were 14 variations in amino acids. Catfish from PM, KR, MP, and KS had the same amino acids as Hemibagrus nemurus (KJ573466.1), while EM catfish had eight different amino acids and catfish BSBJhad 12 different amino acids.
Conclusion: Indonesian catfish divided into four clades. BBSJ Catfish were grouped with Pangasianodon gigas, EM catfish were grouped with Mystus rhegma, and KS catfish were grouped with Hemibagrus spilopterus, while catfish MS, KR, PM, and MP were grouped with H. nemurus.
Keywords: cytochrome c oxidase-III, Hemibagrus, Indonesian indigenous catfish, mitochondrial DNA, phylogenetic.
25. Effects of rations containing formaldehyde-protected soybean meal on meat production in Kacang goats
Retno Adiwinarti, I. Gede Suparta Budisatria, K. Kustantinah, R. Rusman and Edwin Indarto
Veterinary World, 12(6): 890-895
Aim: This study aimed to investigate effects of rations containing formaldehyde-protected soybean meal on meat production in Kacang goats.
Materials and Methods: Fourteen yearling Kacang bucks, weighing 15.8-19.8 kg, were arranged in a completely randomized design. The treatments included a control (PSBM0): 100% untreated SBM; PSBM50: 50% untreated SBM + 50% formaldehyde-protected SBM; and PSBM100: 100% formaldehyde-protected SBM.
Results: The goats disliked the protected SBM. Therefore, differences in their intakes were reflected in their average daily gain (ADG). The ADG and slaughtered weight of the control group were the highest, while those of the PSBM100 and PSBM50 groups were similar. The carcass weights and meat production of the control group were higher than those of the PSBM50 group, but the retained protein to the meat conversion ratio of the PSBM50 group was lower than that of the control. The carcass percentages were similar between the treatments.
Conclusion: The retained protein to meat conversion ratio of Kacang goats fed with 50% formaldehyde-protected SBM showed the lowest value, indicating that these rations efficiently produced meat in the carcass.
Keywords: carcass, chevon quality, daily gain, Kacang goat, soybean meal.
24. A sensitive serodiagnostic tool for the detection of active infection of zoonotic visceral and nasopharyngeal linguatulosis
Marwa M. Attia, Elshaimaa Ismael and Nagla M. K. Saleh
Veterinary World, 12(6): 883-889
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the different serological techniques for early diagnosis of acute concurrent infections with linguatulosis in the definitive host (dogs) and an intermediate host (goats). This evaluation compared between the gold standard (GS) test (GS; examination of nasal and fecal samples in dogs and examination of lymph nodes in goats), sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA), and indirect ELISA.
Materials and Methods: Fifty goats and fifty dogs were examined for the presence of Linguatula serrata nymphs and adults, respectively, besides the collection of blood samples from the examined animals for serologic testing.
Results: In goats; GS, S-ELISA, and indirect ELISA showed positivity in 32 (64%), 28 (56%), and 39 (78%) samples, respectively. In dogs; GS, S-ELISA, and indirect ELISA showed positivity in 25 (50%), 25 (50%), and 30 (60%) samples, respectively. S-ELISA displayed significant higher agreement with the GS test (≥0.83) than indirect ELISA (≤0.67) in both hosts. Infection with linguatulosis showed significant relation with the age of goats and dogs and the sex of goats (p<0.05).
Conclusion: S-ELISA displayed more sensitivity and specificity for the detection of concurrent infections with linguatulosis in both dogs and goats than indirect ELISA, which could detect the prior infections. Similarly, these assays could be used for diagnosis of concurrent infections with linguatulosis in human, especially the chronic ones.
23. In vitro and in vivoAreca catechu crude aqueous extract as an anthelmintic against Ascaridia galli infection in chickens
Wida Wahidah Mubarokah, Wisnu Nurcahyo, Joko Prastowo and Kurniasih Kurniasih
Veterinary World, 12(6): 877-882
Aim: Intestinal parasites cause severe diseases at poultry farms, especially in developing countries, including Indonesia. Infections cause significant decreases in productivity at poultry farms. Ascaridia galli is a common nematode found in chickens with a prevalence of up to 92%. This study evaluates the in vitro and in vivo effects of Areca catechu crude aqueous extract (AAE) as an anthelmintic against A. galli.
Materials and Methods: In the in vitro study, already-infected slaughtered chickens were collected from local slaughterhouses in Yogyakarta. The chicken intestines were carefully examined and transported to the Parasitological Laboratory of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. A. galli was collected from the intestines and put into a Petri dish containing 0.62% saline solution. Sixty A. galli individuals were soaked in different concentrations of the AAE for 3-6 h. The number of deceased A. galli was recorded by ascertaining whether they had ceased movement using a stereo microscope. The morphological characteristics of the parasites were studied. The in vivo study used 40 female chickens that were 1.5 months old and infected with the eggs of A. galli. Approximately 3000 infective eggs were found in each chicken. There were four treatment groups; Group A served as the control and was treated with Aquadestilata, Group B was treated with 26 mg/ml of AAE, Group C was treated with 79 mg/ml of AAE, and Group D was treated with 50 mg/ml of pyrantel pamoate. The AAE was applied using a pipette for 14 days. The observed parameters include the effect of the treatments on hematology, body weight (BW), and the number of A. galli eggs within each gram of fecal matter.
Results: The AAE damaged the morphology, including the anterior end, posterior end, and vulva, of A. galli in vitro. The tegument of the anterior and posterior ends was slightly rougher, wrinkled, and damaged. The vulva and spicule ducts were irregular and indistinct. The average eggs per gram (EPG) in the untreated control increased in vivo from 1450±355.90 to 1975±325.96. The average EPG decreased from 1485±386.62 to 0±0.00 during 14 days of treatment of 79 mg/ml of AAE. The mean BW gain in the treated chickens was significantly (p<0.5) higher than the control. The treatment with 79 mg/ml of AAE increased the total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume values in the chickens.
Conclusion: AAE can cause morphological changes and subsequent death in adult A. galli in vitro and effectively decrease ascariasis severity in chickens, therefore increasing overall BW in vivo.
Keywords:Areca catechu crude aqueous extract, Ascaridia galli, chickens, in vitro, in vivo.
22. Protective effects of honey by bees (Apis dorsata) on decreased cortical thickness and bone impact strength of ovariohysterectomized rats as models for menopause
Ira Sari Yudaniayanti, Hardany Primarizky, Lianny Nangoi and Gandul Atik Yuliani
Veterinary World, 12(6): 868-876
Aim: This study aimed to determine the potential of honey as anti-osteoporosis by evaluating its effectiveness in increasing bone impact strength and cortical thickness, through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination.
Materials and Methods: Forty-five female rats at 3 months of age, weighing 150-200 g were used in the study. They were placed in individual cages and adapted to food and environment for 10 days. On the 11th day, after the animals were adapted for 10 days, the animals were randomly divided into five treatment groups (n=9): Sham operation group (SH); ovariohysterectomized (OVX) group with no treatment; OVX with treatment Apis dorsata 1 g/kg BW (AD-1); OVX with treatment A. dorsata 2 g/kg BW (AD-2); and OVX with treatment A. dorsata 4 g/kg BW (AD-3). Furthermore, those nine rats in each treatment group were divided into three groups. Three of them were observed at months 1st, 2nd, and 3rd so that in each observation taken three rats in each treatment group. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized and necropsy for taking their second femoral bone, i.e. dexter region for examining their bone impact strength, while the sinister region was used for measure the cortical thickness of the femoral diaphysis and examining their bone microarchitecture using SEM analysis.
Results: Based on results of the ANOVA test, the cortical thickness measurements of femoral diaphyseal can be seen that from month 1 to month 3 the lowest result was found in the group of rats that were OVX-I. Meanwhile, the highest result was found in the group of rats that were not OVX (SH-III). It was significantly different from the other treatment groups (p<0.05). The groups of rats were OVX with honey supplementation at doses of 2 g/kg BW had shown an increasing pattern in the cortical bone thickness from month 1 to month 3. Even on the observation of the 3rd month, the cortical bone thickness in the AD-2 (AD-2-III) group was not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the group of rats was not OVX in month 1 (SH-I). The results of the bone impact strength measurement from month 1 to month 3 indicated that the groups of rats were OVX without the administration of honey supplements had the lowest value. The highest bone impact strength was found in the group of rats that was not OVX, but not significantly different (p>0.05) with the groups of rats that were OVX administered honey supplement with a dose of 2 g/kg BW (AD-2) and 4 g/kg BW (AD-3).
Conclusion: The supplement of honey A. dorsata at doses of 2 g/kg BW in the group of rats was that OVX can inhibit the decreasing of the cortical bone thickness and repair damage in microarchitecture to generate bone impact strength. As a result, bones are not easily broken.
21. Potency of probiotics Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus casei to improve growth performance and business analysis in organic laying hens
Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari, Teguh Bagus Pribadi, Anam Al Arif, Soeharsono Soeharsono, Sri Hidanah, Nenny Harijani, Rifqy Najwan, Khoirul Huda, Hana Cipka Pramuda Wardhani, Nabil Fariz Noor Rahman and Andreas Berny Yulianto
Veterinary World, 12(6): 860-867
Aim: This study aimed to determine the use of probiotics Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus casei as alternative antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) to improve growth performance and business analysis.
Materials and Methods: This study used a completely randomized factorial design. The first factor was the time of administration (1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks) and the second was the use of probiotics (control without probiotics; 0.1% AGP and 0.5% Bifidobacterium spp. + 0.25% L. casei). One hundred and eighty laying hens (Lohmann strain), of 30 weeks old, were divided into 12 treatment groups, composed of five replicates, each consisting of three laying hens.
Results: The results showed that using 0.5% Bifidobacterium spp. + 0.25% L. casei in weeks 1 and 2 showed the lowest feed intake (FI) (112.11-112.19 g/day), the highest egg weight (60.28 g) in the 1st week, the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.21-2.23), and highest feed efficiency (44.75-45.25%) for 3-4 weeks, and the highest hen-day production (86.66-86.90%) for 3-4 weeks and the most profitable business analysis (IDR. 30,353).
Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that the addition of 0.5% Bifidobacterium spp. + 25% L. casei probiotics can be used as a substitute for AGP; it can reduce the FI and FCR, increasing egg weight, feed efficiency, and hen-day production, as well as illustrating the results of the most profitable business analysis.
20. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in rabbit of local Algerian population
Mina Henneb, Khaled Harhoura, Mohamed Amine Bekara, Safia Zenia and Miriem Aissi
Veterinary World, 12(6): 855-859
Aim: The objective of this investigation was to determine the seroprevalence and identify the risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the rabbit of the local Algerian population from five districts of Northern Algeria.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples of 350 rabbits were collected and analyzed for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additional data concerning the farms and management practices were obtained through a questionnaire used in surveys and interviews.
Results: The overall seroprevalence was 14.6% (51/350). The seroprevalence was significantly higher in outdoor rearing farms and was linked to the presence of animals from other species on the farm. A higher seroprevalence was found in older animals compared to younger ones. No difference in seroprevalence was noted with respect to the origin or gender of animals, type of cage, feed and water sources, presence of cats in the vicinity, hygiene status, or season.
Conclusion: This study has shown that T. gondii prevalence in rabbits of the local population is relevant and may have important implications for public health in rural areas.
Keywords: Algeria, public health, rabbits, seroprevalence, Toxoplasma gondii.
19. Diabetes sepsis on Wistar rat strain (Rattus norvegicus) induced by streptozotocin and bacteria Staphylococcus aureus
Dahliatul Qosimah, Dhita Evi Aryani, Ma. Asuncion Guiang Beltran and Aulanni'am Aulanni'am
Veterinary World, 12(6): 849-854
Background and Aim: Sepsis is characterized by loss of control of the inflammatory response, which can be triggered by various microorganisms and toxic secretions. The mortality rate increases due to impaired endothelial function caused dysfunctional organ systems. Diabetes is closely related to sepsis. The study aimed to determine the method of using animal models of sepsis diabetes through a combination of streptozotocin (STZ) and Staphylococcus aureus infection based on biological marker parameters.
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 male Wistar rats of 2.5-3 months old weighing approximately 150-250 g body weight (BW) divided into six treatment groups with five replications per group were used in the study. Treatment A was negative control (healthy rats) and Treatment B was the positive control (with diabetes) where rats were given STZ dose at 45 mg/kg BW on day 8 intraperitoneally (IP). The blood glucose was measured on day 10, Treatment C was a positive control (bacteria), rats inoculated with S. aureus with a concentration of 108 CFU/mL on day 8 given IP and observed sepsis conditions on day 10th. Treatment group (D, E, and F): Rats given STZ dose at 45 mg/kg BW on day 8th by IP and measured blood glucose on day 10th, then inoculated with S. aureus with different concentrations of 105 CFU/mL, 106 CFU/mL, and 107 CFU/mL on the 10th day, respectively, and were later observed the condition of sepsis on day 12th. Data on diabetes bacteremia were quantitative used blood glucose levels, the bacterial count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance test with a confidence level of 95%. Physical examination (temperature and respiration) is qualitative.
Results: Physical examination showed that all treatments had a normal temperature, an increased pulse in Groups D, E, and F and a decrease in respiratory rate in the treatment of E and F, the bacteria found in the vital organs in all groups, and CRP levels were not significantly different at all.
Conclusion: Animal model of diabetes sepsis can be observed through a combination of pancreas damage, and respiration, the bacteria in the vital organs.
18. The medical relevance of Spirometra tapeworm infection in Indonesian Bronzeback snakes (Dendrelaphis pictus): A neglected zoonotic disease
Aditya Yudhana, Ratih Novita Praja and Arif Supriyanto
Veterinary World, 12(6): 844-848
Aim:Spirometra parasites cause sparganosis, a zoonotic disease, especially in reptiles and humans. This study aimed to report on the prevalence and effects of Spirometra parasites infection on public health and provide a scientific foundation for its prevention.
Materials and Methods: A total of 378 living Indonesian wild-caught and captive-bred Bronzeback snakes (Dendrelaphis pictus) were selected. The snakes were euthanized using ethyl ether anesthesia before checking for Spirometra parasites. The numbers of Spirometra located in the muscle tissue, subcutaneous tissue, and coelom (including the viscera) were each counted to investigate the distribution of Spirometra inside the snake body cavity.
Results: The total prevalence in the sample was 50.85%. The prevalence values in wild-caught and captive-bred snakes were 70.7% and 48.7%, respectively. More than half (56.6%) of the Spirometra parasites were located in the muscular tissue, while 29.5% were in the subcutaneous tissue and 13.8% were in the coelomic cavity.
Conclusion: Wild-caught Indonesian Bronzeback snakes, which are sold as food in markets, and captive-bred snakes, which are collected as exotic pets in Indonesia, have similar opportunities to transmit the Spirometra parasite and cause global health problems due to their high prevalence.
17. Propolis supplementation improved productivity, oxidative status, and immune response of Barki ewes and lambs
Hesham Attia Shedeed, Bahaa Farrag, Eman Ali Elwakeel, Ibrahim Samir Abd El-Hamid and Muhammed Ahmed Hilmy El-Rayes
Veterinary World, 12(6): 834-843
Aim: The present study was conducted to study the effect of propolis administration on bio-hematological parameters, antioxidant enzyme activities, and productivity of Barki ewes during late pregnancy and lactation under the arid conditions.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-five pregnant Barki ewes were fed the basal diet (n=12, control) and the basal diet plus propolis (5 g/kg diet, n=13) for 1 month before parturition and continued 2 months after parturition. Milk yield and milk composition, hematological constituents, antioxidant enzyme activities, thyroid hormones, and lambs birth and weaning weights, and antioxidants were determined.
Results: Significant (p<0.05) increase in white blood cells in the propolis group compared to control was observed. Mean corpuscular hemoglobin (Hb) (MCH) and corpuscular Hb (MCH concentration %) were decreased (p<0.05) in propolis compared to control group. Milk yield was increased (p<0.05) in the propolis group compared with control and continued to increase with the advancement of lactation. Milk fat and milk total solids increased (p<0.05) in the propolis group than the control. Plasma immunoglobulin A (IgA) was increased (p<0.05) in propolis compared to control with no effect in IgM and IgG. Superoxide dismutase, hydrogen peroxide (HP), and nitric oxide were decreased (p<0.01) in the propolis group compared to control. Weaning weight for lambs born to ewes fed propolis was increased (p<0.05) at week 8 after birth compared with control lambs. Malondialdehyde and HP activities were decreased (p<0.01) in lambs born to propolis ewes compared to control.
Conclusion: Crude Chinese propolis (5 g/d) supplementation improved milk yield, milk composition, and the antioxidant enzymes in Barki ewes and immune functions, growth performance and antioxidant status in their lambs under arid conditions.
Keywords: antioxidants, Chinese propolis, immunoglobulin, productivity, sheep, thermorespiratory responses.
16. Evaluation of phytochemical constituents and sedative-hypnotic activity of the methanol leaf extract of Ficus exasperata in mice
Hudu Garba Mikail, David Dezi Akumka, Mohammed Adamu and Aishatu Ummi Zaifada
Veterinary World, 12(6): 830-833
Background and Aim: Sedative drugs mostly cause dose-dependent depression of the central nervous system which results in hypnosis and anesthesia possibly; however, these agents are associated with some side effects ranging respiratory, digestive, immune system dysfunctions, tolerance, cognitive function deterioration, and physical dependence; hence, investigations of newer and safer agents are, therefore, imperative. The current study was aimed at investigating the sedative-hypnotic (S-H) effects of the methanol leaf extract of Ficus exasperata in mice.
Materials and Methods: Phytochemical screening of the leaf extract was conducted, and S-H activity of the plant extract was evaluated. Twenty Swiss Albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of five mice each. The mice in Groups A and B were injected with the extract intraperitoneally (IP) at the dose rate of 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively, those in Group C were injected with xylazine at the dose rate of 10 mg/kg, while Group D mice received distilled water at the dose rate of 2 ml/kg. All the four experimental groups were injected with ketamine (IP) at the dose rate of 100 mg/kg after 30 min.
Results: Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars, steroids and triterpenes, saponins, tannins, condensed tannins, and flavonoids, while anthraquinones, anthracene derivatives, and alkaloids were absent. Results from the S-H evaluation show no significant difference (p≥0.05) on the onset of sleep time between the four experimental groups; however, statistically significant difference (p≤0.05) was recorded in the sleep duration time between the groups treated with only ketamine and the other experimental groups pre-treated with either the extract or xylazine before ketamine administration. The group pre-treated with a high dose of the plant extract (200 mg/kg) and the treated with ketamine after 30 min exhibited longer sleeping duration time. The plant extract, xylazine and ketamine, sedated the mice for some period of time after arousal from sleep.
Conclusion: Our finding suggests that methanol leaf extract of F. exasperata possesses S-H potential that may require further scientific investigations.
9. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies in trade donkeys (Equus asinus) at Ganawuri district market, Riyom Local Government area, Plateau State, North Central Nigeria
Ishaku Bata Shalangwa and Shalom Byencit Kumra
International Journal of One Health, 5: 60-64
Background and Aim:Toxoplasma gondii is a parasite of public health significance due to its possible transmission to humans through ingestion of tissue cysts in raw or undercooked meat or food or water contaminated with oocysts shed by felids and transplacental transmission. This study was carried out to provide information on the possible risk of transmission through eating undercooked donkey meat by conducting a market based cross-sectional study design to determine the presence of T. gondii antibodies in trade donkeys in Ganawuri district, Riyom Local Government Area, Plateau State, North Central, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirteen serum samples were collected from trade donkeys at the market and analyzed for T. gondii antibodies using latex agglutination test (LAT). Serum samples with LAT titer >10 μl/ml were considered positive.
Results: The distribution of the donkeys based on their sources showed that greater proportions (61.1%) were from North Eastern part of the country. The study showed that 31 of the serum samples collected and analyzed were positive for T. gondii antibodies given an overall prevalence of 27.4%. The prevalence ranges between 22.2 and 33.3% across the states where the donkeys were sourced. The study showed that seropositivity increases with age (p=0.003; OR=11.8) and ranges between 12.5 and 47.2%. The prevalence did not vary significantly based on sex and source/location (p=0.494, OR=0.05; 0.920, 1.45, respectively).
Conclusion: This study showed that trade donkeys at Ganawuri district market have antibodies to T. gondii and suggest a public health risk from the consumption of undercooked donkey meat.
Keywords: antibodies, cross-sectional, donkeys, prevalence, public health, Toxoplasma gondii, trade.
15. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria in dadih produced by either back-slopping or spontaneous fermentation from two different regions of West Sumatra, Indonesia
Chandra Utami Wirawati, Mirnawati Bachrum Sudarwanto, Denny Widaya Lukman, Ietje Wientarsih and Eko Agus Srihanto
Veterinary World, 12(6): 823-829
Aim: Dadih samples from two different origins (Kamang and Gadut in West Sumatra) manufactured with different methods (back-slopping or spontaneous fermentation) were evaluated for the diversity of lactic acid bacteria (LAB).
Materials and Methods: Four dadih samples manufactured with two different fermentation methods were obtained from Kamang and Gadut regions. Both genotypic and phenotypic characteristic (16S rRNA partial gene sequence analysis and carbohydrate fermentation profile) were used to analyze the diversity of dadih LAB population.
Results: This study showed that LAB count in back-slopping fermented dadih was one log cycle higher than spontaneous fermented dadih. LAB isolates from the two regions were divided into three genera, namely Lactococcus, Lactobacillus, and Pediococcus. Sequencing results showed that 41.6% (five isolates) were identified as Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis, 25% (three isolates) were identified as Lactobacillus plantarum ssp. plantarum, 16.6% (two isolates) were identified as L. lactis ssp. cremoris, and 8.3% (one isolate each) were identified as Pediococcus pentosaceus and Lactobacillus pentosus.
Conclusion: Five species were determined in back-slopping fermented dadih, i.e., L. lactis ssp. lactis, L. lactis ssp. cremoris, L. plantarum ssp. plantarum, L. pentosus, and P. pentosaceus. On the other hand, spontaneous fermented dadih only contained three different species, namely L. lactis ssp. lactis, L. lactis ssp. cremoris, and L. plantarum ssp. plantarum. This research showed that back-slopping fermentation offers greater abundance and diversity compared to spontaneous fermentation in dadih.
14. Phenotypic parameters affecting reproduction and production performances of dairy cattle in peri-urban of Bamako, Mali
Abdoulaye Toure, Nicolas Antoine-Moussiaux, Fikremariam Geda, Ali Kouriba, Diakaridia Traore, Bakary Traore, Pascal Leroy and Nassim Moula
Veterinary World, 12(6): 817-822
Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the reproduction and production performances of crossbred and local dairy cattle in peri-urban of Bamako, the capital of Mali.
Materials and Methods: A total of 17 randomly selected households with 450 dairy cattle from four peri-urban of Bamako were individually interviewed, given register format and divided into four focus group discussions. The participants were dairy farmers and they were asked to know the phenotype that seems to them the more interesting for the reproduction and production performances of their dairy cattle.
Results: The calving interval (CI) obtained exceeded 433 days in all phenotypic types with average milk yields of 5.13±1.84 kg/day, 4.76±2.41, and 3.05±1.32 kg/day, respectively, for the Holstein crossbred, Montbeliard crossbred, and the local breeds (Zebu Peul and/or Zebu Maure). Crossbred was more productive than local breeds with significant (p<0.05) differences for lactation length, CI and total production and not significant on parity. The results also showed the advantages of the crossbred cows in terms of CI (460±80 days) compared to local zebus breeds (433±115 days) to keep the time of milking as long as possible. However, the Zebu Azawak breed whose cradle is located in Northern Mali, managed under extensive peri-urban rearing conditions, has less favorable production parameters than those of other local cattle breeds in milk production (636±43.3 kg vs. 681±41.1 kg).
Conclusion: The present study revealed that crossbred dairy cattle performed better in terms of CI, lactation length, and production compared to the local breeds. The study also showed that the local Azawak breed numerically performed less compared to the other local breeds evaluated in this study, namely, Peul and Maure.