Monday, 29 May 2017
Saturday, 27 May 2017
Research (Published online: 28-05-2017)
15. Prevalence of multiple drug resistant Streptococcus suis in and around Guwahati, India
Mrinalee Devi, Jyoti B. Dutta, Swaraj Rajkhowa, Dhireswar Kalita, Girindra Kumar Saikia, Bipin Chandra Das,
Razibuddin Ahmed Hazarika and Gauranga MahatoVeterinary World, 10(5): 556-561
Efficacy and efficiency of poultry carcass composting using different mechanical mixing equipment for avian influenza outbreaks
Research (Published online: 27-05-2017)
4. Efficacy and efficiency of poultry carcass composting using different mechanical mixing equipment for avian influenza outbreaks - Jennifer Elizabeth Keaten and Mark Hutchinson
International Journal of One Health, 3: 19-27
Background and Aim: Avian influenza (AI) is a viral disease that caused the largest animal disease outbreak in the history of US agriculture. There are several disposal methods of AI infected poultry carcasses available in the US, which include on-site burial, landfill, incineration, rendering, and composting. Of these methods, composting is the most environmentally friendly and poses a low risk for biosecurity. The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) has developed a comprehensive plan for composting AI infected carcasses. The current protocols have the potential for areas of anaerobic pockets within the windrow due to inadequate mixing and the large carcass size of whole birds. This could lead to ineffective virus neutralization or prolonged composting times and higher resource costs. The purpose of this project was to determine if using a horizontal mixer (HM) wagon to mix composting ingredients or a vertical mixer (VM) wagon to mix and cut up the compositing ingredients is an economical and timely means to accelerate the tissue break-down and obtain optimal temperatures for poultry carcass composting during an AI outbreak.
Materials and Methods: A replicated trial with three treatments, HM, conventional layering (CL) and VM, and three replications was initiated at the Compost Research and Education Center part of the University of Maine Forest and Agricultural Experimental Station called High Moor Farm. Daily temperatures and screened core sample weights (screen weights) on day 0, 16, and 30 were recorded for each of the compost piles. The time to build each replication was recorded and used to help calculate the cost of each method. Data on equipment, carbon material and labor costs were collected from private contractors from the 2014 to 2016 highly pathogenic AI (HPAI) outbreak and used to compare costs between methods.
Results: All treatment methods reached USDA protocol temperatures to neutralize the HPAI virus. Screen weights for both the VM and HM treatments were lower than the CL treatment. Screen weights decreased significantly from day 0 to day 16 for the VM and HM treatments with no significant change from day 16 to day 30. When comparing costs, the mixer wagon methods were the more cost effective than the CL method when using high volume equipment.
Conclusion: The data from this study support the use of a mixer wagon to reduce particle size and mix ingredients for more timely and effective composting of poultry carcasses.
Keywords: carcass management, compost, high pathogenic avian influenza, poultry.
Thursday, 25 May 2017
Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic diversity analysis of the Kilakarsal and Vembur sheep breeds
Research (Published online: 26-05-2017)
14. Single-nucleotide polymorphism-based genetic diversity analysis of the Kilakarsal and
Vembur sheep breeds
Rathinasamy Selvam, Nagarajan Murali, A. Kannan Thiruvenkadan, Ramesh Saravanakumar,
Gurusamy Ponnudurai and Thilak Pon Jawahar
Veterinary World, 10(5): 549-555
The positive expression of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (Malaysian isolate) in Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
Research (Published online: 25-05-2017)
13. The positive expression of genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (Malaysian isolate) in
Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
Lizma Felisha Mazlan, Noor Farhana Bachek, Siti Nor Azizah Mahamud, Lokman Hakim Idris, Tan Sheau Wei,
Abdul Rahman Omar and Mohd Hezmee Mohd Noor
Veterinary World, 10(5): 542-548
Aim: Genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is the most predominant NDV strains that circulating in Malaysia; thus, this study was aimed to determine the susceptibility of Japanese quails toward genotype VII NDV. Clinical signs, gross pathological lesions of organs, positive detection of virus in organs and cloacal swabs, as well as the expression of the antibody titer, were used as parameters to assess the susceptibility of Japanese quails following infection of genotype VII NDV.
Materials and Methods: About 20 quails were divided into three groups (n=8 for Groups A and B; n=4 for the control group). The quails in the Groups A and B were infected via intraocular route with 0.03 ml of 103.5 ELD50 and 107.0 ELD50 of NDV strain IBS 002, respectively, while the control group received 1x phosphate-buffered saline. Cloacal swabs and necropsy were taken on day 7 post-infection for all quails were subjected to one-step reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) for detection of virus and examination for gross pathological lesion, respectively. Blood serums of infected quails were taken on day 10, 14, and 21 post-day infections and were subjected for hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay.
Results: Depression and ruffled feathers, trachea rales, leg paralysis, and torticollis were shown in some of the quails in both infected groups. Based on statistical analysis, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in clinical signs between the infected groups. The results for RT-qPCR were found to be negative for all groups, and no gross pathological lesions of organs observed for quails in both infected groups. Trachea, proventriculus, and cecal tonsil were taken for the detection of NDV by RT-qPCR, and some of the organ samples showed positive detection of virus in both infected groups. HI assay showed an increase in mean titers of antibody across time and between infected groups.
Conclusion: In summary, Japanese quails are susceptible to genotype VII NDV based on parameters assessed.
Keywords: infections, intraocular, Japanese quails, Newcastle disease virus.
Saturday, 20 May 2017
Tuesday, 16 May 2017
Friday, 12 May 2017
Thursday, 11 May 2017
Wednesday, 10 May 2017
Tuesday, 9 May 2017
Sunday, 7 May 2017
Friday, 5 May 2017
Brucellosis: Community, medical and veterinary workers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices in Northern Uganda
Research (Published online: 05-05-2017)
3. Brucellosis: Community, medical and veterinary workers’ knowledge, attitudes, and practices in Northern Uganda - Harriet Muloki Nabirye, Joseph Erume, George William Nasinyama, Joseph Morison Kungu, Jesca Nakavuma, Duncan Ongeng and David Okello Owiny
International Journal of One Health, 3: 12-18
Aim: This study aimed at determining the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the community, medical and veterinary workers regarding brucellosis.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted at selected health facilities in Apac, Gulu, Lira, and Pader districts of Northern Uganda using a standardized questionnaire. A total of 251 patients testing positive for brucellosis using the Brucella plate agglutination test, 59 medical and 29 veterinary workers were studied. Chi-square test at 95% confidence level was used to analyze data.
Results: Only 8% patients, 15.3% medical, and 21.4% veterinary workers were knowledgeable on transmission methods and symptoms for brucellosis and knowledge differed according to the level of education among patients (p=0.001), medical (p=0.001), and veterinary workers (p=0.012). Over 80% patients, medical and veterinary workers had a positive attitude. Only 8% patients, 13.6% medical, and 7.1% veterinary workers had good practices regarding brucellosis control.
Conclusion: Poor knowledge, poor practices, and positive attitude provide an opportunity for health education and policy formulation for the control of brucellosis. The prevalence studies of human and animal brucellosis are recommended to determine the magnitude of the problem.
Keywords: awareness, Brucellosis, patients, practitioners, Uganda.
at May 05, 2017