Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
20. Combinations of herbs and probiotics as an alternative growth promoter: An in vitro study
Vinsa Cantya Prakasita, Widya Asmara, Sitarina Widyarini and Agnesia Endang Tri Hastuti Wahyuni
Veterinary World, 12(4): 614-620
Background and Aim: Antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) are added to animal feed to stimulate growth and increase livestock productivity. However, the regular use of antibiotics in animal diets has a considerable contribution to the occurrence of antibiotic resistance in livestock and humans. This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum), turmeric (Curcuma domestica), and wild ginger (Curcuma xanthorrhiza), Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus brevis as an alternative to AGPs.
Materials and Methods: The antibacterial activities and probiotic stimulatory effects of herbs were screened through the disc diffusion method and optical densitometry. The inhibitory ability of probiotics against pathogens was also tested through the disc diffusion method. The adhesion ability of probiotics was tested by mixing the optimal herbal combinations with broiler intestinal epithelial cells (105 cells/ml). The cells were then subjected to Gram staining, and the number of adherent bacteria was calculated.
Results: The test results showed that 3.13% ethanolic wild ginger extract had the highest inhibitory activity against Salmonella Enteritidis, followed by ethanolic red ginger extract and aqueous wild ginger extract at the same concentration. The three extracts also supported the growth of L. acidophilus and L. brevis. Further tests showed that the combination of 3.13% ethanolic red ginger extract had the highest inhibitory activity against S. Enteritidis, followed by ethanolic and aqueous wild ginger extract at the same concentration. The three extracts also supported the growth of L. acidophilus and L. brevis. Further tests showed that the combination of 3.13% ethanolic red ginger extract and 3.13% aqueous wild ginger extract had the best inhibitory effect on the growth of S. Enteritidis. The stimulatory effect of the combinations of herbal extract on the growth of L. acidophilus (0.18±0.00) and L. brevis (0.21±0.01) was better than those of individual extract, positive controls, and the glucose control. L. acidophilus and L. brevis had a weak inhibitory effect on the growth of S. Enteritidis (<6 mm). The adhesion ability of L. acidophilus (420.00±28.21) and L. brevis (259.33±24.03) was stronger than that of S. Enteritidis (202.00±14.00) under treatment with combined extracts.
Conclusion: The tested combinations of herbs and probiotics can adhere to the intestinal tract. Given this characteristic, herb and probiotic combinations may be developed as an alternative to conventional AGPs.
19. Carriage of Class 1 integrons and molecular characterization of intI1 gene in multidrug-resistant Salmonella spp. isolates from broilers
Renu Gupta, Sneh Lata Chauhan, Sunil Kumar, Naresh Jindal, N. K. Mahajan and V. G. Joshi
Veterinary World, 12(4): 609-613
Aim: The present study was conducted with the following aims: (i) To screen the Salmonella spp. isolates recovered from suspected cases of fowl typhoid for carriage of Class 1 integrons and analyze their association with antimicrobial resistance and (ii) to carry out molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Class 1 integron-integrase (intI1) gene.
Materials and Methods: A total of 43 Salmonella isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to determine the presence of Class1 intI1. Differences between different serotypes in relation to their carriage of integrons and the differences between strains containing or not containing an integron and being resistant to different antimicrobials were analyzed by Fisher exact test using STATA™ (StataCorp, College Station, TX). Phylogenetic analysis was carried out using MEGA6 software.
Results: Out of 43 isolates, 40 (93.02%) were found positive for Class 1 integrons. 35/40 (87.5%) intI1-positive isolates were multidrug resistance (MDR) (resistant to ≥4 antibiotics), which support the hypothesis of an association between the presence of Class 1 integrons and emerging MDR in Salmonella. There was no significant difference among isolates resistant to different antimicrobials in Class 1 integron carrying isolates and the Class 1 integron negative isolates (p<0.05). Further, there was no significant difference among different serotypes in respect of their carriage of Class 1 integrons.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that the high prevalence of Class 1 integrons indicates a high potential of Salmonella isolates for horizontal transmission of antimicrobial genes, especially among Gram-negative organisms.
Keywords: antimicrobial resistance, Class 1 integrons, phylogenetic analysis, Salmonella.
18. Molecular detection and phylogenetic tree of infectious laryngotracheitis virus in layers in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq
Furkan Alaraji, Hasan Hammadi, Alaa Abdulaziz Abed and Yahia Ismail Khudhair
Veterinary World, 12(4): 605-608
Background and Aim: Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) of chickens is a substantial issue to be studied in Iraq because this disease is one of the most highly contagious respiratory diseases in the world caused by a herpesvirus. However, in Iraq, the ILT virus (ILTV) infection and disease have yet not been confirmed in layers, so farm owners do not vaccinate these layers. The current study aimed to document the detection and characterization of ILTV in layer hens from Al-Diwaniyah city, for the first time in Iraq, using molecular techniques like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing.
Materials and Methods: Four layer farms (15,000 unvaccinated layers/farm) in Al-Diwaniyah province, Iraq, suffered a severe ILT outbreak, was diagnosed and reported by clinical and PCR tests. This disease has been reported in Iraq, and more recently, it began to show outbreaks in Al-Diwaniyah city. The current work opted to investigate the ILTV using PCR and DNA sequencing techniques. The study targeted the p32 gene of ILTV using pooled tracheal swabs and organs including the trachea, lung, and kidneys which were collected from dead and clinically infected chickens.
Results: The analyses revealed that four of six suspected field samples showed positive results by PCR. The DNA sequencing results showed the homology of the amplified fragments with the studied gene.
Conclusion: This study confirmed the presence of ILTV in hens with respiratory signs during the outbreak.
Keywords: DNA sequencing, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, laryngotracheitis, laying hens.
17. Changes of total protein and protein fractions in broiler chickens during the fattening period
Csilla Tothova, Edina Sesztakova, Bohumil Bielik and Oskar Nagy
Veterinary World, 12(4): 598-604
Background and Aim: Blood proteins in birds serve as an important indicator in the evaluation of health status and represent a basis in general biochemistry allowing the identification of metabolic alterations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the protein profile in broiler chickens extended by the concentrations of serum protein fractions at different periods of fattening.
Materials and Methods: Into the evaluation, we included 24 clinically healthy Ross 308 line meat-type chickens at the age of 2 days. Blood samples were taken on day 4, 18, 32, and 46 of fattening always from six randomly selected chickens. Chickens were fed with a commercial starter, grower, and finisher feeds. The concentrations of total serum protein and protein fractions were evaluated.
Results: Various significant changes in the proportion of the individual protein fractions were found during the observed period except for the beta-globulins in all protein fractions and the albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio. At the beginning of the fattening period, the relative concentrations of albumin, α1-globulins, and A/G ratio were significantly lower and the values of α2- and γ-globulins significantly higher (p<0.05). The values of pre-albumin fraction were found as a small band preceding the albumin fraction differed significantly between the different age groups of chickens (p<0.05). The total serum protein concentrations showed higher values in older broilers; the significantly highest mean value was recorded on day 32 of fattening.
Conclusion: The results suggest that fattening and age of broilers influences not only the production patterns, metabolic processes, and lipid and mineral profile but also the parameters of protein profile. However, seeing that some contradictory data exist regarding the number and size of globulin fractions in chickens, further analyses are needed.
Keywords: broilers, electrophoresis, fattening, protein fractions, serum.
16. Trematodiasis occurrence in cattle along the Progo River, Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Korbinianus Feribertus Rinca, Joko Prastowo, Dwi Priyo Widodo, and Yudhi Ratna Nugraheni
Veterinary World, 12(4): 593-597
Aim: This study aimed to measure the occurrence of trematodiasis in cattle along the Progo River, a district of Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The findings help to establish the magnitude of the disease and encourage prevention and treatment of this condition.
Materials and Methods: Trematode eggs were extracted from 100 fecal samples collected from cattle. The eggs were examined using the sedimentation technique, and the method of Parfitt and Banks was used to differentiate Paramphistomum spp. eggs from Fasciola spp. eggs.
Results: The infection rate of trematode parasites was 50%. Cattle experienced multiple infections of both Paramphistomum spp. and Fasciola spp., as well as single infections of one species or the other. All breeds were vulnerable to infections of both trematode species, although different cattle breeds, including Peranakan Ongole crossbreeds, Simmental crossbreeds, and Limousin crossbreeds, showed differences in infection rate. The highest rate of infection with Paramphistomum spp. (15.78%) occurred in the Simmental crossbreeds. The highest rate of infection (31.57%) with Fasciola spp. was in the Peranakan Ongole crossbreeds. Multiple infections of both Paramphistomum spp. and Fasciola spp. were highest in Simmental crossbreed cattle (28.97%).
Conclusion: The high infection rates of trematode parasites found in fecal samples, particularly of Fasciola spp., indicate that the cattle along the Progo River in Indonesia experience a high rate of trematodiasis disease.
Keywords: cattle, Fasciola spp., identification, Indonesia, Paramphistomum spp., Yogyakarta.
15. Effect of seasonality on the population density of wetland aquatic insects: A case study of the Hawr Al Azim and Shadegan wetlands, Iran
Hassan Nasirian and Aref Salehzadeh
Veterinary World, 12(4): 584-592
Aim: Wetlands are extremely suitable ecosystems to assess the effect of climate change on the density of aquatic insects. This study aimed to assess the effect of seasonality on populations of aquatic insects in the Hawr Al Azim and Shadegan wetlands.
Materials and Methods: The insect samplings were conducted at a large area of the Hawr Al Azim and five different sites of the Shadegan wetlands. In total, 18,534 arthropods of different life stages, including 12 orders containing 51 families, were collected and identified from the selected sites of the Shadegan and Hawr Al Azim wetlands.
Results: Results showed that the population density of wetland aquatic insects gradually increased as the average daily temperature decreased, positively increased with daily mean relative humidity and precipitation, and decreased with the mean daily evaporation between October and April. Conversely, the population density of wetland aquatic insects gradually decreased with increasing average daily temperature and reduction of the mean relative humidity and precipitation and increasing the average evaporation from April to September. When differences between the average daily and water temperatures reached minimum in April, the population density of wetland aquatic insects reached maximum and turned mainly to families that they have high level of biological indices, indicating that wetlands have clean waters around the spring. While around the autumn conversely, they mostly changed to families that they have low level of biological indices, indicating that wetlands have unclean waters.
Conclusion: The present study showed an optimum condition for the growth of insects around spring. Seasonality affects the population density of wetland aquatic insects during a year.
Keywords: change of insect population, effect of seasonality on insect population density, seasonal climate change, wetland aquatic insect.
14. Molecular detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates of chicken origin from East Java, Indonesia
Meutia Hayati, Agustin Indrawati, Ni Luh Putu Ika Mayasari, Istiyaningsih Istiyaningsih and Neneng Atikah
Veterinary World, 12(4): 578-583
Background and Aim:Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the respiratory disease agents in human and chicken. This bacterium is treated by antibiotic, but this treatment may trigger antibiotic resistance. Resistance gene in K. pneumoniae may be transferred to other bacteria. One of the known resistance genes is extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). This research aimed to study K. pneumoniae isolated from chicken farms in East Java, Indonesia, by observing the antibiotic resistance pattern and detect the presence of ESBL coding gene within the isolates.
Materials and Methods: A total of 11 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from 141 chicken cloacal swabs from two regencies in East Java. All isolates were identified using the polymerase chain reaction method. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by agar dilution method on identified isolates, which then processed for molecular characterization to detect ESBL coding gene within the K. pneumoniae isolates found.
Results: The result of antibiotic sensitivity test in 11 isolates showed highest antibiotic resistance level toward ampicillin, amoxicillin, and oxytetracycline (100%, 100%, and 90.9%) and still sensitive to gentamicin. Resistance against colistin, doxycycline, ciprofloxacin, and enrofloxacin is varied by 90.9%, 54.5%, 27.3%, and 18.2%, respectively. All isolates of K. pneumoniae were classified as multidrug resistance (MDR) bacteria. Resistance gene analysis revealed the isolates harbored as blaSHV (9.1%), blaTEM (100%), and blaCTX-M (90.9%).
Conclusion: All the bacterial isolates were classified as MDR bacteria and harbored two of the transmissible ESBL genes. The presence of antibiotic resistance genes in bacteria has the potential to spread its resistance properties.
13. Effect of mastitis on some hematological and biochemical parameters of Red Sokoto goats
Bashiru Garba, S. A. Habibullah, Bashir Saidu and Nasiru Suleiman
Veterinary World, 12(4): 572-577
Aim: This research project investigates the effect of mastitis on some hematological and biochemical parameters of Red Sokoto goats (RSGs).
Materials and Methods: In this investigation, 16 clinically and subclinically diagnosed mastitic and 20 non-mastitic RSGs, within Sokoto metropolis, were sampled. Blood samples were collected both in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and anticoagulant free sample bottles for hematology and biochemical analysis, respectively.
Results: A statistical analysis of the results revealed no significant difference in all the hematological parameters analyzed for both the mastitic and non-mastitic goats except mean corpuscular hemoglobin where significant difference (p<0.05) was observed. Similarly, no significant difference was recorded in the serum biochemistry except for the increase in total protein (p<0.001), globulin (p<0.05), and alanine aminotransferase activity (p<0.05).
Conclusion: This finding is a pointer to the fact that mastitis could be regarded as a localized problem affecting the udder without serious systemic or metabolic involvement in RSGs.
Keywords: biochemical parameters, hematological parameters, mastitis, Red Sokoto goats, Sokoto.
12. Evaluation of ventilator on lung profile of piglets (Sus scrofa) in hypovolemic shock treated with hypervolemic crystalloid resuscitation
Gunanti Soedjono, Eva Harlina, Antonius H. Pudjiadi, Melpa Susanti Purba and Setyo Jatimahardhiko Widodo
Veterinary World, 12(4): 565-571
Aim: This study was conducted to assess the effect of ventilators on the lung profile of piglets in the hypovolemic shock before and after the excessive resuscitation of the crystalloid fluid.
Materials and Methods: Five male piglets were used in this study as the models of shock, and there are four phases of treatment: Stabilization, shock of bleeding, normovolemic resuscitation, and hypervolemic resuscitation. The application of mechanical ventilation to patients who suspected of having lung injury may worsen the patient's conditions. The purpose of this study was to set the ventilator with the set of positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) of 5 cm H2O, the fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) of 0.5, and the inspiration: expiration (I: E) ratio of 1:2, which was applied from the stabilization phase. The shock induction was performed by removing the blood until the mean arterial pressure decreasing by 20% from the stabilization. The solution of NaCl 0.9% was used for the normovolemic and hypervolemic resuscitation. The parameter of observation consisted of extravascular lung water index (EVLWI) and pulmonary vascular permeability index (PVPI) on pulse contour cardiac output 2 and exhaled tidal volume (VTE), peak inspiratory pressure (PIP), and respiratory rate (RR) on ventilators.
Results: EVLWI does not indicate pulmonary edema. A significant decrease in VTE without any significant alterations in EVLWI, PIP, and RR has indicated the shallow breathing in the shock condition. Therefore, the PVPI parameter cannot be used as a parameter for capillary permeability since its formulation does not reinforce the results of data in the shock condition. The set of the ventilator may prevent the increase of EVLWI, and the uses of ventilators do not worsen the patient's conditions during the crystalloid resuscitation.
Conclusion: The use of mechanical ventilator as the support does not worsen the hypovolemic condition and is safe to use as long as the lung profile is not indicated to have lung injury.
11. Prevalence of Caprine brucellosis in Anhui province, China
Sajid Ur Rahman, Lei Zhu, Li Cao, Yafei Zhang, Xiaoyan Chu, Shibin Feng, Yu Li, Jinjie Wu and Xichun Wang
Veterinary World, 12(4): 558-564
Background and Aim: Brucellosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases globally. Studies indicated the existence of Brucella infection in goats in some province of China. Thus this study aimed to estimate the prevalence of brucellosis in goats of Anhui Province, China.
Materials and Methods: Serum and milk samples obtained from goats in different regions of Anhui province were studied through rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), milk ring test (MRT), and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: The investigation frequency of brucellosis using RBPT, SAT, MRT, and PCR methods was 3.9% (n=7), 4.45% (n=8), 11.67% (n=7), and 86.67% (n=156), respectively. The prevalence recorded for brucellosis in sex-wise animals as in females 5.55%, 6.67%, 11.67%, and 78.8% through above methods, while in males, it was 2.23% and 2.23% by RBPT and SAT. However, in age-wise animals, the results 6.36%, 7.27%, 11.67%, and 74.5% were perceived positive by RBPT, SAT, MRT, and PCR in adult females, respectively, but young males and females (up to 9 months) were considered free from brucellosis.
Conclusion: These results show that prevalence of brucellosis was relatively higher in females than male's goats and SAT was relatively specific and accurate as compared to RBPT and MRT, but for diagnosis of brucellosis, molecular method (PCR) is recommended.
Aim: This study aimed to compare the physicochemical, the biochemical, and the antioxidant characteristics of unifloral bitter honey and polyfloral sweet honey.
Materials and Methods: Unifloral bitter and polyfloral sweet honey samples were, respectively, harvested in January and July, and then, they were extracted by the traditional method. The markers of refractive index, pH, free acidity, Brix index, density, reducing sugars, total polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and ferric reducing/ antioxidant power (FRAP) were evaluated.
Results: The obtained results showed that the physicochemical parameters are within the normal ranges, in which they meet the international standards (Codex Alimentarius). For biochemical constituents, matching concentrations of reducing sugars (glucose+fructose) were observed in both samples, while that of sucrose were very low in unifloral than polyfloral honey. The levels of the active ingredients showed a difference in total polyphenols and tannins of the two types of honey studied, whereas that of flavonoids were almost similar. The antioxidant activity of various samples evaluated by DPPH and FRAP indicated that unifloral has a superior activity.
Conclusion: Compared to polyfloral honey, unifloral bitter honey has lower sucrose, high total polyphenols, and tannins levels, in addition to higher antioxidant potential.
9. Effect of exogenous progesterone treatment on ovarian steroid hormones and oxidant and antioxidant biomarkers during peak and low breeding seasons in dromedary she-camel
Amal M. Abo El-Maaty, Ragab H. Mohamed, Heba F. Hozyen, Adel M. El-Kattan, Mona A. Mahmoud and Amal H. Ali
Veterinary World, 12(4): 542-550
Background: Research about the effects of progesterone (P4) and the relationship of P4 to oxidative stress has been achieved in ruminants but not enough in camels
Aim: This study evaluated the effect of exogenous P4 hormone using CIDR for 7 days on blood concentrations of steroid hormones and oxidative status of dromedary she-camels during peak and low breeding seasons.
Materials and Methods: The present work was conducted on ten dark dromedary she-camels which were synchronized using a controlled internal drug release (CIDR) for 7 days as a reproductive management tool during peak breeding (November-April) and low breeding season (May-October). The blood samples were collected each other day from CIDR insertion until the end of experiment 5 days after the removal of CIDR. Camels were examined for P4, estradiol (E2), and testosterone (T) as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) as indicator of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione-S-transferase as antioxidant markers.
Results: Results revealed that P4 was higher during peak breeding season than low breeding season. While the levels of P4 increased during CIDR insertion and declined at CIDR removal and thereafter during breeding season, its concentrations declined after CIDR application during the non-breeding season. On the other hand, blood E2 and testosterone levels decreased after CIDR insertion in both high and low breeding seasons with higher serum E2 concentrations during the peak than the low breeding season. MDA concentrations and SOD activities were significantly (p<0.05) high on day 3 after CIDR insertion during the breeding and non-breeding seasons. During both the seasons, GSH levels decreased after CIDR removal in camels. However, MDA was lower during non-breeding season than high breeding season with no seasonal effect on SOD activity.
Conclusion: Exogenous P4 treatment through CIDR in dromedary camels could be more efficient during breeding season than non-breeding season, and effects on circulating oxidant/antioxidant biomarkers and their return to normal levels might refer to the adaptation of camels to CIDR by modulating their oxidant and antioxidant levels.
8. Molecular identification of Mycoplasma synoviae from breeder chicken flock showing arthritis in Egypt
Mohamed M. Amer, Hoda M. Mekky and Hanaa S. Fedawy
Veterinary World, 12(4): 535-541
Aim: Arthritis is one of the most economic problems facing poultry industry worldwide. The study was done to detect possible causes of arthritis in breeder chicken flock with emphasis on molecular identification of Mycoplasma synoviae (MS).
Materials and Methods: This study was carried on chicken from broiler breeder flock of 57 weeks' age in Dakahlia, Egypt, suffered from arthritis with frequently 5-7% decrease in egg production, reduced fertility, and hatchability. Forty blood samples were randomly collected from individual birds in sterile tubes and used for serum separation. Serum samples were tested using serum plate agglutination (SPA) test against colored antigens for Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), MS, and Salmonella gallinarum-pullorum (SGP). On the other hand, 24 joint samples were collected. Of those 24 samples, 12 joint samples were subjected to bacteriological examination, while the other 12 were utilized for molecular diagnosis by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for MS and avian reovirus (ARV).
Results: SPA test results revealed the presence of antibodies against MG, MS, and SGP in tested sera in rates of 14/40 (35%), 35/40 (87.5%), and 9/40 (22.5%), respectively. Furthermore, 19 bacterial isolates were recognized from joint samples and identified as five Staphylococcus spp., nine Escherichia coli, three SGP, one Citrobacter, and one Proteus. The identified Staphylococcal isolates were three coagulase-positive staphylococci (two Staphylococcus aureus and one Staphylococcus hyicus) and two coagulase-negative staphylococci (one Staphylococcus epidermidis and one Staphylococcus lentus), while E. coli isolate serotypes were 1 O11, 2 O55, 3 O78, 1 O124, 1 O125, and 1 untyped. PCR proved that 12/12 (100%) samples were positive for MS variable lipoprotein hemagglutinin A (vlhA) gene, while ARV was not diagnosed in any of the examined samples. Four amplified vlhA gene of MS isolates (named MS-2018D1, MS-2018D2, MS-2018D3, and MS-2018D4) was successfully sequenced.
Analysis of phylogenetic tree revealed the presence of 100% identity between each two sequenced isolates (isolates MS-2018D1 and MS-2018D4 and also isolates 2018D2 and MS-2018D3). However, the nucleotide similarity between four isolates was 88.6%. On the other hand, our field isolates MS-2018D1, MS-2018D4, MS-2018D2, and MS-2018D3 showed nucleotide identity with vaccine strain MS-H 98.4%, 98.4%, 88.1%, and 88.1%, respectively. Furthermore, the nucleotide similarities with field strains from Argentina ranged between 87.8% and 98.6%.
Conclusion: Four field isolates of MS were identified in examined broiler breeder flock. A phylogenetic study of these isolates revealed the variation between isolated MS strains and vaccine strain. Therefore, further studies are required for evaluating the vaccine efficacy against the present field isolates of MS. In addition, application of MS immunization of breeder flocks is necessary for proper control of the disease.
7. Identification and dietary exposure assessment of tetracycline and penicillin residues in fluid milk, yogurt, and labneh: A cross-sectional study in Lebanon
Suzanne Kabrite, Christelle Bou-Mitri, Jessy El Hayek Fares, Hussein F. Hassan and Jocelyne Matar Boumosleh
Veterinary World, 12(4): 527-534
Background and Aim: The safety and quality of dairy products are considered to be of significant importance to human health. Although antimicrobial drugs are essential for disease treatment in modern medicine, the use of these drugs can have undesired consequences for human and animal health. This study aimed to investigate the presence of tetracycline and penicillin residues in raw, pasteurized, and UHT cow's milk of different fat contents, as well as in the dairy products yogurt and labneh, a traditional Lebanese product.
Materials and Methods: A total of 44 samples, 4 raw, 9 UHT, 9 pasteurized milk, 10 yogurt, and 12 labneh samples from common local brands available in the Lebanese market were collected from Keserwan regions in May 2016. Tetracycline and penicillin residues were determined using a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique.
Results: The mean values for tetracycline and penicillin were all below the limit of detection (LOD) of the ELISA kit of a maximum standard concentration of 1.80 μg/kg and 4.00 μg/kg, respectively. All samples tested positive for antibiotic residues. The detection rate for tetracycline in milk (n=22) samples was 86.4% with a mean residues value of 1.16±0.70 μg/kg. The detection rate of tetracycline in labneh (n=12) and yogurt (n=10) samples was 50% for each with a mean value of 1.76±0.40 μg/kg and 0.63±0.12 μg/kg, respectively. As for penicillin residues, 90.9% of the milk (n=22) samples tested positive with a mean value of 0.52±0.25 μg/kg. The detection rate in labneh (n=12) and yogurt (n=10) samples was 0% for penicillin residues, where mean values were all below the LOD (<1.25 μg/kg) for these dairy products. None of the samples exceeded the maximum residue levels. The estimated dietary intake (EDI) for tetracycline and penicillin residues for all dairy products is 2.09 ng/kg body weight (BW)/day resulting in 0.007% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) and 1.83 ng/kg BW/day resulting in 0.006% of the ADI, respectively.
Conclusion: All EDI values were below the ADI set for each antibiotic residue and do not exceed relevant toxicological reference values. However, concerns might still be present from consumption of other animal food products containing residues. Moreover, the long-term exposure to such residues is still unknown as a result of bioaccumulation; it is a challenging process to determine the actual dietary consumption of foods containing antibiotic residues; hence, the human health risk cannot be easily predicted.
6. Oestrus ovis in Ecuador: Importance in the Andean sheep farming
Gabriela Ortega-Munoz, Nivia Luzuriaga-Neira, Richard Salazar-Silva and Richar Rodriguez-Hidalgo
Veterinary World, 12(4): 522-526
Aim: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of Oestrus ovis in sheep meant for meat commercialization in the main slaughterhouse of the country.
Materials and Methods: Between October 2015 and December 2015, we assessed the occurrence of Oestrus myiasis in the main slaughterhouse localized in Quito. In total, 80 sheep heads were randomly inspected and necropsied. Larvae were removed from nasal cavities and paranasal sinuses and cleaned. ANOVA (generalized linear model) was used to estimate the relationship between sex, age, and place of origin and presence or absence of parasite larvae.
Results: Morphological identification confirmed that 19% (15/80) of the examined animals were positive for Oestrus ovis; from the positive cases, 21% were young animals <12 months old. We found that statistical differences by animal sex, males, were most infested 93% (14/15) than females 7% (1/15). Larvae's L2 were more abundant than other stages (62 of the total 149). 14 of the infested animals were from the Andean places at > 2500 meters above sea level (m.a.s.l.), and only one case from the coastal region at 250 m.a.s.l. with tropical environmental conditions.
Conclusion: Our results showed evidence of the presence of myiasis caused by O. ovis in Andean and coastal places in Ecuador and its adaptation to different environmental conditions from that reported previously in temperate regions from Europe and Africa.
5. A review of Salmonella enterica with particular focus on the pathogenicity and virulence factors, host specificity and adaptation and antimicrobial resistance including multidrug resistance
Saleh Mohammed Jajere
Veterinary World, 12(4): 504-521
Salmonella genus represents the most common foodborne pathogens frequently isolated from food-producing animals that are responsible for zoonotic infections in humans and animal species including birds. Thus, Salmonella infections represent a major concern to public health, animals, and food industry worldwide. Salmonella enterica represents the most pathogenic specie and includes >2500 serovars characterized thus far. Salmonella can be transmitted to humans along the farm-to-fork continuum, commonly through contaminated foods of animal origin, namely poultry and poultry-related products (eggs), pork, fish etc. Some Salmonellaserovars are restricted to one specific host commonly referred to as "host-restricted" whereas others have broad host spectrum known as "host-adapted" serovars. For Salmonella to colonize its hosts through invading, attaching, and bypassing the host's intestinal defense mechanisms such as the gastric acid, many virulence markers and determinants have been demonstrated to play crucial role in its pathogenesis; and these factors included flagella, capsule, plasmids, adhesion systems, and type 3 secretion systems encoded on the Salmonella pathogenicity island (SPI)-1 and SPI- 2, and other SPIs. The epidemiologically important non-typhoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars linked with a high burden of foodborne Salmonella outbreaks in humans worldwide included Typhimurium, Enteritidis, Heidelberg, and Newport. The increased number of NTS cases reported through surveillance in recent years from the United States, Europe and low- and middle-income countries of the world suggested that the control programs targeted at reducing the contamination of food animals along the food chain have largely not been successful. Furthermore, the emergence of several clones of Salmonella resistant to multiple antimicrobials worldwide underscores a significant food safety hazard. In this review, we discussed on the historical background, nomenclature and taxonomy, morphological features, physical and biochemical characteristics of NTS with a particular focus on the pathogenicity and virulence factors, host specificity, transmission, and antimicrobial resistance including Multidrug resistance and its surveillance.
4. Recombinant horse interleukin-4 and interleukin-10 induced a mixed inflammatory cytokine response in horse peripheral blood mononuclear cells
Sheetal Saini, Harisankar Singha, Priyanka Siwach and B. N. Tripathi
Veterinary World, 12(4): 496-503
Background and Aim: Interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 activate plethora of immune cells and induce the humoral immune response. However, recombinant version of horse IL-4 and IL-10 has not been investigated to understand their immunomodulating activities. This study aimed to produce recombinant horse mature IL-4 and IL-10 in Escherichia coli. Immune-modulating activities of recombinant horse IL-4 and IL-10 were investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs).
Materials and Methods: Equine PBMCs were stimulated with recombinant IL-4 and IL-10. A proliferation of PBMCs was measured by XTT assay and cytokines induction was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis displayed a molecular weight of 15 kDa for IL-4 and 19 kDa for IL-10. Recombinant IL-4 and IL-10 significantly induced cell proliferation at 250 ng/ml. The results demonstrated that IL-4 enhanced expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and IL-10, while recombinant horse IL-10 induced expression of IL-6, IFN-γ, and TNF-α.
Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that biologically active horse IL-4 and IL-10 could be produced in E. coli.
3. Disease prevalence among young dogs in Grand Tunis, Tunisia: A retrospective study
Veterinary World, 12(4): 489-495
Aim: A retrospective study was undertaken to determine the occurrence, and the distribution of the most common clinical conditions of young dogs encountered at the National School of Veterinary Medicine clinic, Tunisia, from September 2012 to July 2013, based on sex, age, breeds, and season variation.
Materials and Methods: A total of 515 cases were examined, and 11 clinical conditions were recorded. Clinical examination was performed. X-ray examination and necropsy were carried out only when needed.
Results: Of the 515, 298 cases (57.86%) were male, while 217 (42.14%) were female. The breed-wise difference in the occurrence of various health problems was statistically significant. Nevertheless, no significant association was found between the occurrence of a disease and age. The commonly found clinical conditions were traumatic injuries (22.72%), ectoparasitic infections (20.58%), and gastroenteritis (13.40%). The occurrence of diseases was the highest (60.19%) in the wet season (September-February) followed by 39.81% in the dry season (March-July).
Conclusion: The current study presents the first recorded data about the major clinical conditions of young dogs in Tunisia. These findings can be used to develop more effective disease management and control strategies.
2. Effect of citrus waste on blood parameters of broiler birds with and without cocktail of enzymes
Devi Prasad Behera, Amrit Pal Singh Sethi, Chanchal Singh, Udeybir Singh and Manju Wadhwa
Veterinary World, 12(4): 483-488
Aim: This study aimed to assess the effect of different levels of citrus waste (CW) with or without enzyme cocktail on blood profile of broilers.
Materials and Methods: CW was sun-dried and grounded to powder CW. 256-day-old birds were distributed into eight groups; control (C), CW-supplemented diets (2.5% CW, 5.0% CW, and 7.5% CW), enzyme (E) cocktail supplemented diets (CE, 2.5% CWE, 5.0% CWE, and 7.5% CWE). The diets were fed during starter (0-14 days), grower (15-21 days), and finisher (22-42 days) phases. Blood was collected from the wing vein from four birds per treatment. Serum was separated out after centrifugation and stored at −20°C until further analysis. The samples were analyzed for liver function test (glucose, total protein [TP], albumin [ALB], and globulin), lipid profile (cholesterol and triglyceride), kidney function test (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase [AST], blood urea nitrogen [BUN], and creatinine), and antioxidant levels (catalase, superoxide dismutase [SOD], lipid peroxidation [LPx], glutathione peroxidase [GPx], glutathione [GSH], and Vitamins E and C).
Results: Blood profile data revealed that supplementation of CW showed no effect on TP, ALB, globulin, and BUN levels. Plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, and AST levels decreased linearly with an increase in the levels of CW in the diet. Catalase and SOD activity increased non-significantly with an increase in inclusion level of CW in the diets. LPx, GPx, and GSH activities decreased (p≤0.05) up to 5% CW-fed groups. Vitamin E and C activity were found to be highest (p≤0.05) in birds fed with diet supplemented with 5% CW. GPx and GSH activities and serum Vitamin C levels were observed to be highest (p<0.05) in birds fed CW (at 5%)-based diet supplemented with enzymes.
Conclusion: The blood profile showed that supplementation of CW up to 5% decreased cholesterol, triglyceride, and AST levels and improved the antioxidant status. Vitamin C levels were observed to be highest (p<0.05) in birds fed CW (at 5%)- based diet supplemented with enzymes.
Keywords: antioxidant levels, citrus waste, cocktail of enzymes, lipid profile, liver and kidney function test.