Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
16. Awareness and antibody detection of Newcastle disease virus in a neglected society in Nigeria
Oluwafemi Babatunde Daodu, Julius Olaniyi Aiyedun, Rafiu Adebisi Kadir, Hauwa Motunrayo Ambali, Oladapo Oyedeji Oludairo, Isaac Dayo Olorunshola, Oluwakemi Christiana Daodu and Saka Saheed Baba
Veterinary World, 12(1): 112-118
Aim: This study aimed to assess the level of awareness of rural poultry farmers on vaccination and to detect Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibody in local birds (LB) and eggs in Kwara State, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: Data on farmers' attitude, knowledge, practices, and experiences on ND mortality were obtained through an interview using a structured cross-sectional checklist. NDV antibodies were detected in sera and egg yolks of local chickens (LC) and guinea fowls (GF) using hemagglutination inhibition test.
Results: A total of 83 interviewees, 287 sera and 121 egg yolk extracts, were examined. The study revealed that 98.8% (82/83) of the interviewee had never vaccinated their flock before. 90% of the interviewee had reported high mortality in birds within 1-6 months old, while the major clinical signs were cold (40.4%) and torticollis (30.8%). Evidences of LB exposure to wild-type NDV were confirmed by the detection of NDV antibodies in 20.8% and 0% of LC and GF, respectively. The mortality differences experienced in <1 and 1-6 months old LB could be explained by the presence of maternally-derived NDV antibody (49.6%) in egg yolk.
Conclusion: The study showed that LB suffers from NDV as a result of LB keepers' ignorance and neglect by the government. This has limited local investment and subsequent contribution to gross domestic product. This study suggests that the key factors to the prevention of ND remain awareness creation about poultry vaccination, production of affordable vaccines, and availability/accessibility to veterinarian (or trained personnel).
15. Hematologic changes and splenic index on malaria mice models given Syzygium cumini extract as an adjuvant therapy
Lilik Maslachah, Rahmi Sugihartuti and Retno Sri Wahyuni
Veterinary World, 12(1): 106-111
Aim: This research aimed to determine the efficacy of Syzygium cumini L. as an adjuvant therapy on blood changes and splenic index of mice model malaria.
Materials and Methods: Mice were infected intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml red blood cell (RBC) that contains 1×106Plasmodium berghei. 35 mice were divided into seven treatment groups: Group K0: Mice were not infected; K1: Mice were infected; K2: Mice were infected and given chloroquine; P1: Mice were infected and given S. cumini leaf extract; P2: Mice were infected and given chloroquine and also S. cumini leaf extract; P3: Mice was infected and given S. cumini stem bark extract; and P4: Mice were infected and given chloroquine and S. cumini stem bark extract. Treatment was given for 4 days 24 h post-P. berghei infection. 21st day post-P. berghei infection, blood was taken from the heart for hematological examination, and the spleen was taken to examine the splenic index and also to measure the weight and length of the spleen. Hematological data and splenic index were analyzed by analysis of variance test, and if there is a difference, the test is continued by Duncan's multiple range test with 5% level.
Results: The K0 group has normal hemoglobin (HGB), RBC, and hematocrit (HCT) and significantly different (p<0.05) than other groups. HGB, RBC, and HCT of K1 group were under normal range, lowest, and significantly different (p<0.05) than other groups. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular HGB values of K2 groups showed a decrease. The number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes of K1 groups was increasing and significantly different (p<0.05) with K2 and treatment group. The length, width, weight, and splenic index of K1 group were significantly different (p<0.05) with K0 group. K2 and treatment groups showed that the length and width of spleens were significantly different (p<0.05) with K1.
Conclusion: The combination of chloroquine with leaf and chloroquine with stem bark extract of S. cumini as adjuvant therapy may increase the amount of erythrocyte; decrease the number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes; and decrease the length, width, and splenic index on malaria mice models.
14. Combined H5ND inactivated vaccine protects chickens against challenge by different clades of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses subtype H5 and virulent Newcastle disease virus
Ahmed Ali, Marwa Safwat, Walid H. Kilany, Abdou Nagy, Awad A. Shehata, Mohamed A. Zain El-Abideen, Al-Hussien M. Dahshan and Abdel-Satar A. Arafa
Veterinary World, 12(1): 97-105
Aim: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a trivalent-inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine against challenge by different clades highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses including HPAI-H5N8 and the virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (vNDV).
Materials and Methods: The vaccine studied herein is composed of reassortant AI viruses rgA/Chicken/Egypt/ ME1010/2016 (clade 184.108.40.206), H5N1 rgA/Chicken/Egypt/RG-173CAL/2017 (clade 220.127.116.11), and "NDV" (LaSota NDV/ CK/Egypt/11478AF/11); all used at a concentration of 108 EID50/bird and mixed with Montanide-ISA70 oil adjuvant. Two-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were immunized subcutaneously with 0.5 ml of the vaccine, and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers were monitored weekly. The intranasal challenge was conducted 4 weeks post-vaccination (PV) using 106 EID50/0.1 ml of the different virulent HPAI-H5N1 viruses representing clades 2.2.1, 18.104.22.168, 22.214.171.124, 126.96.36.199b-H5N8, and the vNDV.
Results: The vaccine induced HI antibody titers of >6log2 against both H5N1 and NDV viruses at 2 weeks PV. Clinical protection against all HPAI H5N1 viruses and vNDV was 100%, except for HPAI H5N1 clade-2.2.1 and HPAI H5N8 clade- 188.8.131.52b viruses that showed 93.3% protection. Challenged SPF chickens showed significant decreases in the virus shedding titers up to <3log10 compared to challenge control chickens. No virus shedding was detected 6 "days post-challenge" in all vaccinated challenged groups.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that the trivalent H5ND vaccine provides significant clinical protection against different clades of the HPAI viruses including the newly emerging H5N8 HPAI virus. Availability of such potent multivalent oil-emulsion vaccine offers an effective tool against HPAI control in endemic countries and promises simpler vaccination programs.
13. Antibacterial activity and sensory properties of Heracleum persicum essential oil, nisin, and Lactobacillus acidophilus against Listeria monocytogenes in cheese
A. Ehsani, A. Rezaeiyan, M. Hashemi, M. Aminzare, B. Jannat and A. Afshari
Veterinary World, 12(1): 90-96
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and chemical effect of Heracleum persicum essential oil (EO), nisin, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and their combination against Listeria monocytogenes both in vitro and in Iranian white cheese model.
Materials and Methods: Chemical compositions of H. persicum EO were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After production of Iranian white cheese, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of EO and nisin and agar spot test of L. acidophilus against L. monocytogenes were evaluated.
Results: Hexyl butanoate (25.98%), octyl isobutyrate (17.82%), methyl butyrate (14.37%), and pentyl cyclopropane (12.77%) were the main components of the EO. MIC of the EO against L. monocytogenes was 2.5 mg/mL. Combination of nisin (5.3 IU/mL) and H. persicum EO (2500 μg/mL) showed increasing effect against L. monocytogenes (fractional inhibitory concentration = 0.9), while a higher concentration of EO and nisin showed undesirable effect on the cheese flavor. Furthermore, a combination of 1012 CFU/g L. acidophilus with H. persicum EO at the concentration of 2.5 mg/mL (T12) showed acceptable sensorial and also antibacterial results in Iranian white cheese.
Conclusion: Combination of H. persicum EO, L. acidophilus, and nisin can be recommended as natural preservatives and flavoring agents in cheese.
Background and Aim: The genetic relationship among serotypes of Salmonella enterica from food animals, food of animal origin, and human is of interest as the data could provide an important clue for the source of human infection. This study aimed to determine the genetic relatedness of S. enterica from pig production and human in Thailand-Laos border provinces.
Materials and Methods: A total of 195 S. enterica serotypes isolated from pig and pork (n=178) and human (n=17) including four serotypes (Typhimurium, Rissen, Derby, and Stanley) were randomly selected to examine their genetic relatedness using highly conserved sequence of three genes (fim A, man B, and mdh).
Results: The results showed that 195 Salmonella isolates of four different serotypes were grouped into five different clusters, and members of the same Salmonella serotypes were found in the same cluster. Salmonellaisolated from pig production and human in Thailand-Laos border provinces represented overlapping population and revealed a high degree of similarity, indicating close genetic relationship among the isolates.
Conclusion: The results support that the determination of Salmonella serotyping combined with analysis of phylogenetic tree can be used track the clonal evolution and genetic diversity of Salmonella serotypes in different host species.
10. The effect of dietary protein levels on body weight gain, carcass production, nitrogen emission, and efficiency of productions related to emissions in thin-tailed lambs
Ari Prima, Endang Purbowati, Edy Rianto and Agung Purnomoadi
Veterinary World, 12(1): 72-78
Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate dietary crude protein (CP) level on performance of body weight (BW) gain, carcass production, and nitrogen emission on lambs.
Materials and Methods: A total of 12 male thin-tailed lambs (15.2±1.8 kg initial BW and aged 3-4 months) were assigned to completely randomized design for 84-day feeding trial. The animals were divided into three different levels of CP (i.e., 14%, 16%, and 18% with isocaloric diets and 60% total digestible nutrients) with four replications.
Results: Increasing CP level was not significantly affected on average daily gain (ADG), carcass production, N and N2O emissions, and efficiency of emissions related to the productions. The average of ADG, carcass production, meat production, meat protein production, N emission, and N2O emission was 141.4 g, 11.6 kg, 6.8 kg, 0.9 kg, 53.1 g/day, and 0.3 g/day, respectively. The efficiency of ADG, carcass production, meat production, and meat protein related to N emissions were 119.7 g/kg, 4.4 g/kg, 2.5 g/kg, and 56.6 g/kg, respectively, while N2O emissions related to ADG, carcass production, meat production, and meat protein were 2.4 g/kg, 0.027 g/kg, 0.36 g/kg, and 0.34 g/kg, respectively.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that the increase of CP level up to 18% did not affect productivity, N emissions, and efficiency of emissions per unit product because the increase of CP was not balanced by energy content in feed.
Keywords: average daily gain, carcass productions, crude protein levels, efficiency emissions to productions, nitrogen emission, nitrous oxide emission.
Aim: This study was conducted to study the coagulase (coa) gene-based genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from different samples of cattle from three different regions in East Java Province, Indonesia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 160 raw milk samples collected in East Java Province, Indonesia, were screened for the presence of S. aureus. The presumptive isolates were confirmed by coa test. The confirmed S. aureus isolates were subjected to coa gene polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Of 160 different samples, 20 (12.5%) isolates of S. aureus were confirmed by positive coa test. Of 20 S. aureus isolates, 19 (95%) isolates carried coa gene. Six different genotypes of coa gene, i.e., 440 bp, 510 bp, 547 bp, 680 bp, 740 bp, and 820 bp were obtained. One coa genotypes, 510 bp (10 isolates) were observed in polymorphism to be more prevalent than the others, and the genotype was present in at least one isolates from every region.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that coa gene is easily epidemiological tool for detection of variation strain from S. aureus.
Keywords: coagulase gene, coagulase test, polymorphism, raw milk, Staphylococcus aureus.
8. Tadpole serum activity (Rana catesbeiana) in caspase-3 as a marker of the role of apoptosis and total cytotoxic T lymphocytes in albino rats' epithelial cells induced by neoplasia
M. T. E. Purnama, I. H. Rahmaningtyas, A. R. Pratama, Z. Prastika, A. M. Kartikasari and N. P. D. Cahyo
Veterinary World, 12(1): 63-67
Aim: This study was conducted to examine the tadpole's serum activity (Rana catesbeiana) in caspase-3 as a marker of the role of apoptosis and total cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) in albino rats' epithelial cells induced by neoplasia. Tadpole serumcontains thyroxine hormone that may cause the metamorphosis process and control cell proliferation.
Materials and Methods: Male rats were induced by 7,12-dimethylbenz (α)anthracene (DMBA) 20 mg/rats twice every week over 5 weeks to stimulate skin neoplasia. Tadpole serum injected intracutaneously after neoplasia is known. The negative control group (C−) was not exposed to DMBA and tadpole serum, while the positive control group (C+) was exposed to DMBA. Treatment groups (T1, T2, and T3) were exposed DMBA and tadpole serum 100%, 75%, and 25%/rat/ day, respectively. Samples of skin organ were be made preparations immunohistochemistry interacted with caspase-3 and CTL antibody as the marker.
Results: Based on the result, immunohistochemistry from skin neoplasia and given therapy of tadpole serum show that Treatment 1 was the highest caspase-3 and CTL expression. The result of caspase-3 expression in C−, C+, T1, T2, and T3 was 0.00c±0.000, 0.70bc±0.141, 2.00a±0.283, 1.10b±0.424, and 1.15b±0.495, respectively. The result of CTL expression in C−, C+, T1, T2, and T3 was 0.10d±0.200, 1.00c±0.230, 2.10a±0.529, 1.70ab±0.258, and 1.35bc±0.443, respectively.
Conclusion: It can be concluded from the study that tadpole serum (R. catesbeiana) 100% concentration can increase caspase-3 and total CTL in albino rats' epithelial cells induced by neoplasia.
Keywords: caspase-3, cytotoxic T lymphocyte, Rana catesbeiana, serum, tadpoles.
1. Risk factors assessment of bovine tuberculosis among abattoir personnel in Gombe State, Northeastern Nigeria: A One-Health approach
S. Mohammed, Adamu Saleh Saidu, S. M. Jajere, P. Tomar, A. M. Waki, J. Mohammed and R. Preeti
International Journal of One Health, 5: 1-8
Aim: Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is an important milk-borne zoonosis that affects cattle production and poses serious threat to public health. This study aimed at assessing the risk factors as well as the level of awareness, attitude, and practices of abattoir personnel toward bTB in Gombe Township Abattoir, Gombe State.
Materials and Methods: A prospective survey was conducted between October 2015 and December 2015. During the survey, a total of 112 close-ended structured questionnaires were administered to the abattoir personnel to assess their level of awareness of bTB.
Results: Of these respondents, the majority were males (79%), butchers (49%) and about 40% were under the productive age brackets of 26-35 years. Majority of the respondents (85.7%) were aware of the zoonotic nature of the disease. However, only a few of the respondents (44.6%) wear personal protective equipments (PPEs) clothes while handling or in contact with carcasses during the slaughtering process. Only a few among the respondents (24.1% and 31.2%) consumed unpasteurized milk and unaware of eating of improperly cooked meat as a risk factor of bTB, respectively. About 75.7% of the respondents believed that the habit of eating and drinking inside the abattoir and during slaughtering operations has no any significant effects on their health. The results obtained show a statistically significant association between respondents' awareness of bTB and their occupational status, duration of exposure to cattle carcasses, and knowledge about the disease (p<0.05); and the odds of being aware of bTB was 10.0, 5.07, and 4.2, respectively.
Conclusion: This study demonstrates the need for public health authorities to intervene in bTB prevention and control through the creation of avenues for enlightenment on the zoonotic risk associated with bTB. The risk factors associated with bTB transmission as indicated by the personnel's practice and awareness levels in Gombe township abattoir are preventable through the use of PPEs clothing.
7. Growth performances, carcass traits, meat quality, and blood metabolic parameters in rabbits of local Algerian population and synthetic line
Rafik Belabbas, Maria de la Luz Garcia, Hacina Ainbaziz, Nadia Benali, Ali Berbar, Zoubeida Boumahdi and Maria Jose Argente
Veterinary World, 12(1): 55-62
Aim: The objective of this work was to study the growth performance, slaughter traits, meat quality, and metabolic profile in rabbits of local Algerian population and a synthetic line.
Materials and Methods: In total, 120 weaned rabbits were used (60 per group). Growth traits were recorded from weaning (35 days) to slaughter (91 days). At slaughter, carcass traits, meat quality, and metabolic profiles were measured.
Results: The synthetic line showed heavier total weight and faster daily weight gain than the local population (+15% and +19%, respectively), better feed conversion (3.92 vs. 4.81 g/g), and heavier weight of cold carcass, and perirenal fat (+15%). No differences were found between the two groups in dressing out percentage, muscular pH, weight of liver, or scapular fat. Wider intestinal villi were found in the synthetic line (+20%, p<0.0001) allowing better absorption surface in this line. The synthetic line also showed higher fat content (3.41% vs. 2.22%, p<0.0001) in the meat and lower protein content (22.02% vs. 18.98%, p=0.0002). Glucose level was 19% higher in the local population than in the synthetic line.
Conclusion: The synthetic line is well adapted to the local conditions of Algeria. This line has shown better growth, daily gain, and feed conversion, due to its better intestinal absorption surface.
6. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in cattle and sheep in three municipalities in the Colombian Northeastern Mountain
Juan Carlos Pinilla Leon, Nelson Uribe Delgado and Angel Alberto Florez
Veterinary World, 12(1): 48-54
Aim: The study was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal (GI) parasites in cattle and sheep from three municipalities in the Colombian Northeastern Mountain.
Materials and Methods: Overall, 200 fecal samples were collected directly from the rectum in cattle and sheep. The presence of helminths eggs and coccidial oocysts in fecal samples was detected using McMaster and Dennis techniques. Identification of eggs or oocysts was done on the basis of morphology and size of the eggs or oocysts.
Results: The global prevalence of GI parasites was 56.3%. Regarding the prevalence by municipalities, there was no statistical association (p>0.05), indicating that the prevalence was similar in the three municipalities. The prevalence of parasitic infection was higher in sheep (63%) as compared to that of cattle (50.5%), but the difference was nonsignificant (p>0.05). The most prevalent parasites were Eimeria spp., Fasciola hepatica, and Strongylida order. Regarding the results for Eimeria spp., different degrees of positivity were observed, but there was no statistical association (p>0.05) with respect to the age group. Likewise, there was no statistical association (p>0.05) between the prevalence for Strongylida order and F. hepatica with respect to the age group.
Conclusion: Cattle and sheep in Colombian Northeastern Mountain were infected with helminths and coccidia. The prevalence values of GI parasites were moderate in both species warranting treatment. The presence of F. hepatica represents a risk factor to health public. Future studies are required to evaluate the parasitic dynamics throughout the year and the impact on animal production.
5. Infection kinetics and antibody responses in Deccani sheep during experimental infection and superinfection with bluetongue virus serotypes 4 and 16
Kalyani Putty, Abdul Muzeer Shaik, Shaik Jahangeer Peera, Y. Narasimha Reddy, P. P. Rao, Sunil R. Patil, M. Shreekanth Reddy, B. Susmitha, and J. Shiva Jyothi
Veterinary World, 12(1): 41-47
Aim: The current study was designed to understand the infection kinetics and antibody responses of major circulating serotypes of bluetongue virus (BTV) in India, i.e., BTV-4 and BTV-16 through experimental infection and superinfection of Deccani sheep, a popular breed of sheep found in the southern states of India.
Materials and Methods: Experimental infection with 106 TCID50/ml BTV-4 was followed by superinfection with BTV-16 and vice versa. Along with observing for clinical signs and immunological responses in the experimentally infected sheep, the effect of infection of one specific serotype on the outcome of superinfection with a different serotype was also studied.
Results: Certain interesting findings have been made in the course of experimental infection, such as prominent signs of infection in BTV-4 infection, mild or no clinical signs in BTV-16-infected and superinfected animals, and non-seroconversion of one of the BTV-16-superinfected animals. In addition, BTV was isolated from infected sheep in all the experimental conditions except BTV-16 superinfection. Furthermore, it was observed that immune response in the form of type-specific antibodies was slower with BTV-16 superinfection.
Conclusion: Superinfection of a sheep with more than one serotype of BTV is a common phenomenon in BT endemic countries like India. Such situation was replicated in an experimental infection in the current study, and the findings to our knowledge are first of a kind and are likely to aid in unfolding the newer aspects of BTV pathogenesis and virulence.
4. Effects of four extenders on the quality of frozen semen in Arabian stallions
Mohaammed Saad Alamaary, Abd Wahid Haron, Mohamed Ali, Mark Wen Han Hiew, Lawan Adamu and Innocent Damudu Peter
Veterinary World, 12(1): 34-40
Aim: Different types of extenders have a variety of components which show the tolerance effect on sperm protection during freezing procedures. In the present study, we have examined the impact of the extenders HF-20 and Tris, which were locally manufactured, and they are competing with commercial extenders INRA Freeze® (IMV Technologies, France) and EquiPlus Freeze® (Minitube, Germany) on the quality of horses frozen semen.
Materials and Methods: A total of 15 ejaculates from three healthy stallions were collected and cryopreserved in the same environment. Each semen sample collected was divided into four equal parts and processed. All samples were analyzed before and after freezing for motility, viability, plasma membrane integrity, and morphology. Furthermore, twenty mares were inseminated using post-thawed semen.
Results: There were no differences observed among all extenders in all the parameters before freezing. Sperm cryopreserved using HF-20 showed better motility, viability, and plasma membrane integrity than Tris extender. The Tris extender showed the most inferior quality of post-thawed semen between all the extenders. HF-20, INRA Freeze®, and EquiPlus Freeze® extenders revealed the same capacity of semen preservation in vitro and in vivo.
Conclusion: HF-20 extender has the same quality as INRA Freeze® and EquiPlus Freeze® that can be considered as one of the best extenders for the semen cryopreservation in horses. In contrast, Tris extender needs some degree of improvement.
Keywords: Arabian stallion, frozen semen, semen, extenders.
3. The antioxidant components of milk and their role in processing, ripening, and storage: Functional food
Imran Taj Khan, Mohammed Bule, Rahman Ullah, Muhammad Nadeem, Shafaq Asif and Kamal Niaz
Veterinary World, 12(1): 12-33
The current rate of population growth is so fast that, to feed this massive population, a 2-fold increase in land is required for the production of quality food. Improved dietary products such as milk and its products with antioxidant properties and functional foods of animal origin have been utilized to prevent chronic diseases. The designer milk contains low fat and less lactose, more protein, modified level of fatty acids, and desired amino acid profiles. The importance of milk and its products is due to the presence of protein, bioactive peptides, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acid, Vitamin D, selenium, and calcium. These constituents are present in milk product, play a key role in the physiological activities in human bodies, and act as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, immune boosting, and antimicrobial activities. Consumer awareness regarding benefits of designer foods such as milk and its products is almost non-existent worldwide and needs to be established to reach the benefits of designer food technologies in the near future. The main objective of this review was to collect data on the antioxidant properties of milk and its constituents which keep milk-derived products safe and preserved.
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) levels in 70 samples of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and 30 samples of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) fished in the Algerian coasts.
Materials and Methods: After the mineralization of the fish samples through the pressure digestion, the analyses were carried out by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
Results: Mean concentrations of Hg, Cd, and Pb in sardine were 0.62, 0.55, and 2.13 mg/kg wet weight, respectively, while in swordfish, the concentrations were 0.56, 0.57, and 3.9 mg/kg wet weight, respectively. These results exceeded the Algerian and European legislation threshold values, whereas Hg's concentration in swordfish remained close to and did not exceed the recommended thresholds (0.56 mg/kg wet weight).
Conclusion: This fish may represent a hazard for consumers in Algeria. Systematic and periodic controls of heavy metals in fish are recommended, and risk assessment is needed to protect the consumer.
Keywords: atomic emission spectroscopy, fish, hazard, heavy metal, sardine, swordfish.
1. Stability and virucidal efficacies using powder and liquid forms of fresh charcoal ash and slaked lime against Newcastle disease virus and Avian influenza virus
Sakchai Ruenphet, Darsaniya Punyadarsaniya, Tippawan Jantafong and Kazuaki Takehara
Veterinary World, 12(1): 1-6
Aim: The present study was examined the virucidal activity comparison between fresh charcoal ash (FCA) and slaked lime (SL) against avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), using powder and liquid forms, either in the absence or presence of organic materials. In addition, both FCA and SL were evaluated for the persistence of virucidal activity in wet and dry conditions and stability of the solution.
Materials and Methods: Two hundred milligrams of FCA or SL powders were mixed with 100 μl of AIV or NDV in the absence of organic material or 33% of organic materials. In the same time, 400 μl of 1%, 5%, or 10% solution samples were mixed with 100 μl of each virus and then incubated at room temperature for an indicated time. After that, the mixed solution was stop activity of sample using 500 μl of 1M Tris-HCl pH 7.2. Each treatment was titrated onto Madin-Darby canine kidney cells or chicken embryo fibroblasts for AIV or NDV, respectively, for determining the efficacy of viral inactivation. In addition, the stability of powder under the wet-dry condition and solution stability under room temperature was examined.
Results: The results demonstrated that the FCA and SL in powder form could inactivate AIV and NDV even in the absence or presence of organic materials. In the liquid form, 5% and 10% of FCA could inactivate AIV and NDV either in the absence or presence of organic materials. Alongside, 1%, 5%, and 10% of SL could inactivate both viruses. 10% of FCA solution could inactivate virus at a shortest time when compared with other concentrations. In addition, the efficacy of wet-dry conditions of FCA was limited when compared with SL. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that the FCA solution was more stable and kept at room temperature longer than SL.
Conclusion: The FCA may, hence, be used as an alternative virucide, while applying it to prevent spreading of poultry disease on commercial chicken farms and also backyard chickens, especially in developing countries, including in rural areas of Thailand.