Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
27. First report and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans and animals in Khartoum state, Sudan
Kaltoum Yagoub Adam, A. A. Ismail, M. A. Masri and A. A. Gameel
Veterinary World, 12(1): 183-189
Background and Aim:Cryptosporidium is recognized to infect several mammalian species as well as humans, causing substantial economic losses and serious public health concern. Infected animals can be a source of environmental contamination and human infections. In general, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in animals and human in Sudan and zoonotic importance is not well documented. This study aimed to identify Cryptosporidium spp. infecting different animal species and humans and to compare between different isolates obtained.
Materials and Methods: To provide molecular information about Cryptosporidium in animals and humans, both modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) specific stain and molecular assay were used. Concentration techniques followed by three protocols of DNA extraction were carried out. After microscopic screening of 263 fecal samples (goats [n=197], cattle [n=12], sheep [n=12], and human [n=42]), 61 positive and 30 negative, randomly selected samples were used in nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting part of the 18S RNA.
Results: Nested PCR amplification confirmed 91.8% (56/61) of microscopic-positive samples. 8.2% (5/61) of negative samples by PCR (positive by microscopy) were considered false negatives. Sequencing followed by alignment of the 14 isolates indicated that all samples were identical (100%) and belonged to Cryptosporidium parvum.
Conclusion: MZN staining procedure is reliable for the routine diagnosis of Cryptosporidium; cetyltrimethylammonium bromide extraction buffer and nested PCR targeting 18S rRNA gene are reliable and useful in epidemiological studies of this parasite.
26. Self-reported selected zoonotic diseases among animal handlers in Urban Ahmedabad, India
Krupali Patel and Deepak Saxena
Veterinary World, 12(1): 176-182
Background and Aim: Out of all global microbial pathogens, 61% are zoonoses. Zoonotic diseases (Z/D/S) are responsible for a large burden on the public health, livestock economies, and wildlife of India. Data on burden and knowledge about Z/D/S among animal handlers are limited for urban and peri-urban areas of India. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported selected Z/D/S and knowledge about those diseases among animal handlers in the urban area of Ahmedabad city, India.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 170 animal handlers from three zones of Ahmedabad city, India, from February to May 2017. Data were collected on sociodemographic, different exposure, knowledge, practices about animal handling, and self-reported Z/D/S condition.
Results: Majority of study participants were females. Participants had numbers of animals, and it ranged from 1 to 70. However, the majority of them were cattle. Average experience and hours/day spent for handling animal were reported 22±15 years and 5±2 h, respectively. From all participants, about one-third perceived that handling animal could be a cause of disease. Average knowledge on the mode of transmission of Z/D/S was found 4.1%. Most common high risk and preventive practices found consumption of raw milk (72%) and handwashing (83%). The proportion of self-reported Z/D/S in the past 5 years was found to be 23% among respondents and 17% among family members. However, the proportion of existing self-reported Z/D/S or symptomatic Z/D/S was 17% among respondents and 18% among family members. Most common self-reported Z/D/S were vector-borne, animal bite, and respiratory disorders.
Conclusion: The knowledge and prevalence of Z/D/S were found low as compared to other studies from India. Further awareness and screening of animal handlers can be useful to increase the reporting and prevention and control of Z/D/S among them.
Keywords: animal handlers, knowledge and practices, self-reported zoonotic diseases.
Aim: The study aimed to detect the invA gene in Salmonella isolated from milkfish in the Sidoarjo wet fish market.
Materials and Methods: A total of 84 samples were prepared in enrichment media and isolated on the surface of Salmonella Shigella Agar. Salmonella growth produces transparent colonies with blackish color in the middle due to H2S gas formation. Samples were identified as Salmonella based on macroscopic colony morphology. Presumptive Salmonella sp. was put on Bismuth Sulfite Agar media. Salmonella was determined based on the results of the biochemical test that has been carried out using Microbact identification kits from negative gram staining.
Results: The results of this study indicate that 32 of 84 samples (38.09%) were Salmonella bacteria. Furthermore, the invA gene detection was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction technique. Electrophoresis results showed four positive samples contained invA gene with a length of 284 bp.
Conclusion: Results in this study indicate that contamination of milkfish with Salmonella needs strict hygienic measures to prevent their transmission to human.
Keywords: human health, invA gene, milkfish, polymerase chain reaction, Salmonella.
Background and Aim:Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause serious diseases in both swine and humans worldwide, especially in Asian countries. Since the majority of human cases reported in Thailand were infected by the consumption of a raw pork dish, the microbial food safety hazard associated with raw meat has been a matter of concern. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the contamination by S. suis in pork and edible pig organs sold in central Thailand.
Materials and Methods: In total, 88 raw pork and pig organ samples were purchased from markets, butcher shops, and supermarkets in central Thailand. The samples were examined using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique. LAMP reactions used for the detection of the DNA of S. suis (LAMPSS) and S. suis serotype 2 or 1/2 (LAMPSS2) were carried out according to previous studies.
Results: The percentage of LAMPSS-positive samples was as high as 85.23% (75/88) while the percentage of LAMPSS2- positive samples was 17.05% (15/88). The percentages of LAMPSS- and LAMPSS2-positive samples were relatively high in both pig organs (lung and heart) and meat (sliced pork and minced pork) compared with the previous report. Except one supermarket, LAMPSS-positive samples were found in all sources investigated in this study. The pork and pig organs obtained from the markets and the butcher shops additionally gave positive results for LAMPSS2.
Conclusion: Using LAMP techniques, high rate contamination of S. suis was found in raw pork and edible pig organs sold at different sources in central Thailand. The cross-contamination could have occurred through slaughtering, meat cutting, and meat handling processes. Therefore, consumers and people involved in the pig production industry should be aware of the potential hazards of S. suis infection; food safety education is crucial to prevent further infection.
23. Combined impacts of oregano extract and vacuum packaging on the quality changes of frigate tuna muscles stored at 3±1°C
Talal Lahreche, Yilmaz Ucar, Ali Riza Kosker, Taha-Mossadak Hamdi and Fatih Ozogul
Veterinary World, 12(1): 155-164
Aim: The combined effects of oregano extract with vacuum packing (VP) on the quality enhancement of dark and white muscles of frigate tuna (Auxis thazard) stored as intact fillet at refrigerated (3±1°C) conditions were studied.
Materials and Methods: About 35 kg of fish were filleted without skin removal and randomly divided into two groups. One group without treatment (control) and the remaining group were dipped in a sterilized oregano extract solution for 5 min. Chemical, microbiological, sensorial, and textural analyses were carried out in each of dark and white muscles of frigate tuna fillets during storage.
Results: Several quality indexes were higher in dark muscle than white muscle. The sensory assessment indicated that both muscles from control had a shelf life of 12 days. Quality parameters of both muscles had the same tendency and were significantly affected by time and also by the presence of plant extract in VP. Although VP alone was sufficient to delay lipid oxidation on fish fillets, especially on dark muscle but cannot enhance the textural deterioration in both muscles.
Conclusion: Consequently, the employment of such combination had a cumulative effect on preservation, resulting in prolonging the shelf life of both frigate tuna muscles.
Aim: This study aims to study the significance of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing in heterogeneity analysis of Salmonella serovars, isolated from foods of animal origin.
Materials and Methods:Salmonella serovars isolated and identified from different foods of animal origin such as meat, milk, and egg by standard bacteriological methods. DNA isolated from all 10 isolates which are confirmed by biochemical and serotyping methods and then RAPD was performed using the primers OPB 10, primer 1290, NSC I, NSC II, and primer 3. Then, RAPD data were analyzed using the BioNumerics software, Belgium, Germany.
Results: RAPD polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using five primers, namely OPB 10, primer 1290, NSC I, NSC II, and primer 3, classified the 10 isolates into 9, 10, 10, 7, and 10 RAPD-PCR types with discriminating powers of 0.1987, 0.423, 0.50889, 0.1842, and 0.2582, respectively. The phylogram constructed with NSC I profile classified isolates based on geographical origin. Primer 1290, NSC II, and primer 3 produced some uniform bands in all isolates indicating their binding ability in conserved genomic region. This study revealed that RAPD profile can be best used for finding out the heterogeneity at molecular level of Salmonella isolates in combination with other molecular and phenotypic typing techniques. Thus, our results support earlier observation of its significance by different workers on different Salmonella serotypes.
Conclusion: Repeatability of RAPD-PCR is insufficient to distinguish genetic differences among Salmonella serovars.
Keywords:Salmonella, random amplified polymorphic DNA, foods of animal origin, phylogram.
21. The occurrence of disinfectant and antibiotic-resistant genes in Escherichia coli isolated from chickens in Egypt
Waleed A. Ibrahim, Sherif A. Marouf, Ahmed M. Erfan, Soad A. Nasef and Jakeen K. El Jakee
Veterinary World, 12(1): 141-145
Aim: This work aimed to determine the occurrence of antibiotic and disinfectant resistance genes in Escherichia coli isolated from chickens in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: Organs (liver, lung, heart, yolk sac, and bone marrow) of 1500 chicken samples were collected from diseased chickens suffered from colibacillosis with PM findings as CRD, diarrhea and omphalitis from different governorates of Egypt as: Giza, EL-Bahira, Fayoum, El-Dakahlia, El-Ismalia, and El-Sharkia during 2015-2016. These samples were labeled and transported immediately on ice to the Reference laboratory for quality control on poultry production (RLQP). The samples were cultured onto MacConkey agar and Eosin Methylene Blue Agar. Isolation and identification of the E. coli were performed based on morphology, cultural, staining, and biochemical properties. Antimicrobial resistance test was carried out using disk diffusion method. The PCR employing tetA, qacED1 and qacA/B were carried out for detection of these genes in isolated E.coli.
Results: The prevalence of E. coli in chicken was 34%. Predominant serotypes of E. coli which serologically identified were O128, O111, O44, O158, and O2. Antibiotic susceptibility test of E. coli revealed that 100% of isolates were resistant to ampicillin, erythromycin, and sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, while 73.53% and 38.23% of them were sensitive for colistin sulfate and levofloxacin, respectively. Antibiotic resistance genes as tetA gene were tested for isolated E. coli and detected by incidence rate of 91.18%. qac resistance genes resembling as qacED1 and qacA/B genes were detected in isolated E. coli 70.6% and 14.7%, respectively.
Conclusion:E. coli isolated from chickens in Egypt was carried qac and antibiotic-resistant genes that affect the poultry industry.
20. Features of formation of Yersinia enterocolitica biofilms
E. Lenchenko, D. Lozovoy, A. Strizhakov, Yu Vatnikov, V. Byakhova, Eu Kulikov, N. Sturov, V. Kuznetsov, V. Avdotin and V. Grishin
Veterinary World, 12(1): 136-140
Aim: The work aimed to study the morphology of colonies and their comparison by features of the formation of Yersinia enterocolitica biofilms.
Materials and Methods: Bacteria were cultured on a Yersinia Selective Agar medium ("CIN-agar") at 28°C for 24 h. The microorganisms were grown in meat-peptone broth with 1.0% glucose to measure the absolute values of the optical density of the culture. The optical density of the liquid was determined in a microplate photometric analyzer Immunochem-2100 (HTI, USA) at a wavelength of 490 nm. For the study of biofilms, the specimens were fixed for 3-5 h in pairs of 25.0% solution of glutaraldehyde (according to DV), and pairs of a 1.0% aqueous solution of osmic acid (OSO4) were used for contrasting for 2-3 min. The specimens were examined with stereoscopic microscopy "BIOMED MS-1 Stereo" (Russia) and scanning electron microscope "TM 3030 plus" (Holland).
Results: With stereoscopic microscopy of the colonies of Y. enterocolitica, the S-forms had an elevated intensely colored center, radial striation along the periphery, smooth edges, d ≤ 1.0 mm. R-form colonies had a dark color and a dry surface, were tuberous and had a dense center with a peripheral ridge, rugged edges, d ≥ 1.5 mm. The optical density of the Y. enterocolitica S-form showed that this type of microorganism belongs to the moderate producers of biofilms since the optical density of the sample (density of the sample - Ds) exceeded the optical density of control (density of the control - Dc) by 3 times. In Y. enterocolitica R-form (D ≤ 0.197) weakly produced biofilms, the optical density of the sample exceeded the optical density of the control by <2 times.
Conclusion: The ability to form biofilms, the variability of phenotypic features, and the multiplicity of virulence factors of bacteria significantly reduce the effectiveness of diagnostic studies. The development of accelerated methods of detection and differentiation of the virulent properties of pathogenic bacteria will allow scientifically to substantiate and develop a set of measures aimed at preventing animal diseases and obtaining safe livestock products to prevent human diseases. Thus, we need to pay attention to which forms of colonies do Y. enterocolitica form on solid nutrient media: S- or R-forms. Through this study, we know that bacteria-forming S-shaped colonies are more capable of forming biofilms than R-forms. It means that they are more pathogenic and can cause persistent infections due to adhesion and biofilm formation.
Background: Tick-borne bacteria, Anaplasma platys and Ehrlichia canis are well recognized as the etiology of anemia and thrombocytopenia in dogs. The clinical signs of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis range from asymptomatic to severe symptoms. There are insufficient studies about epidemiological surveys of these blood parasites, also the association of infections with the hematological study.
Aim: This study aimed to screen A. platys and E. canis in naturally infected dogs and the effects of the infection on the levels of packed cell volume (PCV) and platelet count.
Materials and Methods: A total of 68 blood samples were collected from free-roaming dogs at Nong Kung Sri district, Kalasin Province, Thailand, and examined for A. platys and E. canis infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and measured PCV levels and platelet count.
Results: Using nested PCR, 42.65% of dogs were infected with one or two pathogens. The molecular detection of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in this population was 29.4% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 18.98-41.71) and 25% (95% CI: 14.4-35.3), respectively. Coinfection occurred at 11.8% (95% CI: 5.22-21.87). Infection with E. canis and coinfection showed significant association with PCV levels (p<0.05) while A. platys infection showed no statistical relationship. Infection with A. platys, E. canis, and coinfection had a non-significant correlation with platelet count (p>0.05).
Conclusion: This study provides data of anaplasmosis and ehrlichiosis in free-roaming dogs which indicated that these zoonotic diseases are widespread and require for disease frequency determination, especially in Kalasin Province of Thailand where data of tick-borne infections in dogs have not been reported.
18. Serological profiling of rabies antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and its comparative analysis with rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test in mouse model
Ashis Debnath, Dinesh C. Pathak, Narayan Ramamurthy, Gulam Mohd, A. B. Pandey, Vikramaditya Upmanyu, A. K. Tiwari, R. Saravanan, Madhan Mohan Chellappa and Sohini Dey
Veterinary World, 12(1): 126-130
Aim: In this study, we have used enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) as an alternative test to replace the cumbersome rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) to ascertain the immune status of immunized mice against rabies virus.
Materials and Methods: Rabies is a devastating disease worldwide caused by rabies virus. Proper usage of pre- or post-exposure rabies vaccine can prevent the disease transmission. In this study, mice were immunized with Vero cell-adapted inactivated rabies vaccine. RFFIT was used as a test to determine the serum neutralizing titers in infected/vaccinated mice. Seroprofiling of mice sera was done in vitro by ELISA.
Results: Twenty-one days post-immunization, both ELISA and RFFIT assays indicated similar antibody levels in mice sera that were immunized with Vero cell-adapted inactivated rabies vaccine. Both the tests were correlated, and the linearity was verified by the regression line (R2=0.979).
Conclusion: In this study, we profiled the serological status of Vero cell-adapted inactivated rabies vaccine through ELISA in mice model that correlated well with the OIE gold standard test RFFIT.
17. Bacterial isolation from internal organs of rats (Rattus rattus) captured in Baghdad city of Iraq
Nagham Mohammed Ayyal, Zainab Abdulzahra Abbas, Abdulkarim Jafar Karim, Zainab Majid Abbas, Karima Akool Al-Salihi, Jenan Mahmood Khalaf, Dunya Dhafir Mahmood, Eman Abdullah Mohammed, Rawaa Saladdin Jumaa and Dhuha Ismaeel Abdul-Majeed
Veterinary World, 12(1): 119-125
Aim: Rats are accused in disseminating many zoonotic diseases. This study aimed to isolate and identify bacteria from internal organs of rats captured in Baghdad City, Iraq.
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 black rats (R. rattus) were trapped from different areas in Baghdad city. Rats were kept in individual plastic cages for 3 h before euthanizing. Deep pharyngeal swab, intestinal content, urine, and pieces of the liver and spleen, lung, kidney, and brain were obtained aseptically. The specimens were inoculated into peptone water and incubated at 37°C for 24 h for enrichment. A loopful of each specimen was then subcultured onto MacConkey Agar, Blood Agar, and Mannitol Salt Agar. CHROMagar O157 H7 and CHROMagar Listeria were used to detect Escherichia coli 157:7 and Listeria spp., respectively. Biochemical tests on analytical profile index, microscopic examination, and commercial kit for latex agglutination test for serotyping E. coli O157:H7 were used.
Results: Mixed bacterial isolates were recorded as 116, 52, 36, 28, 18, 6, and 4 from intestinal contents, deep pharyngeal, liver and spleen, urine, lung, brain, and kidney, respectively. Microorganisms included E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., Bacillus spp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Citrobacter freundii, Proteus vulgaris, E. coli O157:H7, Enterobacter cloacae, Listeria spp., Klebsiella spp., Ochrobactrum anthropi, Aeromonasspp., Brucella spp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Escherichia fergusonii, Micrococcus spp., Morganella spp., Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas luteola, and Streptobacillus spp. The highest bacterial prevalence (88; 73.33%) was recorded for E. coli, where 68 isolates were identified from the intestinal contents. Of these, four isolates were E. coli O157:H7.
Conclusion: Rats are important carriers and transmitters of a number of pathogens and can disseminate these microorganisms to humans and animals.
Keywords: bacteria, different organs, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, rat, urine.
16. Awareness and antibody detection of Newcastle disease virus in a neglected society in Nigeria
Oluwafemi Babatunde Daodu, Julius Olaniyi Aiyedun, Rafiu Adebisi Kadir, Hauwa Motunrayo Ambali, Oladapo Oyedeji Oludairo, Isaac Dayo Olorunshola, Oluwakemi Christiana Daodu and Saka Saheed Baba
Veterinary World, 12(1): 112-118
Aim: This study aimed to assess the level of awareness of rural poultry farmers on vaccination and to detect Newcastle disease virus (NDV) antibody in local birds (LB) and eggs in Kwara State, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: Data on farmers' attitude, knowledge, practices, and experiences on ND mortality were obtained through an interview using a structured cross-sectional checklist. NDV antibodies were detected in sera and egg yolks of local chickens (LC) and guinea fowls (GF) using hemagglutination inhibition test.
Results: A total of 83 interviewees, 287 sera and 121 egg yolk extracts, were examined. The study revealed that 98.8% (82/83) of the interviewee had never vaccinated their flock before. 90% of the interviewee had reported high mortality in birds within 1-6 months old, while the major clinical signs were cold (40.4%) and torticollis (30.8%). Evidences of LB exposure to wild-type NDV were confirmed by the detection of NDV antibodies in 20.8% and 0% of LC and GF, respectively. The mortality differences experienced in <1 and 1-6 months old LB could be explained by the presence of maternally-derived NDV antibody (49.6%) in egg yolk.
Conclusion: The study showed that LB suffers from NDV as a result of LB keepers' ignorance and neglect by the government. This has limited local investment and subsequent contribution to gross domestic product. This study suggests that the key factors to the prevention of ND remain awareness creation about poultry vaccination, production of affordable vaccines, and availability/accessibility to veterinarian (or trained personnel).
15. Hematologic changes and splenic index on malaria mice models given Syzygium cumini extract as an adjuvant therapy
Lilik Maslachah, Rahmi Sugihartuti and Retno Sri Wahyuni
Veterinary World, 12(1): 106-111
Aim: This research aimed to determine the efficacy of Syzygium cumini L. as an adjuvant therapy on blood changes and splenic index of mice model malaria.
Materials and Methods: Mice were infected intraperitoneally with 0.2 ml red blood cell (RBC) that contains 1×106Plasmodium berghei. 35 mice were divided into seven treatment groups: Group K0: Mice were not infected; K1: Mice were infected; K2: Mice were infected and given chloroquine; P1: Mice were infected and given S. cumini leaf extract; P2: Mice were infected and given chloroquine and also S. cumini leaf extract; P3: Mice was infected and given S. cumini stem bark extract; and P4: Mice were infected and given chloroquine and S. cumini stem bark extract. Treatment was given for 4 days 24 h post-P. berghei infection. 21st day post-P. berghei infection, blood was taken from the heart for hematological examination, and the spleen was taken to examine the splenic index and also to measure the weight and length of the spleen. Hematological data and splenic index were analyzed by analysis of variance test, and if there is a difference, the test is continued by Duncan's multiple range test with 5% level.
Results: The K0 group has normal hemoglobin (HGB), RBC, and hematocrit (HCT) and significantly different (p<0.05) than other groups. HGB, RBC, and HCT of K1 group were under normal range, lowest, and significantly different (p<0.05) than other groups. Mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular HGB values of K2 groups showed a decrease. The number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes of K1 groups was increasing and significantly different (p<0.05) with K2 and treatment group. The length, width, weight, and splenic index of K1 group were significantly different (p<0.05) with K0 group. K2 and treatment groups showed that the length and width of spleens were significantly different (p<0.05) with K1.
Conclusion: The combination of chloroquine with leaf and chloroquine with stem bark extract of S. cumini as adjuvant therapy may increase the amount of erythrocyte; decrease the number of leukocytes, lymphocytes, and monocytes; and decrease the length, width, and splenic index on malaria mice models.
14. Combined H5ND inactivated vaccine protects chickens against challenge by different clades of highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses subtype H5 and virulent Newcastle disease virus
Ahmed Ali, Marwa Safwat, Walid H. Kilany, Abdou Nagy, Awad A. Shehata, Mohamed A. Zain El-Abideen, Al-Hussien M. Dahshan and Abdel-Satar A. Arafa
Veterinary World, 12(1): 97-105
Aim: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the efficacy of a trivalent-inactivated oil-emulsion vaccine against challenge by different clades highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) viruses including HPAI-H5N8 and the virulent genotype VII Newcastle disease virus (NDV) (vNDV).
Materials and Methods: The vaccine studied herein is composed of reassortant AI viruses rgA/Chicken/Egypt/ ME1010/2016 (clade 184.108.40.206), H5N1 rgA/Chicken/Egypt/RG-173CAL/2017 (clade 220.127.116.11), and "NDV" (LaSota NDV/ CK/Egypt/11478AF/11); all used at a concentration of 108 EID50/bird and mixed with Montanide-ISA70 oil adjuvant. Two-week-old specific pathogen free (SPF) chickens were immunized subcutaneously with 0.5 ml of the vaccine, and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) antibody titers were monitored weekly. The intranasal challenge was conducted 4 weeks post-vaccination (PV) using 106 EID50/0.1 ml of the different virulent HPAI-H5N1 viruses representing clades 2.2.1, 18.104.22.168, 22.214.171.124, 126.96.36.199b-H5N8, and the vNDV.
Results: The vaccine induced HI antibody titers of >6log2 against both H5N1 and NDV viruses at 2 weeks PV. Clinical protection against all HPAI H5N1 viruses and vNDV was 100%, except for HPAI H5N1 clade-2.2.1 and HPAI H5N8 clade- 188.8.131.52b viruses that showed 93.3% protection. Challenged SPF chickens showed significant decreases in the virus shedding titers up to <3log10 compared to challenge control chickens. No virus shedding was detected 6 "days post-challenge" in all vaccinated challenged groups.
Conclusion: Our results indicate that the trivalent H5ND vaccine provides significant clinical protection against different clades of the HPAI viruses including the newly emerging H5N8 HPAI virus. Availability of such potent multivalent oil-emulsion vaccine offers an effective tool against HPAI control in endemic countries and promises simpler vaccination programs.
13. Antibacterial activity and sensory properties of Heracleum persicum essential oil, nisin, and Lactobacillus acidophilus against Listeria monocytogenes in cheese
A. Ehsani, A. Rezaeiyan, M. Hashemi, M. Aminzare, B. Jannat and A. Afshari
Veterinary World, 12(1): 90-96
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial and chemical effect of Heracleum persicum essential oil (EO), nisin, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and their combination against Listeria monocytogenes both in vitro and in Iranian white cheese model.
Materials and Methods: Chemical compositions of H. persicum EO were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. After production of Iranian white cheese, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration of EO and nisin and agar spot test of L. acidophilus against L. monocytogenes were evaluated.
Results: Hexyl butanoate (25.98%), octyl isobutyrate (17.82%), methyl butyrate (14.37%), and pentyl cyclopropane (12.77%) were the main components of the EO. MIC of the EO against L. monocytogenes was 2.5 mg/mL. Combination of nisin (5.3 IU/mL) and H. persicum EO (2500 μg/mL) showed increasing effect against L. monocytogenes (fractional inhibitory concentration = 0.9), while a higher concentration of EO and nisin showed undesirable effect on the cheese flavor. Furthermore, a combination of 1012 CFU/g L. acidophilus with H. persicum EO at the concentration of 2.5 mg/mL (T12) showed acceptable sensorial and also antibacterial results in Iranian white cheese.
Conclusion: Combination of H. persicum EO, L. acidophilus, and nisin can be recommended as natural preservatives and flavoring agents in cheese.
Background and Aim: The genetic relationship among serotypes of Salmonella enterica from food animals, food of animal origin, and human is of interest as the data could provide an important clue for the source of human infection. This study aimed to determine the genetic relatedness of S. enterica from pig production and human in Thailand-Laos border provinces.
Materials and Methods: A total of 195 S. enterica serotypes isolated from pig and pork (n=178) and human (n=17) including four serotypes (Typhimurium, Rissen, Derby, and Stanley) were randomly selected to examine their genetic relatedness using highly conserved sequence of three genes (fim A, man B, and mdh).
Results: The results showed that 195 Salmonella isolates of four different serotypes were grouped into five different clusters, and members of the same Salmonella serotypes were found in the same cluster. Salmonellaisolated from pig production and human in Thailand-Laos border provinces represented overlapping population and revealed a high degree of similarity, indicating close genetic relationship among the isolates.
Conclusion: The results support that the determination of Salmonella serotyping combined with analysis of phylogenetic tree can be used track the clonal evolution and genetic diversity of Salmonella serotypes in different host species.
10. The effect of dietary protein levels on body weight gain, carcass production, nitrogen emission, and efficiency of productions related to emissions in thin-tailed lambs
Ari Prima, Endang Purbowati, Edy Rianto and Agung Purnomoadi
Veterinary World, 12(1): 72-78
Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate dietary crude protein (CP) level on performance of body weight (BW) gain, carcass production, and nitrogen emission on lambs.
Materials and Methods: A total of 12 male thin-tailed lambs (15.2±1.8 kg initial BW and aged 3-4 months) were assigned to completely randomized design for 84-day feeding trial. The animals were divided into three different levels of CP (i.e., 14%, 16%, and 18% with isocaloric diets and 60% total digestible nutrients) with four replications.
Results: Increasing CP level was not significantly affected on average daily gain (ADG), carcass production, N and N2O emissions, and efficiency of emissions related to the productions. The average of ADG, carcass production, meat production, meat protein production, N emission, and N2O emission was 141.4 g, 11.6 kg, 6.8 kg, 0.9 kg, 53.1 g/day, and 0.3 g/day, respectively. The efficiency of ADG, carcass production, meat production, and meat protein related to N emissions were 119.7 g/kg, 4.4 g/kg, 2.5 g/kg, and 56.6 g/kg, respectively, while N2O emissions related to ADG, carcass production, meat production, and meat protein were 2.4 g/kg, 0.027 g/kg, 0.36 g/kg, and 0.34 g/kg, respectively.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that the increase of CP level up to 18% did not affect productivity, N emissions, and efficiency of emissions per unit product because the increase of CP was not balanced by energy content in feed.
Keywords: average daily gain, carcass productions, crude protein levels, efficiency emissions to productions, nitrogen emission, nitrous oxide emission.
Aim: This study was conducted to study the coagulase (coa) gene-based genetic diversity of Staphylococcus aureus, isolated from different samples of cattle from three different regions in East Java Province, Indonesia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 160 raw milk samples collected in East Java Province, Indonesia, were screened for the presence of S. aureus. The presumptive isolates were confirmed by coa test. The confirmed S. aureus isolates were subjected to coa gene polymerase chain reaction.
Results: Of 160 different samples, 20 (12.5%) isolates of S. aureus were confirmed by positive coa test. Of 20 S. aureus isolates, 19 (95%) isolates carried coa gene. Six different genotypes of coa gene, i.e., 440 bp, 510 bp, 547 bp, 680 bp, 740 bp, and 820 bp were obtained. One coa genotypes, 510 bp (10 isolates) were observed in polymorphism to be more prevalent than the others, and the genotype was present in at least one isolates from every region.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that coa gene is easily epidemiological tool for detection of variation strain from S. aureus.
Keywords: coagulase gene, coagulase test, polymorphism, raw milk, Staphylococcus aureus.