Monday, 31 August 2015

Effect of glutamine supplementation and replacement of tris-egg yolk based extender with defatted cow milk on spermatozoa quality after equilibration and thawing

Research (Published online: 26-08-2015)
14.  Effect of glutamine supplementation and replacement of tris-egg yolk based extender with defatted cow milk on spermatozoa quality after equilibration and thawing - Vasundhara Dawra, Brijesh Yadav and Sarvajeet Yadav
Veterinary World, 8(8): 1027-1031

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1027-1031

Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of supplementation of glutamine and replacement of Tris-egg yolk (TE) based buffer with defatted cow milk on the spermatozoa quality after equilibration and thawing.
Materials and Methods: Semen was collected from five Bhadawari bulls biweekly, and a total of 30 ejaculates were taken. The semen ejaculates were pooled and divided into three equal parts. The pooled semen was diluted by TE based extender (control), TE + glutamine (8 mM) (T1) and 50% TE + 50% deffated cow milk + glutamine (8 mM) (T2). At two stages viz. after equilibration and after 12 h of cryopreservation (thawed samples), progressive motility, percent live, and percent acrosomal damage of the spermatozoa was assessed.
Results: Supplementation of glutamine improved (p<0.05) the spermatozoa quality with respect to the progressive motility, percent live and acrosomal damage both post-equilibration and post-thaw. T2 improved (p<0.05) the spermatozoa quality as compared to control, however; it was less (p<0.05) effective as compared T1 both post-equilibration and post-thaw.
Conclusion: From the results of present study it can be concluded that glutamine supplementation was effective in maintaining post-equilibration and post-thaw spermatozoa quality whereas defatted cow milk was not as effective as TE based buffer in the extender in improving the spermatozoa quality.
Keywords: Bhadawari bull, defatted milk, glutamine, post-thaw spermatozoa quality.

Effect of replacing oat fodder with fresh and chopped oak leaves on in vitro rumen fermentation, digestibility and metabolizable energy

Research (Published online: 26-08-2015)
13.  Effect of replacing oat fodder with fresh and chopped oak leaves on in vitro rumen fermentation, digestibility and metabolizable energy - K. Rajkumar, R. Bhar, A. Kannan, R.V. Jadhav, Birbal Singh and G. Mal
Veterinary World, 8(8): 1021-1026

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1021-1026

Aim: A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of replacing oat fodder (OF) with fresh oak leaves (FOL) or chopped oak leaves (COL) on rumen fermentation and digestibility through in vitro gas production technique (IVGPT).
Materials and Methods: Nine different diets were prepared by mixing OF with oak leaves (either FOL or COL) in different ratios (100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100). The rations were evaluated through Hohenheim IVGPT with 200 mg substrate and 30 ml of buffered rumen liquor. All the syringes were incubated at 39°C for 24 h in buffered rumen liquor of cattle. After 24 h, the total gas production was recorded, and the contents were analyzed for in vitro methane production, protozoa no. and ammonia-N.
Results: Chopping (p<0.01) reduced the tannin fractions as well as non-tannin phenol. Increase in levels of oak decreased total gas production, methane, organic matter (OM) digestibility, and metabolizable energy (ME) values. The polyphenol content of the substrate did not show any significant difference on the protozoal count.
Conclusion: In vitro studies revealed that the addition of oak leaves reduced the methane production and ammonia nitrogen levels; however, it also decreased the OM digestibility and ME values linearly as the level of the oak leaves increased in the diet. Chopping was effective only at lower inclusion levels. Further studies, especially in vivo studies, are needed to explore the safe inclusion levels of oak leaves in the diet of ruminants.
Keywords: chopping, in-vitro, methane, oak leaves, oat fodder.

Pathomorphological and microbiological studies in sheep with special emphasis on gastrointestinal tract disorders

Research (Published online: 26-08-2015)
12.  Pathomorphological and microbiological studies in sheep with special emphasis on gastrointestinal tract disorders - Sarvan Kumar, K. K. Jakhar, Vikas Nehra and Madan Pal
Veterinary World, 8(8): 1015-1020

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1015-1020

Aim: The present study was envisaged to elucidate the pathomorphological and microbiological aspects of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders of sheep/lambs.
Materials and Methods: Samples for research were collected from 12 sheep died with a history of GIT disorders which were brought for post-mortem examination to the Department of Veterinary Pathology, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar, for pathomorphological and microbiological examination.
Results: Gross pathological changes in various organs noticed were abomasitis, congestion and hemorrhages in intestine; necrotic foci on liver surface; enlarged, hard, and indurated mesenteric lymph nodes, hydropericardium, congestion, hemorrhages and consolidation of lungs and congestion and soft kidneys as the major change. On histopathological examination, there were abomasitis with leukocyte infiltration, enteritis with desquamation of mucosal epithelium and goblet cell hyperplasia, lymphadenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the germinal center of lymphoid follicle, and splenitis with depletion of lymphocytes in the white pulp. In the liver congestion, degenerative changes in hepatocytes including cloudy swelling, fatty changes, congestion in sinusoids, and dilatation of sinusoids leading to atrophy of hepatocytes. Lungs evidenced edema, congestion, emphysema, serous inflammation, thickening of interlobular septa, fibrinous pleuritis, and peribronchiolar lymphoid follicle formation. Heart revealed sarcocystosis, fibrinous pericarditis, and hyalinization of the myocardium. In kidneys, congestion, focal interstitial nephritis, hyaline degeneration, and coagulative necrosis were seen. For microbiological aspects; cultural isolation was done from samples of liver, abomasum, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, heart blood, lungs, and kidneys from the carcasses of sheep/lambs. Escherichia coli was the only bacterium isolated during present studies. E. coliisolates from different tissues of carcasses of sheep/lambs were subjected to in-vitro drug sensitivity testing. Ciprofloxacin, cefixime, polymyxin B, amoxicillin + sulbactam, and amoxicillin + clavulanic acid were the most sensitive drugs followed by amikacin, ofloxacin, ampicillin, co-trimoxazole, and amoxicillin.
Conclusions: From the present study, it is reasonable to conclude that the major etiopathological cause of GIT disorders in sheep was E. coli infection, which causes a pathomorphological effect on various cadaver organs viz. abomasum, intestine, liver, mesenteric lymph nodes, lungs, spleen, kidneys, and heart followed by parasitic infection of Haemonchus contortus.
Keywords: gastrointestinal tract disorders, in-vitro chemotherapeutic sensitivity, microbiology, pathomorphology, sheep.

Histology and scanning electron microscopy of the tubal tonsil of goats

Research (Published online: 25-08-2015)
11.  Histology and scanning electron microscopy of the tubal tonsil of goats - V. R. Indu, K. M. Lucy, J. J. Chungath, N. Ashok and S. Maya
Veterinary World, 8(8): 1011-1014

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1011-1014

Aim: To observe the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the caprine tubal tonsil.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on six crossbred male goats of 6 months of age. From the median sections of the head, tissue pieces from the nasopharynx around the auditory tube were collected and fixed for histology and SEM.
Results: Tonsillar lymphoid tissue was located in the nasopharynx ventral to the auditory tube opening in the lateral wall of the pharynx. The height of the surface epithelium of the tubal tonsil measured 80.17±1.08 μm and was a pseudostratified ciliated columnar type with basal, supporting, and goblet cells. Above the dome of lymphoid nodules, the epithelium was modified into a follicle associated epithelium (FAE), also called lympho-epithelium or reticular epithelium and was characterized by the absence of goblet cells and cilia, reduced number of cell layers, and a large number of lymphoid cells due to interrupted basement membrane. The height of FAE was smaller than that of the surface epithelium and measured 34.33±0.92 μm. The surface of tubal tonsil showed folds and invaginations, which formed crypts. The lamina propria-submucosa underneath the epithelium was formed by the meshwork of reticular and, thin and loose collagen fibers with dome-like accumulation of lymphoid nodules. In the secondary lymphoid nodules, a corona, parafollicular area, and interfnodular area were observed. The average number of lymphoid nodules counted per field under low power magnification of microscope was 1.17±0.17, and the internodular distance was 34.00±4.37 μm. The mean diameter of lymphoid nodules was 566.67±11.45 μm and the lymphocyte count per nodule was 14741.67±174.36. The number of plasma cells counted per field under low power was 44.38±2.90 below the surface epithelium. The tubal tonsil was not encapsulated. In SEM, the surface epithelium of the tubal tonsils presented ciliated cells, microvillus (MV) cells, and goblet cells. The region of FAE possessed Type-I and Type-II MV cells and microfold (M) cells in between.
Conclusion: It was concluded that the tubal tonsils were well developed in goats, which might serve as a means of protection against the spread of infection to the middle ear cavity.
Keywords: goats, histology, tubal tonsil.

Evaluation of recombinant outer membrane protein C based indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for the detection of Salmonellaantibodies in poultry

Research (Published online: 25-08-2015)
10.  Evaluation of recombinant outer membrane protein C based indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay for the detection of Salmonellaantibodies in poultry - Jinu Manoj, Rajesh K. Agarwal, Blessa Sailo, Mudasir Ahmed Wani and Manoj Kumar Singh
Veterinary World, 8(8): 1006-1010

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1006-1010

Aim: To evaluate the efficacy of recombinant outer membrane proteinC (rOmpC) based enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA) for the diagnosis of salmonellosis in poultry.
Materials and Methods: Three antigens were prepared, and the indirect ELISA was standardized using the antigens and the antiserum raised in chicken against Omp and rOmpC. Sera were collected from a total of 255 apparently healthy field chickens and screened for the presence of Salmonella antibodies by this ELISA.
Results: The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of Omp revealed major polypeptides at 36, 42 and 52 kDa, and the rOmpC was evident by a single protein band of 43 kDa. The Omp and rOmpC antigen revealed an optimum concentration of 78 and 156 ng, respectively, in the assay, while the whole cell antigen gave an optimum reaction at a concentration of 106organisms/ml. The test was found to be specific as it did not react with any of the antisera of seven other organisms. The developed ELISA detected Salmonella antibodies from 22 (8.62%) samples with rOmpC antigen, while 24 (9.41%) samples gave a positive reaction with both Omp and whole cell antigens.
Conclusion: We suggest rOmpC based indirect ELISA as a suitable screening tool for serological monitoring of poultry flocks.
Keywords: antibody, antigen, outer membrane protein, poultry, Salmonella.

Friday, 21 August 2015

Editor-in-Chief Welcomes blog post related to Veterinary, Human and Environment news/research

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Tuesday, 18 August 2015

10 Easy Ways to Increase Your Citation Count

10 Easy Ways to Increase Your Citation Count: A Checklist

By: Michelle Ebbs on Mon, 06/16/2014
Customer Support
The number of papers you publish is important to your career. “Publish early and often” is heard over and over again in research. However, the number of times your work is cited is important as well because it can indicate the impact that your research has on the field.
Increasing your citation count can also have a positive impact on your career because funding agencies often look at a combination of the number of papers and the number of citations when making grant decisions.
To boost your citation count to maximize impact, consider these 10 simple techniques:
1. Cite your past work when it is relevant to a new manuscript. However, do not reference every paper you have written just to increase your citation count.
2. Carefully choose your keywords. Choose keywords that researchers in your field will be searching for so that your paper will appear in a database search.
3. Use your keywords and phrases in your title and repeatedly in your abstract. Repeating keywords and phrases will increase the likelihood your paper will be at the top of a search engine list, making it more likely to be read.
4. Use a consistent form of your name on all of your papers. Using the same name on all of your papers will make it easier for others to find all of your published work. If your name is very common, consider getting a research identifier, such as an ORCID or a ResearcherID. You can provide your ResearcherID in your email signature and link that ID to your publication list so that anyone you email has access to your publications.
5. Make sure that your information is correct. Check that your name and affiliation are correct on the final proofs of your manuscript and check that the paper’s information is accurate in database searches.
6. Make your manuscript easily accessible. If your paper is not published in an open-access journal, post your pre- or post-publication prints to a repository. Check SHERPA RoMEO to find your publisher’s copyright and self-archiving policies regarding sharing your published manuscript.
7. Share your data. There is some evidence that sharing your data can increase your citations. Consider posting to data sharing websites, such as figshare or SlideShare, or contributing to Wikipediaand providing links to your published manuscripts.
8. Present your work at conferences. Although conference presentations are not cited by other others, this will make your research more visible to the academic and research communities.
9. Use social media. Provide links to your papers on social media (e.g., FacebookTwitter,Academia.eduResearchGateMendeley) and your university profile page.
10. Actively promote your work. Talk to other researchers about your paper, even ones not in your field, and email copies of your paper to researchers who may be interested. Create a blog or a website dedicated to your research and share it.
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List of schools of veterinary medicine

List of schools of veterinary medicine

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
This is a list of veterinary schools throughout the world by country.


Nangarhar University ] Veterinary Science Faculty
Kunduz University ] Veterinary Science Faculty









  • Gorkovskii Agricultural Institute[37]
  • Vitebsk State Academy of Veterinary Medicine[38]



Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]





Costa Rica[edit]


Czech Republic[edit]

  • University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno[83]



Sohag University Faculty of Veterinary Medicine[94]






















Republic of Macedonia[edit]




  • Agronomic and Veterinary Institute of Hassan II Polytechnic Center of Earth and Life Sciences[208]



Nepal polytechnic institute Bharatpur 11 chitwan


New Zealand[edit]











Saint Kitts[edit]

Saudi Arabia[edit]


  • Interstate University of Veterinary Science and Medicine in Dakar[262]




South Africa[edit]

South Korea[edit]


Sri Lanka[edit]









  • Dnipropetrovsk State Agricultural University Faculty of Veterinary Science[323]
  • National Agricultural University of Bela-Cerkva Faculty of Veterinary Science[324]
  • National Agricultural University of Luhansk Faculty of Veterinary Science[325]
  • National Agricultural University of Ukraine Faculty of Veterinary Science[326]
  • Odessa State Agrarian University Faculty of Veterinary Science[327]
  • Sumy National Agricultural University Faculty of Veterinary Science[328]
  • Zhytomir National Academy of Agriculture and Ecological Sciences Faculty of Veterinary Science[329]

United Kingdom[edit]



Cayman Islands[edit]

United States[edit]


West Indies[edit]