Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
Aim: The aim of this study was to estimate the heritability, genetic and phenotypic correlations, and the genetic trends for pre-weaning growth traits including the birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), pre-weaning daily gain (PWDG), and weaning age (WA) in Awassi lambs.
Materials and Methods: A total of 5131 Awassi lambs from two Jordanian sheep breeding stations were used. A multitrait animal model and restricted maximum likelihood methods were used to estimate the covariances between the studied traits.
Results: The mean±standard deviation of BWT, WWT, PWDG, and WA was 4.48±0.8 kg, 17.13±0.7 kg, 0.2±0.07 g, and 65.5±0.7 days, respectively. Heritability estimates were 0.30±0.04 for BWT, 0.19±0.04 for WWT and PWDG, and 0.2±0.04 for WA. Positive genetic correlations were obtained between BWT and other traits, while negative correlations were obtained between WWT, PWDG, and WA (-0.50±0.12) and between WWT and WA (-0.67±0.14). The positive phenotypic correlation was obtained between WA and PWDG (0.63±0.01). The highest additive genetic variance was obtained for WA (34.58), while the lowest was estimated for PWDG (6.22E-04). The highest phenotypic variance was obtained for WA (175.5), while the lowest value obtained was for BWT (0.54). Maternal additive variance ranged between 0.13 and 0.03. The genetic trends were around zero for all studied traits.
Conclusion: Selection should be conducted using animals with high estimated breeding values through controlled breeding.
26. Effect of levamisole, Vitamin E, and selenium against aflatoxicosis in broilers chicken
Amjed H. Ulaiwi
Veterinary World, 11(2): 248-253
Aim: The experiment was conducted to determine of levamisole (0.2 ml/kg-BW), Vitamin E (80 mg)+selenium (1.6 mg), and aflatoxin (B1) (positive control) compared with group without aflatoxin (negative control) on some liver enzymes (aspartate transaminase [AST] and alanine transaminase [ALT]), as well as to study the histopathological changes.
Materials and Methods: The experiment included (200) 1-day-old broilers Ross 308 (Turkey source) mixed sexes. They were divided into four equal groups (50 chicks each group). The experimental period was extended to 35 days.
Results: The results revealed that the levels of liver enzymes (ALT and AST) of all groups at 35 days were significantly (p<0.05) higher than the negative control. Furthermore, the result of histopathological changes in thymus and Harderian gland in different ages of group Vitamin E+selenium showed a reduction in the depletion of the cortex as well as lessening of congestion and hemorrhage and necrosis also decreasing in inflammatory cells in the thymus and Harderian gland.
Conclusion: The study confirmed the protective effect of Vitamin E and levamisole by reducing harmful impacts of aflatoxin through their antioxidant effect as they improved the liver enzymes and histopathological changes due to the toxin.
Keywords: aflatoxin, aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, broiler, levamisole, Vitamin E and selenium.
25. The effect of supplementation of multistrain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals to the basal diet on the growth performance, carcass traits, and physiological response of broilers
Sugiharto Sugiharto, Isroli Isroli, Turrini Yudiarti and Endang Widiastuti
Veterinary World, 11(2): 240-247
Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplementation of multistrain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals to the broiler chicken diets on their growth performance, hematological parameters, and carcass traits.
Materials and Methods: Two hundred and eighty-eight Lohmann 1-day-old broiler chicks were randomly allocated to four groups, i.e., control (without additional supplementation) and three experimental treatments where basal diet was enriched by 0.1%, 0.5%, or 1% of multistrain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals, respectively. Blood sampling was conducted on day 28, while the selected organs and eviscerated carcasses were collected on day 42.
Results: Dietary supplementation did not affect (p>0.05) the final body weight, feed intake, and feed conversion ratio of broilers. Supplementation by 0.1% and 0.5% of multistrain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals reduced (p≤0.05) heart relative weight of broilers. Dietary supplementation tended (p=0.07) to increase the relative weight of ileum and pancreas of broilers. Supplemented birds had lower (p≤0.05) numbers of leukocytes and eosinophils compared to unsupplemented birds. There were tendencies that supplementation of multistrain probiotics in combination with vitamins and minerals resulted in lower (p=0.07) counts of lymphocytes and heterophils when compared with no supplementation. Supplementation by 0.5% of multistrain probiotics in combination with vitamins and minerals resulted in lower (p≤0.05) serum concentration of uric acid when compared with control. There was no significant effect of dietary supplementation on carcass traits, pH, and drip loss of broiler breast muscles.
Conclusion: Dietary supplementation of commercial broiler feeds with 0.5% of multistrain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals was potential to improve digestive functions and physiological status of broiler chickens.
24. The effect of purified Quercus cortex extract on biochemical parameters of organism and productivity of healthy broiler chickens
Galimzhan Kalihanovich Duskaev, Nadezhda Mihajlovna Kazachkova, Alexander Sergeevich Ushakov, Baer Serekpaevich Nurzhanov and Albert Farhitdinovich Rysaev
Veterinary World, 11(2): 235-239
Aim: Modern methods of producing poultry meat without the use of antibiotics are known, and it is possible to achieve the desired conditions, including the use of herbal preparations. In addition, it is known that metabolites of medicinal plants are inhibitors of the quorum sensing system in bacteria. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of Quercus cortex extract in a reduced dose on the productivity and body state of healthy chicken broilers.
Materials and Methods: For the experiment, 120 heads of 7-day-old healthy broiler chickens were selected, and they were divided into four groups (n=30, 3 replicates of 10 birds in each group) by the analog method. The composition of diets of the experimental Groups I and II additionally included Q. cortex extract and Groups II and III included an enzyme preparation containing glucoamylase and concomitant cellulolytic enzymes. The following methods of study were used; gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry, and hematological analysis.
Results: It was established that the increase in live weight of broiler chickens in experimental groups exceeded the analogous indicator in the control group by 3.1-16.6%, and feed intake within the entire experimental period increased by 2.6-15.4%, against a background of decreasing feed consumption for a weight gain of 1 kg of live weight (by 3.7-9.2%). There was an increase in iron concentration in blood of broiler chickens in Groups I and II (7.8-11.8%), in liver (23.7-92.4%, p≤0.05), and in spleen (53.9-77.7%, p≤0.05) against the background of a decrease in muscle tissue. A decreased content of monocytes and granulocytes was found, especially in experimental Group I.
Conclusion: In the experiment, it was shown for the first time that the inclusion of Q. cortex extract in an enzyme-containing diet (anti-quarantine substances) was found to increase the productivity of poultry.
23. DNA extraction from hydatid cyst protoscolices: Comparison of five different methods
Afshin Barazesh, Bahador Sarkari, Sepideh Ebrahimi and Mehdi Hami
Veterinary World, 11(2): 231-234
Aim: The current study aimed to find out a simple, practical and high throughput DNA isolation method for extraction of DNA from hydatid cyst samples.
Materials and Methods: Cattle and sheep isolate of hydatid cysts were obtained from the slaughterhouse, and hydatid fluid and protoscolices were collected in a sterile condition. Protoscolices were washed, 3 times with phosphate buffered saline, and DNA was extracted by different methods including manual extraction with freeze/thawing and phenol-chloroform, Triton X-100 extraction, and by a commercial kit (YTA, Yekta Tajhiz Azma, Iran) with three different modifications in the kit's manufacturer instructions. The obtained DNA from the different methods was evaluated by Nanodrop in terms of the yield of DNA and carbohydrates or protein contaminations. To compare the quality of the extracted DNA, two pieces of the mitochondrial genome of Echinococcus granulosus, cox1, and nad1, were polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified, using each of the DNA prepared by different methods. Electrophoresis of PCR products was carried out on the agarose gel.
Results: The DNA extracted by manual method, using phenol/chloroform, had the highest yield, yet with the highest level of protein and carbohydrate contamination. The DNA extracted using two-step incubations, initially at 60°C for 2 h and then overnight at 37°C, was the most purified DNA with the lowest rate of contamination.
Conclusion: Findings of the study demonstrated that modification in the currently available commercially DNA extraction kit resulted in the development of a high throughput DNA isolation method. This method can be recommended for the extraction of DNA from hydatid cysts, especially the cattle isolate where the extraction of DNA in these samples are usually problematic.
Keywords: DNA extraction, hydatid cyst, protoscolices.
22. Interspecies comparison of probiotics isolated from different animals
Amr M. Abdou, Riham H. Hedia, Shimaa T. Omara, Mohamed Abd El-Fatah Mahmoud, Mai M. Kandil, and M. A. Bakry
Veterinary World, 11(2): 227-230
Aim: The aim of the current study was to isolate and identify naturally occurring probiotic Lactobacillus species in different animals with the different environmental background including fish, and farm animals to investigate interspecies differences in probiotics on the species level.
Materials and Methods: A total of 44 fecal and milk samples were collected under aseptic conditions from cattle, buffalo, camel, sheep, goats, and fish. The samples were cultured, and the isolated strains were confirmed biochemically and molecularly using 16S rRNA multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis following DNA extraction from the bacterial isolates.
Results: A total of 31 isolates identified as lactobacilli were isolated from cattle milk, goat feces, sheep feces, fish feces, buffalo milk, camel milk, and goats' milk. Lactobacillus species were identified based on the size of the PCR product. The results showed that different species were different in their lactobacilli content. At the same time, there were some differences between individuals of the same species.
Conclusion: The diversity of probiotic strains isolated from different animal species implies different types of benefits to the host. Although it would be both money - and time-consuming research, discovering the benefit of each of these strains may provide very important information for the health of both human and animal. Furthermore, transferring these beneficial effects either to individuals within the same species or between different species would be of great importance.
21. Intranasal administration of inactivated avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype vaccine-induced systemic immune response in chicken and mice
I N. Suartha, G. A. A. Suartini, I W. Wirata, N. M. A. R. K. Dewi, G. N. N. Putra, G. A. Y. Kencana and G. N. Mahardika
Veterinary World, 11(2): 221-226
Aim: The need for non-parenteral administration of inactivated avian influenza virus of H5N1 subtype (AIV-H5N1) vaccine is paramount. Here, we provide preliminary data on the immune response of chicken and mice after intranasal administration of AIV-H5N1-inactivated vaccine with ISCOMS, Inmunair (INM), and combined ISCOMS and INM as an adjuvant.
Materials and Methods: The AIV isolate of A/Chicken/Denpasar/01/2004 (H5N1) was cultivated in specific pathogen-free chicken eggs and inactivated with formaldehyde. The vaccine preparation was added with those adjuvants for intranasal administration and aluminum hydroxide for subcutaneous injection. The chicken and mouse were vaccinated at the age of 3 weeks or 1 month and repeated 2 weeks thereafter. In one experiment, chicken was injected with Newcastle disease virus (NDV) at the same time with AIV vaccine. The sera were collected at one (serum 1) and 2 w (serum 2) after booster vaccination. The anti-AIV-H5 and NDV antibodies in chicken sera were detected using hemagglutination inhibition (HI) assay. Mouse IgG anti-AIV-H5N1 antibody was detected using ELISA.
Results: The result shows that the geometric mean titers (GMTs) of chicken sera of intranasal vaccinated with inactivated AIV-H5N1 vaccine with mixed ISCOM- INM as adjuvant were <20.0 and 22.7 unit HI-unit (HIU) in serum 1 and serum 2, respectively. The GMTs of the positive control group were 23.7 and 25.7 HIU in serum 1 and serum 2, respectively. The result of the second experiment shows that IgG anti-AIV-H5N1 was detected in mouse sera. In the third experiment, the GMTs of anti-NDV in chicken vaccinated subsequently with inactivated NDV vaccine and AIV-H5N1 with mixed ISCOMS-INM administrated intranasally and aluminum hydroxide adjuvant administrated through subcutaneous injection as well as positive control group receiving NDV vaccine only were 28.0, 28.0, and 27.4 HIU in serum 1 while were 29.6, 29.2, and 28.2 HIU in serum 2, respectively.
Conclusion: Intranasal administration of inactivated AIV-H5N1 vaccine-induced a systemic immune response in chicken and mice after adding ISCOMS and/or INM as adjuvants. The adjuvant and the intranasal administration caused no immunosuppressive effect on the chicken immune response to NDV vaccine.
20. Comparative ovicidal activity of Moringa oleifera leaf extracts on Fasciola gigantica eggs
Ahmed G. Hegazi, Kadria N. Abdel Megeed, Soad E. Hassan, M. M. Abdelaziz, Nagwa I. Toaleb, Eman E. El Shanawany and Dina Aboelsoued
Veterinary World, 11(2): 215-220
Background: Fasciolosis is an important zoonotic disease affecting the productive performance of farm animals in Egypt.
Aim: The aim of the present study was comparing the ovicidal effect of different extracts as an alcoholic (Methanolic and Ethanolic) and aqueous Moringa oleifera leaf extracts on Fasciola gigantica non-embryonated and developed eggs.
Materials and Methods: Tested concentrations of extracts ranged from 12.5 to 800 mg/ml. Nitroxynil was used as reference drug with a dose of 100 mg/ml.
Results:M. oleifera alcoholic and aqueous extracts showed a concentration-dependent ovicidal effect on F. gigantica non-embryonated and developed eggs. Based on LC50 values, water extract showed the highest ovicidal activity since it registered the lowest values of 2.6 mg/ml on non-embryonated eggs. Non-embryonated eggs were more susceptible to aqueous extract than developed eggs. On the other hand, the developed eggs were more susceptible to ethanolic extract than non-embryonated eggs even the lowest LC50 (12.38 mg/ml).
Conclusion:M. oleifera leaf extracts especially aqueous extract could be a promising step in the field of controlling fascioliasis. Further, in vivo studies are needed to enlighten the therapeutic potential of M. oleiferaextracts in treating F. gigantica infection.
19. Immunomodulatory effects of probiotics and prilled fat supplementation on immune genes expression and lymphocyte proliferation of transition stage Karan Fries cows
Meeti Punetha, A. K. Roy, H. M. Ajithakumar, Irshad Ahmed Para, Deepanshu Gupta, Mahendra Singh and Jaya Bharati
Veterinary World, 11(2): 209-214
Background and Aim: Probiotics are the living microorganism which when administered improves the digestion and health of the animal. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) improves the humoral and innate immunity of the animal. Prilled fat is a hydrogenated palm oil triglyceride which has been reported to promote the release of cytokines from macrophages. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory effect of probiotic and prilled fat during transition stage in Karan Fries (KF) cows.
Materials and Methods: A total of 12 KF cows at 21 days prepartum were selected and divided into two groups of six animals each. The control group was fed as per the standard feeding practices and the supplemented group cows were supplemented daily with prilled fat at 100 g/cow, SC at 25 g/cow, and sweetener at 1 g/cow in addition to the standard feeding practices from -30 days of prepartum to 21 days of lactation. The sweetener was added to improve the palatability of the feed. The natural sweetener of an African plant leave had 105 times more sweetness than glucose with good aroma. The dry matter intake of the animal was recorded. Plasma samples were collected weekly from all cows for the analysis of blood metabolite beta-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA). Lymphocytes were isolated from the blood for studying the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and for estimating lymphocyte proliferation index (LPI).
Results: The upregulated IL-1β and TNF-α around calving might be possibly associated to the metabolic changes occurring during the transition period and suggest a higher degree of inflammation around parturition. High concentrations of BHBA caused increased expression and synthesis of the pro-inflammatory factors such as TNF-α and IL-1β in supplemented group in primary calf hepatocytes. The LPI was higher in supplemented group as compared to control which suggests a stimulatory effect of unsaturated fatty acids on mitogen-stimulated T-cell proliferation.
Conclusion: Dietary supplementation of probiotics, prilled fat, and sweetener alleviated negative energy balance by stimulating feed intake and modulating hepatic lipid metabolism; and both of these additives improved the postpartum health (antioxidant status and immune function) of transition dairy cows.
18. Comparison of four polymerase chain reaction assays for the detection of Brucella spp. in clinical samples from dogs
Eduardo J. Boeri, Maria M. Wanke, Maria J. Madariaga, Maria L. Teijeiro, Sebastian A. Elena and Marcos D. Trangoni
Veterinary World, 11(2): 201-208
Aim: This study aimed to compare the sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp), and positive likelihood ratios (LR+) of four polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays for the detection of Brucella spp. in dog's clinical samples.
Materials and Methods: A total of 595 samples of whole blood, urine, and genital fluids were evaluated between October 2014 and November 2016. To compare PCR assays, the gold standard was defined using a combination of different serological and microbiological test. Bacterial isolation from urine and blood cultures was carried out. Serological methods such as rapid slide agglutination test, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, agar gel immunodiffusion test, and buffered plate antigen test were performed. Four genes were evaluated: (i) The gene coding for the BCSP31 protein, (ii) the ribosomal gene coding for the 16S-23S intergenic spacer region, (iii) the gene coding for porins omp2a/omp2b, and (iv) the gene coding for the insertion sequence IS711.
Results: The results obtained were as follows: (1) For the primers that amplify the gene coding for the BCSP31 protein: S: 45.64% (confidence interval [CI] 39.81-51.46), Sp: 95.62% (CI 93.13-98.12), and LR+: 10.43 (CI 6.04-18); (2) for the primers that amplify the ribosomal gene of the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region: S: 69.80% (CI 64.42-75.18), Sp: 95.62 % (CI 93.13-98.12), and LR+: 11.52 (CI 7.31-18.13); (3) for the primers that amplify the omp2a and omp2b genes: S: 39.26% (CI 33.55-44.97), Sp: 97.31% (CI 95.30-99.32), and LR+ 14.58 (CI 7.25-29.29); and (4) for the primers that amplify the insertion sequence IS711: S: 22.82% (CI 17.89 - 27.75), Sp: 99.66% (CI 98.84-100), and LR+ 67.77 (CI 9.47-484.89).
Conclusion: We concluded that the gene coding for the 16S-23S rDNA intergenic spacer region was the one that best detected Brucella spp. in canine clinical samples.
17. Antimicrobial peptides of buffalo and their role in host defenses
Khangembam Victoria Chanu, Dimpal Thakuria and Satish Kumar
Veterinary World, 11(2): 192-200
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are highly conserved components of the innate immune system found among all classes of life. Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), an important livestock for milk and meat production, is known to have a better resistance to many diseases as compared to cattle. They are found to express many AMPs such as defensins, cathelicidins, and hepcidin which play an important role in neutralizing the invading pathogens. Buffalo AMPs exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Similar to its natural form, synthetic analogs of buffalo AMPs are also antimicrobial against bacteria and even fungus making them a good target for the development of therapeutic antimicrobials. In addition to its antimicrobial effect, AMPs have been demonstrated to have a number of immunomodulatory functions, and their genes are responsive to infections. Further, induction of their gene expression by external factors may help in preventing infectious diseases. This review briefly discusses the AMPs of buffalo identified to date and their possible role in innate immunity.
16. Identification and antibiogram pattern of Bacillus cereus from the milk and milk products in and around Jammu region
Umar Yusuf, S. K. Kotwal, Sanjolly Gupta and Touqeer Ahmed
Veterinary World, 11(2): 186-191
Aim: The aims of the present study were to assess the prevalence, identification, and antibiogram pattern of Bacillus cereus from 215 samples of different milk and milk products in and around Jammu region.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, 215 samples of milk, rasgulla, burfi, rasmalai, kalaari, paneer, ice cream, and pastry were collected and analyzed for the isolation of the B. cereus using PEMBA, and antibiogram pattern was observed for all the milk and milk products.
Results:B. cereus was detected in 61/215 samples with an overall prevalence of 28.37%. Biotyping revealed predominantly 5, 7, and 2 biotypes in raw milk. Burfi and ice cream revealed 2, 3, 5, and 7 biotypes. Rasgulla had 2, 3, and 5 biotypes; paneer and rasmalai had biotypes 2 and 5, while kalaari revealed biotype 5. Antibiogram pattern revealed that isolates were highly sensitive to gentamicin (100%), intermediate to ampicillin (40.98%), tetracycline (31.14%), erythromycin (29.50%), and amoxicillin (26.22%), and high resistance against penicillin G (100%). Adulteration of starch was detected in 16.66 % raw milk samples. All starch positive samples were positive for B. cereus. However, 12 starch negative samples also yielded B. cereus.
Conclusion: From this study, it was concluded that highest prevalence of B. cereus was found in ice cream. Several isolates of B. cereus showed toxigenic activity, so the presence of B. cereus in milk and milk products may be of public health hazard. The antibiogram pattern of B. cereus isolates showed sensitivity to gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, and resistance to penicillin-G and cephalexin. The presence of B. cereus in milk and milk products showed a strong association besides establishing the fact that starch adulteration can be indicative of the presence of B. cereus.
15. End-threaded intramedullary positive profile screw ended self-tapping pin (Admit pin) - A cost-effective novel implant for fixing canine long bone fractures
Mitin Chanana, Adarsh Kumar, Som Prakash Tyagi, Amit Kumar Singla, Arvind Sharma and Uiase Bin Farooq
Veterinary World, 11(2): 181-185
Aim: The current study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical efficacy of end-threaded intramedullary pinning for management of various long bone fractures in canines.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in two phases, managing 25 client-owned dogs presented with different fractures. The technique of application of end-threaded intramedullary pinning in long bone fractures was initially standardized in 6 clinical patients presented with long bone fractures. In this phase, end-threaded pins of different profiles, i.e., positive and negative, were used as the internal fixation technique. On the basis of results obtained from standardization phase, 19 client-owned dogs clinically presented with different fractures were implanted with end-threaded intramedullary positive profile screw ended self-tapping pin in the clinical application phase.
Results: The patients, allocated randomly in two groups, when evaluated postoperatively revealed slight pin migration in Group-I (negative profile), which resulted in disruption of callus site causing delayed union in one case and large callus formation in other two cases whereas no pin migration was observed in Group-II (positive profile). Other observations in Group-I was reduced muscle girth and delayed healing time as compared to Group-II. In clinical application, phase 21st and 42nd day post-operative radiographic follow-up revealed no pin migration in any of the cases, and there was no bone shortening or fragment collapse in end-threaded intramedullary positive profile screw ended self-tapping pin.
Conclusion: The end-threaded intramedullary positive profile screw ended self-tapping pin used for fixation of long bone fractures in canines can resist pin migration, pin breakage, and all loads acting on the bone, i.e., compression, tension, bending, rotation, and shearing to an extent with no post-operative complications.
14. The effect of moderate exercise on the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in oral squamous epithelial cells induced by benzopyrene
Anis Irmawati, Nadira Jasmin and Sidarningsih
Veterinary World, 11(2): 177-180
Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of moderate exercise on the elevation of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio.
Materials and Methods: Eighteen Mus musculus strain Swiss Webster (Balb/c) were divided into three groups (n=6). K1 and K2 had contact with water 3 times/week for 12 weeks, while the members of the K3 group swam 3 times/week for 12 weeks while carrying load weighed 3% of their body weight. After 5 weeks, they were induced with 0.04 ml oleum olivarum (K1), 0.08 mg benzopyrene/0.04 ml oleum olivarum (K2, K3) 3 times/week for 4 weeks. Immunohistochemistry assays were used to determine the ratio of Bax/Bcl-2 expression. The results were analyzed using an independent t-test.
Results: The Bax/Bcl-2 ratio increased significantly in K3 compared to K2 (p=0.00).
Conclusion: Moderate exercise could increase the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in oral squamous epithelial cells induced by benzopyrene.
13. Seroprevalence of small ruminant caprine arthritis encephalitis lentivirus among goats from selected small ruminant farms in Selangor, Malaysia
Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Asinamai Athliamai Bitrus, Yusuf Abba, Veenosha Nehru Raju, Idris Umar Hambali, Innocent Damudu Peter, Abd Wahid Haron, Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila and Jefri Mohd Norsidin
Veterinary World, 11(2): 172-176
Background and Aim:Caprine arthritis encephalitis (CAE) is an important viral disease of small ruminants particularly in dairy goats with severe social and economic implication. Hence, this study was designed to determine the seroprevalence of CAE virus (CAEV) among goat population in selected small ruminant farms in Selangor and the risk factors associated with the occurrence of the disease.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from a total of 91 goats selected at random. Blood serum was harvested and used for competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test to detect antibodies against CAE virus.
Results: The result obtained showed that 8/91 (8.8%) of the goats were seropositive for CAEV. In addition, biosecurity management, source of origin and sex of the animal were observed to be important risk factors associated with the occurrence of CAE in goats.
Conclusion: The findings of this study affirmed that the seroprevalence of CAEV infection among goat population in small ruminant farms in Selangor, Malaysia, is low. However, there is need to institute strict control measures such as testing and culling positive animals or separation of infected animals from those that tested negative to the disease for effective eradication of the disease.
12. Effect of temperature (cooking and freezing) on the concentration of oxytetracycline residue in experimentally induced birds
Ezenduka Ekene Vivienne, Okorie-kanu Onyinye Josephine and Nwanta John Anaelom
Veterinary World, 11(2): 167-171
Aim: The objective of this study was to determine the effect of varying temperatures (different cooking methods and freezing) on the concentration of oxytetracycline (OTC) residues in tissues of broiler birds.
Materials and Methods: Fifty, 5-week-old birds were purchased and acclimatized for 3 weeks while being fed antibiotic-free feed and water. Four birds were then tested for residue and in the absence; the remaining birds were injected intramuscularly with oxytetracycline at its therapeutic dose. Muscle and liver samples of the treated birds were harvested and checked for OTC residues before subjecting them to boiling, microwaving, and roasting. The three plate test was used for the residue detection.
Results: OTC was detected at both pH 6.0 and pH 7.2 but not detected at pH 8.0. Roasting and boiling significantly reduced the concentration of oxytetracycline in muscle by 53.6% and 69.6%, respectively, at pH 6.0, microwaving reduced the concentration by 49.1% but was not statistically significant. The same pattern was followed at pH 7.2 with reduction of 34.3%, 53.2%, and 67.7% for microwaved, roasted, and boiled. For the liver tissues, there was a significant reduction in the concentration for both pH: 6.0 (57.75%, 79.75%, and 89%; pH 7.2 (48.06%, 79.6%, and 88.79%) for boiled, microwaved, and roasted samples. Boiling had a greater reduction effect for muscle samples while roasting had a greater reduction in liver samples at both pHs. Freezing at -10°C had no effect on the concentration of OTC even after 9 days.
Conclusion: The significant reduction of OTC concentration by cooking indicates that consumers may not be at risk of the effects of OTC residues in meat, but microwaving meat may not reduce the concentration below the maximum residue limit if the initial concentration is very high. Therefore, routine monitoring of drug residues in farms and abattoirs is still advocated.
Keywords: antimicrobials, cooking methods, drug residue, oxytetracycline.
11. Effect of lipopolysaccharide derived from surabaya isolates of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitanson alveolar bone destruction
Rini Devijanti Ridwan, Sidarningsih, Tuti Kusumaningsih and Sherman Salim
Veterinary World, 11(2): 161-166
Background:Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans' lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has a high virulence factor. It interacts with serum protein through receptors on the epithelial cell surface, thereby increasing both interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 which results in damage to periodontal tissue.
Aim: The aim of the study was to identify and evaluate the effect of LPS derived from local isolates (A. actinomycetemcomitans) on the destruction of alveolar bone by means of several biomarkers, including; the number of osteoblasts and osteoclasts, the expression of IL-6, matrix metallopeptidase 1 (MMP-1), and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-? ligand (RANKL).
Materials and Methods: The isolation of LPS from A. actinomycetemcomitans was calculated using phenol, while purification was performed using Sephadex C-18 column chromatography. 40 Wistar rats were divided into four groups of 10. Each treatment was divided into two groups which were 0.9% NaCl and LPS induced for 7 and 14 days, respectively. Gingival and alveolar bones were further introduced into the induction area, followed by the measuring of osteoblast and osteoclast with hematoxylin-eosin staining, IL-6, MMP-1 and RANKL expression with immunohistochemical.
Results: Reduced numbers of osteoblasts at the 7th and 14th day of treatment were detected, while those of osteoclasts increased. There was an increased expression of IL-6, MMP-1, and RANKL in the 7th and 14th-day treatment group. Treatment of LPS from A. actinomycetemcomitans over 7 and 14 days resulted in damage to periodontal tissue and alveolar bone in Wistar rats.
Conclusion: LPS of A. actinomycetemcomitans administration for 7 and 14 days causes periodontal and alveolar tissue destruction in Wistar rats.
Keywords:Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans local isolate, lipopolysaccharide, interleukineIL-6, matrix metallopeptidase-1, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand.
10. Projected economic losses due to vector and vector-borne parasitic diseases in livestock of India and its significance in implementing the concept of integrated practices for vector management
B. W. Narladkar
Veterinary World, 11(2): 151-160
Broadly, species of arthropods infesting livestock are grouped into flies (biting and non-biting), fleas, lice (biting and sucking), ticks (soft and hard), and mites (burrowing, non-burrowing, and follicular). Among which, biting and non-biting flies and ticks are the potent vectors for many bacterial, viral, rickettsial, and protozoan diseases. Vectors of livestock are having economic significance on three points (1) direct losses from their bite and annoyance, worries, and psychological disturbances produced during the act of biting and feeding, (2) diseases they transmit, and (3) expenditure incurred for their control. Flies such as Culicoides spp. and Musca spp. and various species of hard ticks play important role in disease transmission in addition to their direct effects. For control of vectors, recent concept of integrated pest management (IPM) provides the best solution and also addresses the problems related to acaricide resistance and environmental protection from hazardous chemicals. However, to successfully implement the concept of IPM, for each vector species, estimation of two monitory benchmarks, i.e., economic injury level (EIL) and economic threshold level (ETL) is essential prerequisite. For many vector species and under several circumstances, estimation of EIL and ETL appears to be difficult. Under such scenario, although may not be exact, an approximate estimate can be accrued by taking into account several criteria such as percent prevalence of vectors in a geographical area, percent losses produced, total livestock population, and current prices of livestock products such as milk, meat, and wool. Method for approximate estimation is first time described and elaborated in the present review article.
9. Prevalence of liver flukes infections and hydatidosis in slaughtered sheep and goats in Nishapour, Khorasan Razavi, Iran
Majid Aminzare, Mohammad Hashemi, Samaneh Yaghoobi Faz, Mojtaba Raeisi and Hassan Hassanzadazar
Veterinary World, 11(2): 146-150
Background: Food-borne trematode infections and hydatidosis are endemic diseases caused by helminths in Iran that are responsible for great economic loss and getting public health at risk.
Aim: Aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of fasciolosis, dicrocoeliasis, and hydatidosis infections in slaughtered sheep and goats in Nishapour, Khorasan Razavi province of Iran.
Materials and Methods: A survey was implemented on 130,107 sheep and goats slaughtered at an abattoir in Nishapour (Neyshbur) city, north central Khorasan Razavi Province, Iran, to determine the prevalence of fascioliasis, dicrocoeliosis and presence of hydatidosis.
Results: During a 1-year period of study, among 130,107 of sheep and goats slaughtered at Nishapour abattoir, 1064 and 7124 livers were condemned totally and partially, respectively. A total of 255 (0.19%), 181 (0.12 %), and 7751 (5.95%) of livers were condemned due to cysts of Echinococcus granulosus, flukes of Fasciola spp., and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, respectively. Totally, 1932 (1.48%) lungs were condemned due to hydatidosis. The significant seasonal pattern was seen for fasciolosis, dicrocoeliosis, and hydatidosis, statistically (p<0.01).
Conclusion: According to this study, it seems that Neyshabour is considered as an endemic region for Fasciola spp. and D. dendriticum infections and D. dendriticum is the most widespread liver fluke found in sheep and goats.
Keywords:Dicrocoeliasis, Fascioliasis, Hydatidosis, sheep and goat, slaughterhouse.
8. Ethnoveterinary treatments for common cattle diseases in four districts of the Southern Province, Zambia
Michelo Syakalima, Martin Simuunza and Victor Chisha Zulu
Veterinary World, 11(2): 141-145
Aim: Ethnoveterinary knowledge has rarely been recorded, and no or limited effort has been made to exploit this knowledge despite its widespread use in Zambia. This study documented the types of plants used to treat important animal diseases in rural Zambia as a way of initiating their sustained documentation and scientific validation.
Materials and Methods: The study was done in selected districts of the Southern Zambia, Africa. The research was a participatory epidemiological study conducted in two phases. The first phase was a pre-study exploratory rapid rural appraisal conducted to familiarize the researchers with the study areas, and the second phase was a participatory rural appraisal to help gather the data. The frequency index was used to rank the commonly mentioned treatments.
Results: A number of diseases and traditional treatments were listed with the help of local veterinarians. Diseases included: Corridor disease (Theileriosis), foot and mouth disease, blackleg, bloody diarrhea, lumpy skin disease, fainting, mange, blindness, coughing, bloat, worms, cobra snakebite, hemorrhagic septicemia, and transmissible venereal tumors. The plant preparations were in most diseases given to the livestock orally (as a drench). Leaves, barks, and roots were generally used depending on the plant type.
Conclusion: Ethnoveterinary medicine is still widespread among the rural farmers in the province and in Zambia in general. Some medicines are commonly used across diseases probably because they have a wide spectrum of action. These medicines should, therefore, be validated for use in conventional livestock healthcare systems in the country to reduce the cost of treatments.
Keywords: cattle, ethnomedicines, traditional farmers, Zambia.