Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
8. Prevalence and risk factors associated with brucellosis among high-risk individuals in Lafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria
Charity Ashe'osla Agada, Jibrin Mohammed, Anthony Ekele Joseph Okoh and Joseph Akwoba Ogugua
International Journal of One Health, 4: 45-51
Background: Brucellosis caused by Brucella species is a zoonotic disease prevalent in Nigeria. Data on this disease in humans and its risk factors in Lafia, Nasarawa State, are lacking.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on high-risk individuals in the area using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and questionnaire.
Results: Out of the 160 respondents tested for seropositivity to brucellosis, 10% (16/160) prevalence was recorded with the RBT. None of the factors evaluated was found to be significantly associated with the seroprevalence of brucellosis in the area. On the other hand, final logistic regression analysis found the knowledge of brucellosis to be significantly associated with the profession (OR=11.52; 95% CI=1.47-90.46; p=0.02) and age (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.11-4.19; p=0.023). Furthermore, practices that expose to Brucella infection were found to be significantly associated with the site (OR=4.02; 95% CI=5.29- 333.33; p=0.000) and marital status (OR=2.44; 95% CI=1.03-5.75; p=0.042).
Conclusion: Brucellosis is prevalent among occupationally exposed individuals in Lafia. There should be continued surveillance for the disease and education of high-risk individuals in the area.
17. Ruminal impaction due to plastic materials - An increasing threat to ruminants and its impact on human health in developing countries
M. Priyanka and S. Dey
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1307-1315
Ruminal impaction due to plastic materials is a condition, in which indigestible plastic foreign bodies accumulate in the rumen of ruminants leading to ruminal impaction, indigestion, recurrent tympany, and many other adverse health effects. It is caused by the indiscriminate feeding of ruminants on indigestible plastic waste materials. The disease is primarily noticed in stray animals residing in urban areas of developing countries. Ingested plastic materials in the rumen slowly release the chemicals in rumen fluid, which intern enter the food chain through milk and meat products. These chemicals have a detrimental effect on human health. At present, exploratory rumenotomy is the only choice for both diagnosis and treatment of ruminal impaction due to plastic materials in ruminants. Control measures include good animal husbandry practices and proper disposal of plastic waste materials. The present review discusses in depth about the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of ruminal impaction due to plastic materials in ruminants and also highlights its impact on human health.
16. The prevalence and intensity of external and internal parasites in working donkeys (Equus asinus) in Egypt
Marwa M. Attia, Marwa M. Khalifa and Marwa Th. Atwa
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1298-1306
Aim: This study aims to record and update the prevalence and intensity of external and internal parasites in working donkeys (Equus asinus) in Egypt during the period from January to December 2017.
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 donkeys (10 donkeys each month) were examined at Giza zoo abattoir through bimonthly visits. The examined donkeys were obtained from five governorates (Giza , Fayoum , Beni Suef , Monofia , and Assiut ). The animals were grouped according to age and sex.
Results: All examined donkeys were positive with at least one internal or even external parasitic species. The overall prevalence rate was 100%. A total of 11 helminths species (10 nematodes and 1 metacestode); 7 protozoal and 7 arthropod species were collected. The number of each parasite and intensity of infection with regard to age and sex was recorded.
Conclusion: All examined donkeys were infected with parasites with an overall prevalence of 100%. So, we recommended following up and continuous treatment of such diseased animal.
15. Acute oral toxicity of pesticide combination (acephate 50% and imidacloprid 1.8% as active ingredients) in Sprague-Dawley rats
Rajendra Palkhade, Suresh Yadav, SukhDev Mishra and Jaseer Muhamed
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1291-1297
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the acute toxic interaction and lethal dose (LD50) of pesticide combination product (acephate 50% and imidacloprid 1.8% as active ingredients) available in the market in Sprague-Dawley female rats by oral route.
Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into two groups, comprising five rats in each dose group. Both groups were identified as control and test groups, respectively. Control group received sterile water as vehicle and test group received pesticide combination (acephate 50% and imidacloprid 1.8% as active ingredients) at a dose of 0 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. As per the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Guideline 420, initially one animal each from both the control and test groups were dosed with 0 and 2000 mg/kg, respectively, as sighting study. Based on the results of sighting study, additionally, four animals each from both groups were dosed with the same dose to make a total of five animals in each group. Dose volume was constant as 10 mL/kg. All animals were observed daily twice for clinical signs and mortality. Body weight was recorded on day 0 and weekly thereafter during 14 days' observation period; last body weight (fasted) was recorded on day 15. All the rats of both the groups were humanely sacrificed on day 15 for gross pathology, collection of organs for histopathology, organ weighing, and morphometry. Organ weights were taken as absolute values, and relative organ weights to last fasted body weights were calculated.
Results: Pesticide combination (acephate 50% and imidacloprid 1.8% as active ingredients) treated rats showed cholinergic signs with one mortality in the test group. No significant difference was observed in body weight, relative organ weights, and organ morphometry between pesticide combination exposed and non-exposed groups. Gross pathology of the treated rats was also comparable with respect to control group. Histopathological changes in the liver, kidneys, heart, lung, adrenaline, spleen, and ovaries of test group rats were found to be comparable with control group rats.
Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the LD50 of one of the combination products available in the market having acephate 50% and imidacloprid 1.8% as active ingredients in Sprague-Dawley female rats which is >2000 mg/kg body weight. Furthermore, gross, histopathology and histoarchitectural alterations of all the vital organs of the test group were comparable to the control.
14. Occurrence of human enterovirus in tropical fish and shellfish and their relationship with fecal indicator bacteria
Manjusha Lekshmi, Oishi Das, Sanath Kumar and Binaya Bhusan Nayak
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1285-1290
Aim: Human enteroviruses in fish and shellfish are a health concern worldwide. Human infections occur due to the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish or shellfish. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of human enteric viruses belonging to Enterovirus (EV) group in seafood in Mumbai and to correlate their occurrence with the bacterial indicators of fecal contamination.
Materials and Methods: Samples of fresh fish and shellfish collected from fish landing centers and retail fish markets were analyzed by virus concentration, nucleic acid extraction, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Bacterial indicators of fecal contamination were estimated by the most probable number technique. The relationship between the presence of virus and fecal indicators was determined by statistical analysis.
Results: A total of 89 samples comprising of fish, shrimps, oysters, clams, and mussels were screened in this study. EV was detected in 32 (35.95%) samples, and all the virus-positive samples belonged to bivalve molluscan group. None of the finfish and crustacean shellfish samples was positive for the enteric viruses. Clams were found to be the most contaminated with 48.4% of the samples being positive for EV. The prevalence of enteric viruses in seafood samples showed a strong positive correlation with the bacteriological indicators of fecal contamination, suggesting that fecal coliform bacteria are good indicators of EVs in tropical seafood.
Conclusion: The presence of EVs in seafood is a public health hazard. Increasing level of coastal water contamination from anthropogenic sources is the primary reason for the contamination of seafood with EVs. Continuous monitoring of coastal waters and seafood for enteric viruses will help to ensure the safety of fish and shellfish for human consumption.
Aim: The objective of this study was to uncover new candidate genes related to patellar luxation (PL) in dogs to select for those with low susceptibility for breeding purposes.
Materials and Methods: The inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) technique was performed to construct DNA fingerprints of 61 Chihuahua dogs with PL and 30 healthy Chihuahua dogs. DNA polymorphisms were detected by comparing the sequences between the affected and unaffected dogs, using the pairwise alignments in MultAlin. Genotyping was performed using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR). The association analysis of ISSR DNA fingerprints and genotypes or phenotypes was performed using the Chi-square (χ2) model and generalized linear model (GLM), respectively.
Results: Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely SNP1UBC811 (g.91175C>G) and SNP2UBC811 (g.92259T>C), were found in the intron of the Dystroglycan 1 (DAG1) gene, which was obtained using the PL-related marker UBC811 primer (p=0.02), and genotyped by AS-PCR. When investigated using the GLM, g.91175C>G had a significant association with PL (p=0.0424), whereas g.92259T>C did not have such an association (p=0.0959).
Conclusion:DAG1 might be one of the genes related to PL in Chihuahuas and could aid the process of marker-assisted selection in genetic breeding for Chihuahua dogs without PL.
Keywords: DNA marker, Dystroglycan 1 gene, inter simple sequence repeat, patellar luxation, single-nucleotide polymorphism.
12. Evaluation of specific and non-specific immune response of four vaccines for caseous lymphadenitis in sheep challenged
Sohier M. Syame, Azza S. M. Abuelnaga, Eman S. Ibrahim and Ashraf S. Hakim
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1272-1276
Background: Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a serious disease affects sheep and goat, caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Due to it is non-treatable disease, so the effective preventive vaccines are considered a significant way to combat the disease. All strains of C. pseudotuberculosis have several virulence factors that associated with their cell invasion, survival, and proliferation such as phospholipase D (PLD), outer lipid coat, and secreted proteases.
Aim: The present study was directed to perform a comparative innate and acquired immune response assessment of different four vaccine formulas to evoke protection against induced (CLA) challenge in sheep.
Materials and Methods: Negative ELISA (free of CLA) 15 local breed male (Balady) sheep were divided into five groups, each has received a different vaccine while the control has received saline buffer. The first vaccine composed of toxoid PLD alone the second composed of toxoid PLD with bacterin (formalinkilled bacteria), the third vaccine composed of toxoid PLD plus covaccine 8, while the fourth one composed of toxoid PLD plus locally produced polyvalent clostridial vaccine. The specific immune response was evaluated through lymphocyte proliferation assay using ELISA BrdU kit, while the non-specific response was estimated by superoxide anion production and lysozyme activity assays.
Results: The study revealed that PLD toxoid could evoke the highest specific immune response, showing a stimulation index (9.12%). On the other hand, combined toxoid PLD with bacterin followed by PLD toxoid showed a significant increase in the non-specific innate immune response.
Conclusion: The present study indicated that the toxoid PLD alone vaccine was most efficient and provided innate and acquired immune response in animals against CLA.
11. The effect of dry cow therapy using systemic tylosin in combination with common intramammary medications on mastitis rate, cull rate, somatic cell count, and milk production in dairy cows affected with subclinical mastitis
Zuhair Bani Ismail, Mohammad Musab Muhaffel and Ehab Abu-Basha
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1266-1271
Aim: This study was performed to evaluate the effect of systemic tylosin on mastitis rates, cull rates because of mastitis, and quality and quantity of milk production in dairy cows affected with subclinical mastitis.
Materials and Methods: A total of 130 California mastitis test (CMT)-positive cows were randomly selected and divided into four different treatment groups. All treatments were performed on the day of drying off. Cows in Group 1 (n=34) received 12 g of tylosin intramuscularly (IM) and intramammary (IMM) 400 mg novobiocin sodium and 200,000IU penicillin G procaine. Group 2 (n=33) received 12 g tylosin IM and IMM 280 mg benethamine penicillin, 100 mg penethamate hydriodide, and 100 mg framycetin sulfate. Group 3 (n=33) received IMM alone with 400 mg novobiocin sodium and 200,000 IU penicillin G procaine. Group 4 (n=30) received IMM alone with 280 mg benethamine penicillin, 100 mg penethamate hydriodide, and 100 mg framycetin sulfate. The incidence and severity of clinical mastitis (CM), incidence of chronic mastitis, and cow cull rate because of mastitis were recorded during the first 100 days in milk (DIM). In addition, somatic cell count (SCC) and milk production parameters including the average days to peak milk yield, the average milk yield at peak, the average milk yield during the first 100 DIM, and the average 305-corrected milk yield were reported.
Results: The rate of CM was significantly (p≤0.05) less in Group 2 when compared between the current and previous lactations (30% vs. 64%). In Group 1 and 4, the rate of CM was decreased but not significant between the two lactations (59% vs. 79% and 63% vs. 77%, respectively) while in Group 3, the rate of CM was slightly increased (82% vs. 91%). When compared between the four groups in the current lactation, CM rate was significantly (p≤0.05) less in Group 2 compared to the other groups. A significant (p≤0.05) percentage of CM cases in Group 2 was classified as mild. In Groups 1 and 3, a significant (p≤0.05) percentage of CM cases was classified as moderate while severe clinical signs were recorded more significantly (p≤0.05) in Groups 3 and 4. The rate of chronic mastitis was significantly less in Group 1 and Group 2 in the current lactation compared to that in the previous lactation (6% vs. 12% and 0% vs. 6%, respectively). In Groups 3 and 4, the rate of chronic mastitis was not changed significantly when compared between the current and previous lactations. No cows were culled because of mastitis in Groups 1 and 3 while one cow was culled in each of Groups 2 and 4 during the first 100 DIM in the current lactation. The average milk yield during the first 100 DIM and the 305-corrected milk yield were significantly (p≤0.05) increased in Group 2 when compared between the previous and current lactations. Furthermore, cows in Group 2 produced significantly (p≤0.05) more milk during the first 100 DIM and significantly (p≤0.05) more 305-corrected milk yield compared to the other groups. In Group 2, the average SCC dropped significantly (p≤0.05) from 1,600,000 cells/ml at the start of the study to <200,000 cells/ml at 100 DIM.
Conclusion: In dairy herds with subclinical mastitis, dry cow therapy of CMT-positive cows using a combination of tylosin (12 g, IM) and IMM administration of benethamine penicillin, penethamate hydriodide, and framycetin sulfate (Ubrostar; Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany) may result in a significant reduction of the rate and severity of acute and chronic mastitis and cull rates due to mastitis within the first 100 DIM. Furthermore, treated cows may produce significantly more milk with less SCC during the first 100 DIM and therefore produce significantly more 305-corrected milk in the lactation following treatment.
10. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in raw goat, sheep, and camel milk in Upper Egypt
Nagah M. Saad, Asmaa A. A. Hussein and Rania M. Ewida
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1262-1265
Background and Aim: Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease with harmful effects on animal and human health. Ingestion of contaminated raw milk has been suggested as a vehicle for transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to human. The present study was performed for the detection of T. gondii in raw milk samples of goat, sheep, and camel in Upper Egypt using two different techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR]).
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to determine the T. gondii prevalence using ELISA and qPCR in raw goat, sheep, and camels milk (30 samples for each) collected from different locations in Upper Egypt.
Results:T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 90.0, 60.0, and 3.33% of goat, sheep, and camel milk samples, respectively. From the positive samples of T. gondii IgG, the parasitic DNA was detected only in two examined milk samples, one of them was present in goat milk sample and another one was found in sheep milk sample. On the other hand, the parasite was not detected in camels' milk samples.
Conclusion: These results concluded that the raw milk was contaminated by T. gondii tachyzoites which could be a source of human infection. Restricted hygienic programs should be implemented in the animal farms to decrease the risk of milk contamination by this parasite.
9. Cloning and sequencing gB, gD, and gM genes to perform the genetic variability of bovine herpesvirus-1 from Indonesia
Dewi Noor Hidayati, Tri Untari, Michael Haryadi Wibowo, Koichi Akiyama and Widya Asmara
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1255-1261
Aim: Previous research has shown that bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) in Indonesia was closely related to subtype-1 based on glycoprotein D genes. This study aimed to analyze the genetic variability of the BHV-1 isolated from the recent case in Indonesia not only based on gD but also other genes such as gB and gM and to study the homology and similarity of the sample to other BHV-1 isolated in other countries or regions.
Materials and Methods: Samples were drawn from the tracheal organ in recent field case and prepared for DNA extraction. The gB, gD, and gM were amplified using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) with our specifically designed primer pair and based on the specified bands of 350 bp gB, 325 bp gD, and 734 bp gM confirmed as BHV-1. The PCR product was ligated into pGEM-T and transformed into competent Escherichia coli. The purified plasmid was subsequently sequenced.
Results: The virus sample isolated from the recent field case of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) from Indonesia showed variability based on the gB, gD, and gM sequences. However, all of the genes had high similarity (98-100%) to BHV-1.2.
Conclusion: The recent field case of IBR in Indonesia was similar to BHV-1.2.
8. n-Propanol extract of boiled and fermented koro benguk (Mucuna pruriens seed) shows a neuroprotective effect in paraquat dichloride-induced Parkinson's disease rat model
Yosua Kristian Adi, Rini Widayanti and Tri Wahyu Pangestiningsih
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1250-1254
Aim: n-Propanol extracts from fresh, boiled, and fermented seeds were studied to evaluate their neuroprotective effects in a Parkinson's disease (PD) rat model, based on the total number of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc).
Materials and Methods: Rats were induced with paraquat dichloride at a dosage of 7 mg/kg BW intraperitoneally twice a week and at the same time supplemented with extract at a dosage of 70 mg/kg BW orally every day for 3 weeks. On the 24th day, all rats were perfused and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. The left part of the SNpc was processed for immunohistochemical staining with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-antibody. The total number of DA neurons in SNpc was evaluated with a stereological method.
Results: TH-immunoreactive cells found in the SNpc were identified as DA neurons. The average total number of DA neurons in the SNpc increased significantly in the PD rat model that was given an n-propanol extract of boiled and fermented seeds compared with a control PD rat model. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference in the average total number of DA neurons in SNpc between the PD rat model that was given n-propanol extract of fresh seeds and the control PD rat model.
Conclusion: n-Propanol extract of boiled and fermented seeds could produce a higher neuroprotective effect against DA neuron than fresh seeds in a PD rat model.
Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the clinical and hemato-biochemical alterations, ultrasonography, and surgical treatment of bovine suffering from cecal dilatation and cecal impaction.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 11 bovines (9 buffaloes and 2 cattle) suffering from cecal dilatation (n=6) and cecal impaction (n=5). The diagnosis of surgical affections of cecum was made on the basis of clinical examination, hematobiochemistry, ultrasonography, and exploratory laparotomy.
Results: A marked decrease in serum total protein, albumin, chloride, potassium, and calcium levels while an increase in lactate concentrations was recorded. Peritoneal fluid examination revealed an increase in total protein concentration. Per rectal examination along with ultrasonography was used as a confirmatory diagnostic tool for cecal dilatation and cecal impaction. Ultrasonographic features of cecal dilatation and cecal impaction were recorded. Left flank laparorumenotomy was performed in six animals with dilated cecum along with colonic fecalith. Post-rumenotomy, these animals were treated with massage of cecum along with kneading of colonic fecalith. Right flank typhlotomy was done in the remaining five animals having impacted cecum for decompression of the dilated cecum. 9 of 11 animals survived which underwent surgery and remained healthy up to 3-month follow-up.
Conclusion: Ultrasonography was reliable in the diagnosis of cecal dilatation and cecal impaction in bovine. Left flank exploration after laparorumenotomy is an ideal surgical technique for the management of cecal dilatation, while right flank typhlotomy is ideal for the management of cecal impaction in bovine.
6. The neuroprotective effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. ethanolic extract on human embryonic kidney-293 cells as in vitro model of neurodegenerative disease
Puspa Hening, Made Bagus Auriva Mataram, Nastiti Wijayanti, Dwi Liliek Kusindarta and Hevi Wihadmadyatami
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1237-1243
Aim: This study aimed to analyze the neuroprotective effect of Ocimum sanctum Linn. ethanolic extract (OSE) on human embryonic kidney-293 (HEK-293) cells as the in vitro model of neurodegenerative diseases.
Materials and Methods: In this research, HEK-293 cells divided into five groups consisting of normal and healthy cells (NT), cells treated with Camptothecin 500 μM as the negative control, cells treated with trimethyltin 10 μM (TMT), cells treated with OSE 75 μg/ml, and cells pre-treated with OSE 75 μg/ml then induced by TMT 10 μM (OSE+TMT). MTT assay and phase contrast microscopy were applied to observe the cell viability quantitatively and morphological after Ocimum sanctum Linn extract treatment. Finally, the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction was employed to study the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT).
Results: The MTT assay and phase contrast microscopy showed that OSE pre-treatment significantly increased the viability of TMT-induced apoptotic cells and maintained cell viability of the normal HEK-293 cells. Expression of ChAT markedly reduced on TMT treatment group, but OSE administration stabilized ChAT expression in TMT-induced HEK-293 cells.
Conclusion: This present study proved that OSE administration has neuroprotective effect by increased HEK-293 cells viability and maintain ChAT expression.
Keywords: choline acetyltransferase, human embryonic kidney-293, neurodegenerative diseases, Ocimum sanctum Linn. ethanolic extract.
5. Epizootiological study on spatiotemporal clusters of Schmallenberg virus and Lumpy skin diseases: The case of Russia
Fayssal Bouchemla, Valery Alexandrovich Agoltsov, Sergey Vasilievich Larionov, Olga Mikhailovna Popova and Ekaterina Vladimirovna Shvenk
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1229-1236
Aim: The submitted article attempts to highlight and specify the development of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) and lumpy skin disease (LSD) in cartographic illustrations, as well as to assess the epizootic situation of these diseases in the world, especially in Russia.
Materials and Methods: Outbreaks (samples were collected from clinically healthy as well as suspected animals in infected areas) were confirmed and reported to the World Organization for Animal Health by veterinary officials representing countries in different geographical regions in the world. The reports showed that ELISA and polymerase chain reaction were used to identify SBV and LSD, taking into account number of infected, dead, and susceptible animals in infection foci since their first registration including in Russia. Once conventional statistical population (arrange data according to the main goal by regions, infected, and dead animals) was defined, a model was installed. A geo-information system, QuickMAP, was used to clarify the disease distribution map, and through the illustrations, analysis values were obtained.
Results: Using information clusters of some epizootological criteria in various territories has demonstrated 1.302 focus of infection of SBV, of which 63.22% were registered in Europe and 36.78% in Russia. The seroprevalence in Russia was about 7.92% of the examined animals. According to the morbidity structure, the causative agent mainly affected cattle (64.76%), small ruminants (33.68%), and goats (1.56%). A global assessment of the effectiveness of primary epizootic diagnosis by practicing veterinarians was 63.19%, i.e., of 100 suspicion reports of SBV, 63.19 cases are confirmed by laboratory methods. A detailed assessment of the types of animals affected by the disease showed that it was easily diagnosed in sheep (70.38%), cattle (60.4%), and goats (48.57%), respectively. In the wild animal species, a significant prevalence was recorded as- 54.5%. In 2016, 1.209 foci of LSD were registered in the world, with 20.548 heads of cattle affected, while 8.5% of them identified in Russia (in 2017, the figure was 7.5%). Different maps had been generated in QuickMAP. Cluster analysis of the infected livestock in different regions in Russia showed that, in 2016, the Chechen Republic, Krasnodar, and Volgograd regions were, respectively, severely, moderately, and mildly affected. In 2017, the situation changed and Saratov, Orenburg regions, and Bashkiria were severely affected. However, the number of outbreaks decreased by 84.81% by contribution to the previous year. Eritrea, Namibia, and South Africa were leading in a cluster of most infected areas in 2017.
Conclusion: Infectious diseases do not know borders. The emergence of SBV and LSD in the territory of the Russian Federation has followed the most common general dynamics of transborder diseases without ignoring details. The epizootic risk from wild animals and favorable climatic conditions is critical to fight against transmission of these diseases in Russia.
Keywords: geographic area, prevalence, Russia, Schmallenberg and lumpy skin disease.
4. Assessment of in vitro potency of inactivated Newcastle disease oil adjuvanted vaccines using hemagglutination test and blocking ELISA
Saleh E. Aly, Hussein Ali Hussein, Abdel-Hakim M. Aly, Mansour H. Abdel-Baky and Ahmed A. El-Sanousi
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1222-1228
Aim: The present study was aimed to establish a protocol for the evaluation of the in vitro potency of commercial inactivated Newcastle disease virus (NDV) oil-adjuvanted vaccines using hemagglutination test (HA) and blocking ELISA (B-ELISA) based on polyclonal antibodies.
Materials and Methods: Aqueous phases from a total of 47 batches of inactivated NDV vaccines manufactured by 20 different companies were extracted with isopropyl myristate. The viral antigen in each sample was detected and quantified by a standard HA test and a B-ELISA assay. To verify the efficiency of the antigen extraction method used in the batches which showed HA and to test the validity of using in vitro antigen quantification by HA and B-ELISA tests, a subset of 13 batches (selected from the total 47 batches) was inoculated in groups of 3-4-week-old specific pathogen-free chickens using the recommended vaccine dose. The immunogenicity of the selected vaccine batches was assessed by the NDV-hemagglutination inhibition antibody titers in individual serum samples collected 4 weeks after vaccination. Further, the efficacy of the vaccines and their protection rates were determined by a challenge test carried out for the vaccinated chickens with the Egyptian 2012 isolate of the virulent NDV genotype VII.
Results: A strong correlation was observed between HA titers and B-ELISA mean titers in the tested 47 batches (R2=0.817). This indicated the possibility of using the latter in vitro assays for vaccine potency assessment. The recommended protective NDV antigen titer measured by B-ELISA was determined to be 28 ELISA units per dose. The comparison between the HA titers of the aqueous extracts of test vaccines and the corresponding results of in vivo potency assays (i.e., immunogenicity and efficacy), including antibody titers in the serum of vaccinated birds, indicated that the efficiency of the antigen extraction used may interfere with obtaining a strong correlation between the in vitro and in vivo results.
Conclusion: HA or B-ELISA tests can be used as rapid and cost-effective alternatives to traditional in vivo potency tests for vaccine potency assessment by quantifying the NDV antigen present in aqueous phase extracts of the tested vaccines. The latter in vitro protocol, however, requires efficient extraction of the antigen to be able to obtain good correlation with the traditional in vivo potency tests.
3. Prevalence, toxigenic potential and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus isolated from ready-to-eat meats
Chinwe E. Okoli, Emmanuel Okechukwu Njoga, Simon I. Enem, Enid E. Godwin, John A. Nwanta and Kennedy F. Chah
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1214-1221
Aim: An epidemiological surveillance for Staphylococci contamination of ready-to-eat (RTE) meats from Enugu State, Nigeria, was carried out to determine the prevalence, species distribution, toxigenic potential and antimicrobial susceptibility profile of the organisms and hence the microbiological and toxicological safety of the meats.
Materials and Methods: Isolation and phenotypic Staphylococcus detection were done according to standard microbiological methods. Phenotypic resistance to 17 commonly used antimicrobial agents was determined by disc diffusion method. Molecular characterization of the isolates to species level and detection of selected toxigenic and antimicrobial-resistance genes were done by PCR methods.
Results: Twenty-four (9.4%) of the 255 meat samples investigated were contaminated with Staphylococcus species. Twenty-four Staphylococcus isolates belonging to six species of coagulase-negative Staphylococcus(CoNS) were identified. Four (16.7%) isolates harbored genes coding for exfoliative toxin-A. Ten (41.7%) isolates were multidrug resistant, while mecA, tetK, mphC, ermT and ermC were the antimicrobial-resistance genes detected in the isolates. Meat samples sourced from motor parks (16.7%) and open markets (8.5%) were the most contaminated.
Conclusion: 9.4% of RTE meats sampled were contaminated with toxigenic and multidrug resistance CoNS. Beef was the most contaminated RTE meat type and harbored all the toxigenic and most of the antibiotic-resistant genes detected. Meat samples from motor parks had the highest staphylococcal contamination (16.7%), while those from mechanic village had the least (2.4%). Majority (79.2%) of the isolates were not susceptible to fusidic acid but none exhibited antimicrobial-resistance to chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, linezolid or teicoplanin. Food safety authorities in the study area should work proactively to massively improve the hygienic practices of meat vendors; in order to limit staphylococcal contamination of RTE meats and the associated public health problems.
2. Clinical, molecular detection and phylogenetic analysis study of local foot-and-mouth disease virus in Al-Qadisiyah province of Iraq
Khalefa Ali Mansour, Hassan Hachim Naser and Muthanna Hadi Hussain
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1210-1213
Aim: This study was directed during an outbreak of suspected foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) in cattle in Al-Qadisiyah province, Iraq 2016. The disease has made a huge economic loss in livestock. It was suspected that the vaccination has failed to protect the animals from the infection because of the difference in the strains. Consequently, we designed the study to make the diagnosis and detect the strain of the causative virus.
Materials and Methods: The extraction of the DNA was done on 73 samples and Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) was used in the detection of FMD virus (FMDV) for primary diagnosis, and serotype-specific diagnosis was done with universal primer sets 1F/1R, A-1C612, and O-ARS4 with the expected band of 329, 865, and 1301 bp, respectively.
Results: Universal primer pair 1F/1R detected FMD in 55 of 73 (75.3%); of these, 37 (67.3%) were females and 18 (32.7%) were males, with high significance (p<0.01) between males and females in the PCR positivity ratio. The tested samples with positive universal primer were amplified with specific primers A-IC612 with no reaction for serotype O-ARS4.
Conclusion: The products of RT-PCR were sent for RNA sequencing, and the results were 100% positive to serotype A which means that it is the predominant type in Iraq. It may help in the importing or production of the vaccine to make a preventive plan for the disease. The virus of FMD is contagious and dangerous due to its role in the huge economic loses. The detection of this virus is widely explained in lots of articles, but it is more specific and sensitive in RT-PCR and sequencing. Consequently, the authorities responsible for importing and/or production vaccines have to avoid the importing of other serotypes because it will be losing money and more outbreaks will explode.
1. An innovative approach to predict immune-associated genes mutually targeted by cow and human milk microRNAs expression profiles
Kaj Chokeshaiusaha, Thanida Sananmuang, Denis Puthier and Catherine Nguyen
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1203-1209
Aim: Milk is rich in miRNAs - the endogenous small non-coding RNA responsible for gene post-transcriptional silencing. Milk miRNAs were previously evidenced to affect consumer's immune response. While most studies relied on a few well-characterized milk miRNAs to relate their immunoregulatory roles on target genes among mammals, this study introduced a procedure to predict the target genes based on overall milk miRNA expression profiles - the miRNome data of cow and human.
Materials and Methods: Cow and human milk miRNome expression datasets of cow and human milk lipids at 2, 4, and 6 months of lactation periods were preprocessed and predicted for their target genes using TargetScanHuman. Enrichment analysis was performed using target genes to extract the immune-associated gene ontology (GO) terms shared between the two species. The genes within these terms with more than 50 different miRNAs of each species targeting were selected and reviewed for their immunological functions.
Results: A total of 146 and 129 miRNAs were identified in cow and human milk with several miRNAs reproduced from other previous reports. Enrichment analysis revealed nine immune-related GO terms shared between cow and human (adjusted p≤0.01). There were 14 genes related to these terms with more than 50 miRNA genes of each species targeting them. These genes were evidenced for their major roles in lymphocyte stimulation and differentiation.
Conclusion: A novel procedure to determine mutual immune-associated genes targeted by milk miRNAs was demonstrated using cow and human milk miRNome data. As far as we know, this was the 1st time that milk miRNA target genes had been identified based on such cross-species approach. Hopefully, the introduced strategy should hereby facilitate a variety of cross-species miRNA studies in the future.
7. Assessment of selected heavy metal concentration in fresh and grilled beef - A case study in East Legon, Ghana
Frederick Adzitey, David Mireku and Nurul Huda
International Journal of One Health, 4: 40-44
Aim: Contamination of meat by heavy metals is a concern due to their possible toxicity and effects on human health. The present study was undertaken to determine the presence and concentration of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), calcium (Ca), manganese (Mg), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) in the fresh and grilled beef sold by kebab sellers in East Legon.
Materials and Methods: A total of 16 fresh and 16 grilled beef samples were collected purposely from three popular kebab sellers (School Junction, Bawalashie, and Otano) in East Legon. Beef samples were dried and digested to obtain a filtrate. The filtrate was analyzed using atomic absorption spectroscopy to determine the presence and concentration of the heavy metals.
Results: The concentration of the heavy metals ranged from 0.80 to 16.43 mg/kg for Fe, 0.05 to 0.27 mg/kg for Zn, 0.09 to 2.10 mg/kg for Cu, 51.74 to 90.83 mg/kg for Ca, and 0.26 to 0.52 mg/kg for Mg. There was statistical difference (p=0.001) in the concentration of Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca in the fresh and grilled beef samples. The concentration of Mg in the fresh and grilled beef samples did not differ statistically (p=0.370). Pb and Cd were not detected in the beef samples examined. The concentration of Fe was highest in the grilled beef samples obtained from Bawalashie and lowest in the fresh beef samples obtained from Otano. The concentration of Ca was highest in the grilled beef samples obtained from School Junction (SG) and lowest in Bawalashie. The concentration of Mg was highest in the fresh beef samples obtained from SG and lowest in the grilled beef samples obtained from Bawalashie.
Conclusion: The study revealed the presence and absence of some heavy metals. Heavy metals present were available in varying concentrations. All trace elements were below the maximum limit, hence making it less harmful for consumption.
Keywords: concentration, fresh beef, grilled beef, heavy metal.
27. Amino acid sequence based on Cytochrome b gene in Kejobong goat and its genetic relationships among several local goats in Asia
Dela Ayu Lestari, Endang Purbowati, Sutopo Sutopo and Edy Kurnianto
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1196-1202
Aim: This study aimed to analyze the amino acid sequence of Cytochrome b (Cyt b) gene in Kejobong goat and its genetic relationships with local goats located in Asia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 28 heads of Kejobong goat were purposively sampled. The deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was extracted from blood using gSYNC DNA mini kit (Geneaid Biotech Ltd.). Cyt b gene was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method with CytbCapF and CytbCapR primers. The amplified PCR products were sequenced for further analysis.
Results: There were a total 377 amino acid sequences translated from 1140 base pair (bp) of Cyt b gene, 99.20% of it were monomorphic, amino acid alterations were found at site 16th, 121st, and 231st, and Kejobong goat was in the same cluster with Southeast Asian local goats.
Conclusion: Most of the amino acid sequence on Cyt b gene in Kejobong goat is monomorphic (99.20%), only a few nucleotide mutations were found that causing amino acid alteration in three sites (0.80%). Kejobong goat has a close genetic relationship to several local goats in Southeast Asian.