Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
Aim: Investigation of antiviral activity of Acanthaster planci phospholipase A2 (AP-PLA2) from moluccas to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Materials and Methods: Crude venom (CV) and F20 (PLA2 with 20% fractioned by ammonium sulfate) as a sample of PLA 2 obtained from A. planci's extract were used. Enzymatic activity of PLA2 was determined using the degradation of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Activity test was performed using in vitro method using coculture of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from a blood donor and PBMC from HIV patient. Toxicity test of AP-PLA2 was done using lethal concentration required to kill 50% of the population (LC50).
Results: AP-PLA2 F20 had activity and purity by 15.66 times bigger than CV. The test showed that the LC50 of AP-PLA2 is 1.638 mg/ml. Antiviral analysis of AP-PLA2 in vitro showed the inhibition of HIV infection to PBMC. HIV culture with AP-PLA2 and without AP-PLA2 has shown the number of infected PBMC (0.299±0.212% and 9.718±0.802%). Subsequently, RNA amplification of HIV using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction resulted in the decrease of band intensity in gag gene of HIV.
Conclusion: This research suggests that AP-PLA2 has the potential to develop as an antiviral agent because in vitro experiment showed its ability to decrease HIV infection in PBMC and the number of HIV ribonucleic acid in culture.
Keywords:Acanthaster planci, antiviral activity, human immunodeficiency virus, Indonesia, phospholipase.
13. Humoral and cellular immune response induced by antigenic protein of Sarcoptes scabiei var. caprae
Nunuk Dyah Retno Lastuti, Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti, Poedji Hastutiek, Lucia Tri Suwanti and Dony Chrismanto
Veterinary World, 11(6): 819-823
Aim: Scabies is one of the most important diseases in goats and caused by a complex hypersensitivity process that involves both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. This phenomenon shows that the variety of Sarcoptes scabiei has different characteristics of specific antigenic protein or different immune-dominant. This research aims to detect the humoral and cellular immune response of rabbits which were immunized with the protein of S. scabiei var. caprae.
Materials and Methods: This research was done as follows, identification and collection of Sarcoptes scabiei var caprae from goat infected with scabies, separation of protein antigen from S. scabiei mites with ultrasonic sonicator, measurement of protein content with spectrophotometry, rabbit injection with 500 μg dose of antigen protein which was repeated 5 times (5x booster) every 2 weeks. Measurement of IgG titer using indirect ELISA, whereas to detect the expression of cellular immune response (TLR-9, CD4, and CD8) using Direct Immunofluorescence assay.
Results: Based on the statistical analysis, it showed that there was a significant enhancement (p<0.05) for optical density value or antibody titer and cellular immune response was shown by TLR-9, CD4, and CD8 expression in rabbit T lymphocytes which appear yellow to green fluorescent color using fluorescence microscope. The amount of fluorescence T lymphocytes showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between the control and various boosters.
Conclusion: Antigenic protein of S. scabiei var. caprae contains ligands, which are involved in the pathogen-associated molecular pattern that has an ability to induce humoral and cellular immune response in rabbit. Specifically, that TLR-9 is not only involved in innate immunity but also in adaptive immunity and can be used as alternative adjuvant development research.
12. Methane mitigation potential of phyto-sources from Northeast India and their effect on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa in vitro
Luna Baruah, Pradeep Kumar Malik, Atul P. Kolte, Arindam Dhali and Raghavendra Bhatta
Veterinary World, 11(6): 809-818
Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the anti-methanogenic potential of phyto-sources from Northeast region of the country and assess the effect on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa for their likely inclusion in animal diet to reduce methane emission.
Materials and Methods: Twenty phyto-sources were collected from Northeast state, Assam, during March to April 2014. Phyto-sources were analyzed for their tannin content followed by screening for methane mitigation potential using in vitro system. The effect of tannin on methane production and other fermentation parameters was confirmed by attenuating the effect of tannin with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 addition. About 200 mg dried phyto-source samples were incubated for 24 h in vitro, and volume of gas produced was recorded. The gas sample was analyzed on gas chromatograph for the proportion of methane in the sample. The effect of phyto-sources on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoal population was determined using standard methodologies.
Results: Results from studies demonstrated that Litchi chinensis, Melastoma malabathricum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Terminalia chebula, and Syzygium cumini produced comparatively less methane, while Christella parasitica, Leucas linifolia, Citrus grandis, and Aquilaria malaccensis produced relatively more methane during in vitro incubation. An increase (p<0.05) in gas and methane production from the phyto-sources was observed when incubated with PEG-6000. Entodinimorphs were prominent ciliates irrespective of the phyto-sources, while holotrichs represented only small fraction of protozoa. An increase (p<0.05) in total protozoa, entodinimorphs, and holotrichs was noted when PEG-6000 added to the basal substrate. Our study confirmed variable impact of phyto-sources on total volatile fatty acid production and ammonia-N.
Conclusion: It may be concluded that L. chinensis, M. malabathricum, L. speciosa, S. cumini, and T. chebula are having potent methane suppressing properties as observed in vitro in 24 h. These leaves could be supplemented in the animal diet for reducing methane emission; however, in vivo trials are warranted to confirm the methane inhibitory action and optimize the level of supplementation.
11. The effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma on the skin wound healing process: A comparative experimental study in sheep
Daikh Badis and Bennoune Omar
Veterinary World, 11(6): 800-808
Aim: The therapeutic evaluation of the biological effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used as a surgical adjunct to maintain the inflammatory process and to potentiate tissue healing, make the subject of recent research in regenerative medicine. This study was designed to evaluate the healing activity of PRP by its topical application on the skin experimentally injured in a sheep model.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 9 adult and clinically healthy males sheep. PRP was obtained by a protocol of double centrifugation of whole blood from each animal. After sterile skin preparation, full-thickness excisional wounds (20 mm x 20 mm) were created on the back of each animal. The animals were randomly divided into three equal groups of three sheep for each. In Group I, the wounds were treated with PRP, in Group II; wounds were treated with Asiaticoside; in Group III, wounds were treated with saline solution. The different treatments were administered topically every 3 days. Morphometric measurements of the contraction surface of the wounds and histopathological biopsies were carried out at the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days of healing.
Results: The results of the morphometric data obtained revealed that it was significant differences recorded at the 7th and 14th day of healing in favor for animals of Group I. Semi-quantitative histopathological evaluation showed that PRP reduces inflammation during 3 first days post-surgical and promotes epithelialization in 3 weeks of healing.
Conclusion: We concluded that topical administration of PRP obtained by double centrifugation protocol could potentially improve the skin healing process in sheep.
10. Protective role of Brucella abortus specific murine antibodies in inhibiting systemic proliferation of virulent strain 544 in mice and guinea pig
Suman Verma, Mayank Rawat, Sanjay Kumawat, Salauddin Qureshi, Gulam Mohd and Ashok Kumar Tiwari
Veterinary World, 11(6): 794-799
Aim: The major objective of the investigation was to evaluate the hitherto uncharacterized potential of Brucella-specific antibodies to win the battle against virulent Brucella abortus infection.
Materials and Methods:Brucella-specific immune serum was raised in mice. The antibody titer of serum was determined by standard tube agglutination test and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELISA). Groups of mice and guinea pigs were passively immunized with serum containing specific agglutinin titers. 24 h after immunization, all animals along with unimmunized controls were challenged with B. abortus S544. Total B. abortus S544 counts in the spleen of each animal collected on the 7th day of challenge was determined to evaluate the protective index (PI) of anti-Brucella serum by statistical analysis.
Results: A dose-dependent protective response to immune mice serum was observed in both experimental models though the values of PI of mice were higher than those obtained for guinea pigs. The PI values in mice passively immunized with 50 IU or 25 IU antibodies were 1.38 and 0.69, respectively. In guinea pigs, however, animals passively immunized with 50 IU or 25 IU antibodies showed PI values equivalent to 0.79 and 0.41, respectively.
Conclusion: The observations support our hypothesis that the presence of antibodies inhibits the initial multiplication and eventual colonization of systemic organs by B. abortus. Therefore, a predominant antibody-mediated response induced by a vaccine is expected to protect the animal against the most severe clinical outcome of infection.
9. Threshold somatic cell count for delineation of subclinical mastitis cases
P. V. Jadhav, D. N. Das, K. P. Suresh and B. R. Shome
Veterinary World, 11(6): 789-793
Aim: Somatic cell count (SCC) is the most widely used single reliable indicator of udder health. The present study was carried out with an objective to find the exact threshold of SCC.
Materials and Methods: Milk samples collected from a total of 214 Holstein Friesian crossbred dairy animals were subjected to bacterial DNA extraction and SCC estimation by digital PortaCheck. California Mastitis Test and polymerase chain reaction based on amplification of organism using reported primers were performed to diagnose subclinical mastitis. Receiver's operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and discriminate function analyses were performed using SPSS 18 software.
Results: ROC curve analysis represented that the area under the curve was 0.930 with the standard error of 0.02. Results indicated that 93% of the case could be correctly predicted as mastitis infected using SCC as a marker (p<0.001). At cut score level of 282 000 cells/ml, 285,000 cells/ml and 288,000 cells/ml, sensitivity remained 92.6% and specificity augmented as 86.3%, 87.2%, and 88%, respectively. At SCC value of 310,000 cells/ml of milk, sensitivity and specificity were optimal, namely, 92.6% and 91.5%, respectively. The function fitted demonstrated 89.2% accuracy with p<0.001. The functions at group centroids were -0.982 and 1.209, respectively, for normal and mastitis-infected animals and log_SCC value was the most important factor contributing 38.30% of the total distance measured.
Conclusion: Our study supports that the threshold value to delineate subclinical mastitis case from the normal is 310,000 somatic cells/ml of milk and a model so fitted using the variable SCC can be successfully used in field for the diagnosis of subclinical cases of mastitis which otherwise would be difficult to differentiate based on clinical signs.
8. Astaxanthin inhibits cytokines production and inflammatory gene expression by suppressing IκB kinase-dependent nuclear factor κB activation in pre and postpartum Murrah buffaloes during different seasons
Lakshmi Priyadarshini and Anjali Aggarwal
Veterinary World, 11(6): 782-788
Aim: We examined regulatory function of astaxanthin on mRNA expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in pre and postpartum Murrah buffaloes during summer (temperature-humidity index [THI]=86; relative humidity [RH]=24) and winter (THI=58.74; RH=73) seasons.
Materials and Methods: A total of 32 Murrah buffaloes apparently healthy and in their one to four parity were selected from National Dairy Research Institute herd and equally distributed randomly into four groups (control and supplemented groups of buffaloes during summer and winter season, respectively). All groups were fed according to the nutrient requirement of buffaloes (ICAR, 2013). The treatment group was supplemented with astaxanthin at 0.25 mg/kg body weight/animal/day during the period 30 days before expected date of calving and up to 30 days postpartum.
Results: There was downregulation of NF-κB p65 gene in all the groups. NF-κB p65 mRNA expression was lower (p<0.05) in treatment than control group from prepartum to postpartum during summer, while mRNA expression was low only on day 21 after calving during winter season. The mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ was lower (p<0.05) in treatment than a control group of buffaloes during summer and winter seasons. The mRNA expression of NF-κB p65, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ was higher (p<0.05) in summer than in winter seasons.
Conclusion: The xanthophyll carotenoid astaxanthin a reddish-colored C-40 compound is a powerful broad-ranging antioxidant that naturally occurs in a wide variety of living organisms, such as microalgae, fungi, crustaceans, and complex plants. Astaxanthin blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit and IκBa degradation, which correlated with its inhibitory effect on IκB kinase (IKK) activity. These results suggest that astaxanthin, probably due to its antioxidant activity, inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators by blocking NF-κB activation and as a consequent suppression of IKK activity and IκB-degradation.
7. Genetic diversity and population structure of local and exotic sheep breeds in Jordan using microsatellites markers
Khaleel I. Jawasreh, Mustafa M. Ababneh, Zuhair Bani Ismail, Abdel Mon'em Bani Younes and Ibrahem Al Sukhni
Veterinary World, 11(6): 778-781
Aim: This study was conducted to study the genetic and population structure of local (Awassi) and exotic (Romanov, Charollais, Assaf, Awassi, and Suffolk) sheep breeds in Jordan using eight microsatellite markers.
Materials and Methods: A total of 125 sheep were used (25 from each breed) in the study. The number of alleles (A), the mean values of observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity, polymorphism information content (PIC), fixation index as a measure of heterozygote deficiency or excess, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) were analyzed using PopGen and CERVUS softwares. Nei's standard genetic distances among breeds and dendrogram of unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) were calculated and constructed using PopGen software.
Results: A total of 40 alleles were detected with an average number of alleles of 5. The mean Ho value was higher than the mean He value for all breeds. Awassi breed showed the highest average PIC value while Romanov had the lowest. There was a significant (p<0.05) deviation from HWE at each locus within and between breeds. Deviations from HWE were found to be highly significant for all markers except OARFCP304 locus. The genetic distance estimates revealed a close relationship between Romanov and Charollais and between Awassi and Charollais. In the UPGMA dendrogram, Charollais, Romanov, and Awassi breeds were placed together in one main cluster while Assaf was in a different subcluster. Awassi was placed alone in a second main cluster.
Conclusion: Results of this study offer insight toward the genetic conservation of the studied breeds and a base on which breeding plans can be made.
6. Impact of the Egyptian summer season on oxidative stress biomarkers and some physiological parameters in crossbred cows and Egyptian buffaloes
Maha M. Hady, T. M. Melegy and Shaimaa R. Anwar
Veterinary World, 11(6): 771-777
Aim: The current study aimed to compare the impact of heat stress (HS) on some physiological functions and blood oxidative stress biomarkers between dry dairy crossbred (Balady X Friesian) cows and buffaloes during Egyptian summer season (July-September).
Materials and Methods: A total of 26 healthy animals were equally used in the in the current study. The criterion for cows and buffaloes selection and the management conditions were similar. A total mixed ration to meet the animal's requirements was used, and dry matter intake (DMI) was calculated. Ambient temperature, relative humidity, temperature humidity index (THI), respiratory rate, and rectal temperature (RT) were daily recorded. Meanwhile, live body weight and body condition score were weekly recorded. Blood samples were collected bi-weekly, and plasma samples were harvested for malondialdehyde (MDA) content and enzymatic antioxidants such as glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities determinations throughout the experimental period (8 weeks - prepartum).
Results: The results confirmed, the HS condition, as the THI values ranged from 79.74 to 90.4 throughout the experimental period. In both species, HS increased RT and decreased DMI (<10.5 kg/day and 9.5 kg/day in cows and buffaloes, respectively). Buffaloes seemed to be more affected by the hostile environmental condition of this study compared with their respective cows. Buffaloes had recorded up to 1 °C increase in their RTs in most of the point's period compared to cows. There was a continuous increase in MDA values (194.7 and 208.4 nmol/gHb in buffaloes and cows, respectively, 2 weeks prepartum) as the animals come close to parturition with moderate decrements for the enzymatic antioxidant activities in both cows and buffaloes.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that during Egyptian's summer season, HS had adversely affected feed intake and consequently animal's production performances.
5. The immunomodulatory effect of green tea (Camellia sinensis) leaves extract on immunocompromised Wistar rats infected by Candida albicans
Retno P. Rahayu, Remita A. Prasetyo, Djoko A. Purwanto, Utari Kresnoadi, Regina P. D. Iskandar and Muhammad Rubianto
Veterinary World, 11(6): 765-770
Background and Aim: The immunocompromised condition is considered a defect in the immune system. This condition tends to increase the risk of oral candidiasis, due to the inability of the immune system to eliminate the adhesion of Candida albicans and leads to systemic candidiasis with a mortality rate of 60%. Green tea (Camellia sinensis) contains potential antioxidant and immunomodulatory which acts as anticancer, antifungal, and antivirus agent. The aim of this study was to invent herbal-based medicine, which acts as an immunomodulator and antifungal agent to treat fungal infection in immunocompromised patients.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-five immunocompromised Wistar rats induced with C. albicans were divided into 7 groups (n=5): Control group (C+); treated for 4 days with green tea extract 1.25% (GT 4), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) 1% (EGCG 4), EGC 1% (EGC 4); and treated for 7 days with green tea extract 1.25% (GT 7), EGCG 1% (EGCG 7), and EGC 1% (EGC 7). Tongue tissue was collected and analyzed with immunohistochemistry staining using monoclonal antibody; interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-8, and human beta-defensin 2 (HBD)-2. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance test and Tukey honest significant differences test.
Results: The expression of IL-17A, IL-8, and HBD-2 was significantly increased (p=0.000) after green tea extract administration in 7 days, whereas in 7 days, the expression of IL-8, IL-17A, and HBD-2 after EGCG and EGC administration did not give a significant result (p>0.005).
Conclusion: Within the limits of this study, green tea extract has the ability as an immunomodulatory agent in an immunocompromised patient infected by C. albicans through expression augmentation of IL-8, IL-17A, and HBD-2 compared to EGCG and EGC.
Keywords: epigallocatechin gallate, epigallocatechin, green tea extract, immunocompromised, oral candidiasis.
4. Effect of immobilized fungal phytase on growth performance and bone traits of broilers fed with low dietary calcium and phosphorus
Sreeja Ajith, Divya Shet, Jyotirmoy Ghosh, Vaibhav B. Awachat, Karthik Bhat, Dintaran Pal and Arumbackam V. Elangovan
Veterinary World, 11(6): 758-764
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of phytase which was laboratory produced by Aspergillus foetidus on the growth performance, mineral retention, and bone traits of broilers fed with low dietary calcium and phosphorus.
Materials and Methods: The extracellular phytase enzyme secreted into the crude filtrate was concentrated by ammonium sulfate precipitation to obtain an activity of 500 phytase units (FTU). A total of 90 1-day-old chicks (Cobb 500) were randomly divided into three treatment groups with five replicates having six birds each. Dietary treatment, T1, was with 0.45% non-phytate P (NPP) during starter and 0.40% during finisher phase with 1% Ca. Dietary treatment, T2, had 0.37% NPP during starter and 0.32% in finisher phase with 1% Ca and supplemental lab phytase at 500 FTU/kg. Dietary treatment, T3, was similar to T2 with a lower Ca of 0.8%.
Results: There was no significant difference among the dietary treatments with regard to body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, and Ca retention (p>0.05). However, a significant improvement in retention of P by birds was observed in phytase supplemental groups T2 and T3 (p<0.05). Dry weight of tibia (2.58-2.78 g/kg live weight) and ash content (39.7- 41.8%) was comparable among treatments. A similar trend was observed for bone Ca, P, and Mn content.
Conclusion: The study indicated that 500 FTU/kg phytase can be effectively supplemented in a broiler diet with low phosphorus (0.37% in starter and 0.32% NPP in finisher diet) and low calcium (0.8% in diet) for better growth performance and with successful replacement of dietary P by 0.08 % and reduced P excretion into the environment in broiler chicken.
3. Evaluation of the General Organization of Veterinary Services control program of animal brucellosis in Egypt: An outbreak investigation of brucellosis in buffalo
H. I. Hosein, Hoda Mohamed Zaki, Nesreen Mohamed Safwat, Ahmed M. S. Menshawy, Sherin Rouby, Ayman Mahrous and Bahaa El-deen Madkour
Veterinary World, 11(6): 748-757
Background and Aim: Brucellosis is a major constraint to livestock production in Egypt as well as many developing countries worldwide. Bovine brucellosis is an economically important disease with reproductive failure as a principal manifestation resulting in abortion, premature birth and decreased milk production in females, and orchitis and epididymitis in males. In spite of the efforts of Egyptian veterinary services to overcome brucellosis, the disease is still prevalent in both animals and humans and represents one of the most important public health hazards in Egypt. The aim of the present work was to investigate the efficacy of the control program implemented by the General Organization of Veterinary Services in Brucella infected buffalo farm on serological, molecular, cultural, and histopathological basis. Brucella melitensis biovar 3 was recovered from 6 buffalo-cows.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from a total of 750 non-vaccinated lactating buffalo-cows. These animals were proved positive for Brucella by the Egyptian brucellosis national program. Sera were tested using buffered acidified plate antigen test and rose Bengal test as screening tests and complement fixation test as a confirmatory test. Positive animals were separated for slaughtering under the supervision of the Egyptian veterinary authorities. Remaining animals were tested every 3 weeks with slaughtering of positive cases and this continued until the remaining animals revealed three successive negative serological tests. Different lymph nodes (prescapular, prefemoral, mediastinal, retropharyngeal, and supramammary) were collected from 11 Brucella seropositive buffalo-cows slaughtered after being confirmed serologically as Brucella infected cases. Samples were collected and processed for bacterial isolation and nucleic acid detection using polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Parts of these specimens were fixed in 10% neutral buffered formalin for 48 h then processed by paraffin embedding technique.
Results: "Test and slaughter" policy was applied on Brucella infected dairy buffalo farm. The program continued for 6 months with slaughtering of positive cases until the herd was proved Brucella free. B. melitensisbiovar 3 could be recovered from six buffalo-cows. Universal PCR confirmed Brucella on genus level and Bruce-ladder multiplex, PCR confirmed the presence of B. melitensis on the species level. Histopathological examination of Brucella-infected lymph nodes revealed massive rarified and depleted lymphoid areas of both sub-capsular and deep cortical lymphoid follicles, macrophage cells granulomatous reaction, as well as fat, infiltrates, and chronic vasculitis. The chronic nature of Brucella lesions has been confirmed in this study as indicated by the chronic vasculitis and collagen deposition.
Conclusion: Freedom status from brucellosis in this study required 6 months which are considered long time allowing the spread of infection to other localities especially under unhygienic conditions, husbandry system favoring mixed populations of different ages, sex, aborted and pregnant, and lack of controlled movement of animals. Therefore, effective control of animal brucellosis requires surveillance to identify infected animal herds, elimination of the reservoirs, and vaccination of young heifers. B. melitensis biovar 3 is the cause of the Brucella outbreak in buffalo which still remains the prevalent type of Brucella in Egypt. The disease runs a chronic course allowing further spread of infection.
2. Scrotal circumference: A predictor of testosterone concentration and certain attributes of seminal vesicles influencing buffalo male fertility
S. Mahmood, A. Kumar, R. Singh, M. Sarkar, G. Singh, M. R. Verma and G. V. P. P. S. R. Kumar
Veterinary World, 11(6): 739-747
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of scrotal circumference (SC) with plasma testosterone, seminal vesicles (SVs) weight, and its secretion as measurable indicators of fertility and also to sequence and establish phylogenetic relatedness of certain SV protein genes with other species as such integrated approach is lacking.
Materials and Methods: Altogether, 59 apparently healthy male buffaloes sacrificed at slaughterhouse were selected (irrespective of breed) for measuring SC and collecting blood and paired SVs. The SC was measured at greater curvature using soft thread. In the present study, blood plasma testosterone, cholesterol, protein, and glucose in addition to SV fructose, citric acid and proteins in SV fluid were also estimated. The SV tissue was fixed in RNAlater for RNA extraction.Male buffaloes were categorized as per total SV weight into Group I (<5.0 g), Group II (5.0-7.84 g), and Group III (>8.0 g) and dentitions-I (≤18 months), II (18-24 months), and III (≥24 months) to assess the effect of weight and dentition age on SC, SV weight, and its certain secretions. Data were analyzed using linear model procedure including Tukey HSD test and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Variance inflation and condition index were also used to assess multicollinearity.
Results: Gross and histomorphological evaluation of SVs did not show any abnormality. Macronutrients (plasma protein, glucose, and cholesterol) showed non-significant (p>0.05) variation between groups. The SC and SV weight varied significantly (p<0.05) with a significant positive relationship with plasma testosterone, SV protein, fructose, and citric acid. In addition, testosterone concentration also showed increasing trend from Groups I to III but increased significantly (p<0.05) from Group II to III with positive and significant correlations with SV protein, fructose, and citric acid similar to SV weight and SC. Binders of sperm protein (BSP1, 3, and 5) genes (full length) were sequenced and established an evolutionary relationship which is lacking in buffalo.
Conclusion: The present findings established a significant positive correlation of SC with that of other fertility parameters related to SVs weight and its secretions: Fructose, citric acid, and protein (inclusive of BSPs sequenced full length), and testosterone. Therefore, the present integrated approach along with certain semen quality attributes reflecting epididymis function could be used as a predictive fertility marker for grading and selection of breeding bulls and their progenies to develop outstanding bull mother farm.
Keywords: male buffalo, morphology, scrotal circumference, seminal vesicles, sequencing, testosterone.
1. Calculate of withdrawal times of clenbuterol in goats to obtain safe times of slaughter
Lazuardi Mochamad, Bambang Hermanto and T. I. Restiadi
Veterinary World, 11(6): 731-738
Background and Aim: Clenbuterol as a β2-agonist drug was investigated according to the concentration of the drug available in the bodies of goats and according to the level of sensitivity of the instruments used for detection. The objective of the current study was to determine withdrawal times after giving a therapeutic dose that resulted in safe slaughters.
Materials and Methods: Five healthy male goats with a mean body weight of 20.64 kg were treated with a single dose of 5.10-3 mg/kg in the BW onto jugular vein. Whole blood samples of approximately 5 mL were taken in a time series at 5, 30, 60, 90, 150, 210, 270, 390, 510, 630, and 750 min. At 24 h posttreatment, all subjects were sacrificed, and 300 g samples of the liver were obtained. The plasma concentration and liver residue of the drug were observed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography.
Results: The drug reached a maximum concentration of 19.233±0.331 μg/mL at 5 min, and the elimination half-life was at 173.25 min. The limit detection was obtained at 0.053 μg/mL. A one-way analysis of variance between all goats showed that elimination of the clenbuterol in their bodies was similar (p=1.00), with a withdrawal time of 1,479.326 min and no residues in the liver (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Safe times for slaughter were determined to be at 2 days, 13 h, and 12 min as the 2nd safety factor (SF) time and 3 days, 1 h, and 58 min as the 3rd SF time with the liver organ free from residue.
Keywords: elimination half-life, new method for calculating withdrawal time, prescriptions for obtained β2-agonist, residues in liver.
23. Probiotic white cheese production using coculture with Lactobacillus species isolated from traditional cheeses
A. Ehsani, M. Hashemi, A. Afshari and M. Aminzare
Veterinary World, 11(5): 726-730
Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the viability of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional cheeses and cocultured in Iranian white cheese during ripening.
Materials and Methods: A total of 24 samples were isolated from 8 types of traditional cheeses in West Azerbaijan, Iran. Isolated species were cocultured with starter bacteria during the production of Iranian white cheese, and their viability was investigated up to 60 days of the refrigerated storage.
Results: Of 118 isolates of Lactobacillus, 73 isolates (62%) were confirmed as facultative heterofermentative and 45 isolates (38%) as obligate homofermentative. Of the facultative heterofermentatives, 28 isolates (24%) were Lactobacillus plantarum, 24 isolates (20%) were Lactobacillus casei, and 21 isolates (18%) were Lactobacillus agilis. Obligate homofermentatives were Lactobacillus delbrueckii (21%), Lactobacillus helveticus (14%), and Lactobacillus salivarius (3%). L. plantarum, L. casei and L. helveticus were found in high enough levels (106 CFU/g).
Conclusion: According to the obtained data, it is recommended that complex starters such as L. helveticus, L. plantarum, and L. casei can be used in industrial productions of cheese to obtain exclusive properties of traditional cheeses.
Keywords: heterofermentative, Lactobacillus, probiotic, starter, traditional cheeses.
22. The improvement of eggs quality of Mojosari duck (Anas javanica) with soybean husk fermentation using cellulolytic bacteria of Spodoptera litura
Sri Hidanah, Dady Soegianto Nazar and Erma Safitri
Veterinary World, 11(5): 720-725
Aim: This study was aimed to improve the quality of the eggs of Mojosari duck (Anas javanica) through complete feeding containing soybean husk was fermented using cellulolytic bacteria of Spodoptera litura.
Materials and Methods: This study consisted of three stages: The first stages, isolation and identification of cellulolytic bacteria from S. litura; the second stage, the fermentation of soybean husk through the application of bacterial cellulolytic isolate from the first stage; and the third stage, the application of the best complete feed formulation from the second stage to Mojosari duck.
Results: There are four dominant bacteria: Bacillus sp., Cellulomonas sp., Pseudomonas sp., and Cytophaga sp. Furthermore, the best reduction of the crude fiber of soybean husks is the use of Cellulomonas sp. bacteria. The final of the study, the quality of the eggs of Anas javanica, was improved, as indicated by cholesterol decrease from the yolk without the decrease of egg weight and eggshell thickness, although the decrease in egg yolk color was inevitable.
Conclusion: Soy husk fermentation using cellulolytic bacteria of S. litura was added to complete feeding can be performed to improve the quality of the eggs of Mojosari duck.
21. Effect of increasing levels of wasted date palm in concentrate diet on reproductive performance of Ouled Djellal breeding rams during flushing period
A. Allaoui, B. Safsaf, M. Tlidjane, I. Djaalab and H. Djaalab Mansour
Veterinary World, 11(5): 712-719
Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of two levels of wasted date (WD) by replacing commercial concentrate on the reproductive performance of Ouled Djellal (OD) rams.
Materials and Methods: Eighteen mature (2-year-old) OD rams were equally allocated to three groups and fed during 11 weeks with one of three different experimental diets, that contained 0% (0 WD), 50% (50 WD), or 75% (75 WD) of WDs in concentrate diet. Live body weight (LBW), body condition scoring (BCS), scrotal circumference (SC), testicular weight (TW), sperm production and quality, plasma testosterone concentration (T), and sexual behavior (reaction time and number of mounts with ejaculation) were regularly recorded from every ram.
Results: LBW, SC, and TW changed significantly among diet groups and during the experimental period (p<0.001), the highest averages were recorded in (0 WD) group. LBW, BCS, SC, TW, semen volume, and percentage of the positive hypo-osmotic swelling test were (p<0.001) positively influenced by flushing period. Nevertheless, sperm concentration showed a significant (p<0.001) decrease at day 30, followed by a return to the initial values afterward. There were no differences (p>0.05) between diet groups for plasma testosterone concentration and semen attributes, except that (50 WD) group expressed the lowest overall value of semen concentration. Furthermore, neither time nor diet affected (p>0.05) sperm motility and reproductive behavior parameters.
Conclusion: It is possible to introduce WD as unconventional local feeding resources in flushing diet of breeding rams without disturbing their reproductive performance.
Keywords: body weight, flushing period, rams, semen, wasted date.
20. The study of effect of didecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide on bacterial and viral decontamination for biosecurity in the animal farm
Tippawan Jantafong, Sakchai Ruenphet, Darsaniya Punyadarsaniya and Kazuaki Takehara
Veterinary World, 11(5): 706-711
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of the fourth-generation quaternary ammonium compounds, didecyl dimethyl ammonium bromide (DDAB), on the efficacy of bacterial and viral decontamination against pathogens commonly found in livestock industry including Salmonella infantis (SI), Escherichia coli, and avian influenza virus (AIV).
Materials and Methods: The DDAB was prepared at 500, 250, and 125 parts per million (ppm) for absent and present organic material. Meanwhile, 5% of fetal bovine serum in DDAB solution sample was used to mimic the presence of organic material contamination. 400 μl of each DDAB concentration was mixed with 100 μl of each pathogen (SI, E. coli, and AIV) and then incubated at room temperature or 4°C at various time points (5 s, 30 s, 1 min, 5 min, 10 min, 15 min, and 30 min). The activity of DDAB treatment was stopped using 500 μl of FBS. Each treatment sample was titrated on either deoxycholate hydrogen sulfide lactose agar plates or Madin-Darby canine kidney cells for bacteria and AIV, respectively. Each treatment was conducted in triplicates, and the pathogen inactivation was considered effective when the reduction factor was ≥ 3 log10.
Results: Our current study revealed that the DDAB inactivated SI, E. coli, and AIV under the various concentrations of DDAB, organic material conditions, exposure temperature, and exposure timing. In addition, the comparison of bactericidal and virucidal efficacy indicated that bacteria were more susceptible to be inactivated by DDAB as compared to viruses. However, DDAB showed marked inactivated differences in the absence or presence of organic materials.
Conclusion: The DDAB may be a potential disinfectant for inactivating bacteria and viruses, especially enveloped viruses, in livestock farms. It can be useful as a disinfectant for biosecurity enhancement on and around animal farm.