Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
11. Efficacy of acetamiprid and fipronil fly baits against the housefly (Musca domestica L.) under laboratory conditions
Mikhail Alekseevich Levchenko, Elena Anatol'evna Silivanova, Ruzilya Khusanovna Bikinyaeva and Galina Fedorovna Balabanova
Veterinary World, 11(7): 953-958
Background: The housefly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is permanent pests in livestock facilities. High fly density in livestock and poultry farms can increase the risks of economic loss and public health. Treatment with toxic baits is one of the methods for housefly control. However, development of resistance to insecticides makes it difficult to manage of flies. Anti-resistance strategies include the use of multiple pesticides with different modes of action.
Aim: This study was conducted to estimate the efficacy of neonicotinoid acetamiprid and phenylpyrazole fipronil, applied alone or in the mixture, against adults of M. domestica and to evaluate the efficacy of fly bait formulations containing acetamiprid and fipronil under laboratory conditions.
Materials and Methods: The adult flies, M. domestica of laboratory strain, were used in laboratory bioassays. The efficacy of acetamiprid and fipronil as technical substances, when applied alone and in the mixture, against adult flies was tested by no-choice feeding bioassays. The insecticidal efficacy of bait formulations (wet powder) with acetamiprid or fipronil or their mixture was tested against flies by choice feeding bioassays. The probit analysis was used to calculate lethal concentrations of insecticides, and the χ2 test was used to analyze the interaction between fipronil and acetamiprid in the mixture.
Results: Fipronil was more toxic to adults of M. domestica than acetamiprid in laboratory tests. Lethal concentrations for 50% mortality (95% confidence interval) of flies were 0.0159% (0.0124-0.0205) of acetamiprid and 0.000119% (0.000039- 0.0002640) of fipronil. The mixture containing fipronil at concentration 0.005% and acetamiprid at concentration 0.05% had the additive effect on fly mortality.
Conclusion: The results of laboratory feeding bioassays indicate that the mixture of fipronil and acetamiprid might have a potential to use in toxic bait formulations against houseflies.
10. Effectiveness of platelet-rich fibrin matrix treated with silver nanoparticles in fracture healing in rabbit model
Serwa Ibrahim Salih, Nadia H. Al-Falahi, Ali H. Saliem and Ahmed N. Abedsalih
Veterinary World, 11(7): 944-952
Aim: The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) treated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on enhancing the healing of the experimentally induced bone gap in a rabbit model.
Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy male local rabbits aged between 6 and 8 months, their weights between 1.5 and 2 kg were used in this study and divided randomly into four equal groups, under general anesthesia (1 cm), bone gap was induced in the tibia bone to create a critical bone defect and leave it without any treatment in the first group (control group). While in the second group the bone gap was filled with PRFM; in the third group, the gap was filled with 0.3 ml AgNPs; and in the fourth group, the gap was filled with PRFM treated with AgNPs.
Results: There was no infection at the operation site in all experimental animals, and the radiograph images showed periosteal and endosteal reaction; the gaps were bridged faster in the fourth group as compared with the other groups. The histological examination showed lamellar bone with haversian canal completely filled the fracture gap and contact with old bone in the fourth group as compared to other groups.
Conclusion: Using a combination of PRFM and single nucleotide polymorphisms together gave better acceleration in the bone healing process than using each one of them separately.
Keywords: bone gap, healing, platelet-rich fibrin matrix, silver nanoparticles.
9. Angiogenesis activity of Jatropha curcas L. latex in cream formulation on wound healing in mice
Ummu Balqis, Darmawi, Cut Dahlia Iskandar and Muhammad Nur Salim
Veterinary World, 11(7): 939-943
Aim: The aim of this research was to determine the angiogenesis activity of Jatropha curcas latex in cream formulation on CD34 immune expression during wound healing phase in mice skin.
Materials and Methods: Amount of 36 2-month-old male mice were used between 30 and 40 g. To surgical procedures, wound skin incision was performed 2.0 cm in length until subcutaneous on the paravertebral of each animal. The treatment was carried under locally anesthetized with procaine cream. All mice were divided into four groups, namely the base cream as control group (A), sulfadiazine 0.1% cream (B), Jatropha curcaslatex cream 10% (C), and J. curcas latex cream 15% (D). All groups were treated entire surface of wound. All experiments were performed twice a day for 10 days. Experiments were terminated on days 3, 7, and 10, respectively. The wound healing was assayed in stained histological section in immunohistochemical of the wounds. The CD34 expression was investigated under a microscope.
Results: The results showed that the cream from 10% and 15% latex J. curcas revealed moderate immune reaction to CD34 on days 3 and 7 in wound healing of mice skin.
Conclusion: We concluded that the cream from 10% and 15% latex J. curcas has potential as angiogenesis activity in wound healing of mice skin.
8. Molecular characterization of full fusion protein (F) of Newcastle disease virus genotype VIId isolated from Egypt during 2012-2016
Karim M. Selim, Abdullah Selim, Abdelsatar Arafa, Hussein A. Hussein and Ahmed A. Elsanousi
Veterinary World, 11(7): 930-938
Aim: The aim of this work was to study the sequence F gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in regard to pathotyping and genotyping and to study the evolution of this NDV in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted using samples from seven suspected NDV flocks of vaccinated chickens during 2012-2016 from six governorates in Egypt. The NDV was successfully isolated from pathological specimens through inoculation in specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs.
Results: Pathogenicity of the NDV isolates has been estimated through intracerebral pathogenicity index and ranged from 1.66 to 1.73 which indicates the velogenic type of NDV isolates. Pathotyping and genotyping of these isolates were done through sequencing of full-length F gene. Results indicated that the seven NDV isolates showed characteristic cleavage site motif (112RRQKRF117) for the velogenic strains of NDV. Phylogenetic analysis of the F gene clustered these isolates within Group I of genotype VIId within Israeli strains NDV/IS/2015, NDV-Ch/SD883, and most of the Middle East strains. Six of seven sequenced isolates have six potential N-linked glycosylation sites. The neutralization epitope on the five antigenic sites of fusion is conserved in all Egyptian strains of this study except NDV-KFR-B7-2012 which has a substitution at D 170 N in epitope A4. In all our strains, 10 cysteine residues are recorded, except one loss of cysteine at residue 370 in both NDV-EG-35-2014 and NDV-GHB-328F-2016.
Conclusion: All viruses in this study have 52 amino acid substitutions within fusion gene in compared with Lasota strain that reveals importance for its antigenic and structural function. The present work highlights the important need to sequence F gene of NDV genotype VIId to investigate the evolution of this NDV in Egypt.
7. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in local Bali dog
I Made Dwinata, Ida Bagus Made Oka, Kadek Karang Agustina and I Made Damriyasa
Veterinary World, 11(7): 926-929
Aim: The aim of this research was to identify the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in local Bali dogs.
Materials and Methods: A total of 147 local Bali dog serum samples have been examined for antibodies of N. caninum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test.
Results: The results confirmed that 5 (3.4%) local Bali dogs have antibody for N. caninum. There were no significant differences in seroprevalence of Neospora infection in local Bali dogs between different genders, ages, and take care methods (p>0.05).
Conclusion: The results provided evidence for the presence of N. caninum infection in local Bali dogs and thus the risk to Bali cattle and dog health.
Keywords: local Bali dog, Neospora caninum, seroprevalence.
6. Morphology and morphometry of Haemonchus contortus exposed to Gigantochloa apus crude aqueous extract
Budi Purwo Widiarso, Kurniasih Kurniasih, Joko Prastowo and Wisnu Nurcahyo
Veterinary World, 11(7): 921-925
Aim:Haemonchus contortus is the most pathogenic nematode infesting the digestive tract of goats and sheep worldwide leading to a tremendous loss in a variety of routes. Economic losses due to haemonchosis in subtropic and tropic areas are usually caused by poor weight gain, minimized growth, loss of production, and mortality. The prevalence of haemonchosis in Indonesia is 89.4% in goat, and annual loss achieved 1 million US dollars. This study evaluated in vitro effects of Gigantochloa apus crude aqueous extract as an anthelmintic on H. contortus morphology and morphometry.
Materials and Methods: Bligon goats which are naturally infected were collected from slaughtered goat from local slaughterhouses, namely Besi Sleman. Bligon goat's abomasum part was carefully examined and transported to the Parasitology Laboratory, University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. H. contortus was obtained from 4 to 6-month-old female goat from slaughterhouses in Yogyakarta area. H. contortus was collected from abomasum and put into a Petri dish containing 0.62% water saline. The number of H. contortus used for each concentration is 25. H. contortus was soaked in each concentration for 4 h. The figure of the parasites or parts of parasites was captured using camera Lucida, and they were measured using both objective micrometer and objective ocular micrometer. All the capturing processes were done with the help of Olympus Digital Camera under Olympus CX21 microscopic. Parasite morphology was identified in morphological and morphometric characters.
Results: Morphology of H. contortus revealed the cervical papillae bulge appears unclear shape and anterior end is more tapered. Vulvar flab control is not tapered, but vulvar flab which gets aware of G. apus crude aqueous extract looks more pointed. The gubernaculum appears irregular compared to gubernaculum control which tends to be more compact, and the posterior end form appears irregular more than posterior end control. Morphometry study of H. contortus indicates that it has a significant difference for body length, body width, cervical papillae, and spicule length in the male.
Conclusion:G. apus crude aqueous extract activity revealed morphology change such as cervical papillae, vulvar flab, gubernaculum, posterior end, and reduced morphometry measurement of H. contortus adult worms, notably in body length, body width, cervical papillae width, gubernaculum, and spicule length in males and body length, body width, cervical papillae width, and vulva length in females.
6. Comparison of rose bengal plate test, serum agglutination test, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in brucellosis detection for human and goat samples
Ipola Patrick Albert, Charles Drago Kato, Kokas Ikwap, Steven Kakooza, Benson Ngolobe, Dickson Ndoboli and Gabriel Tumwine
International Journal of One Health, 4: 35-39
Background: In Uganda, detection of brucellosis in goats and humans is more frequently done using rose bengal plate test (RBPT) in comparison to other serological tests such as serum agglutination test (SAT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA).
Aim: This study aimed at estimating the degree of agreement, specificity and sensitivity of RBPT, SAT, and ELISA in brucellosis detection in human and goat samples.
Materials and Methods: An analytical study was conducted involving parallel testing of 425 goat samples and 177 human samples to compare RBPT, SAT, and i-ELISA tests of brucellosis detection.
Results: A seroprevalence of 14.82% in animals and 11.86% in humans was detected using RBPT, 7.06% in goats and 5.09% in humans using SAT, and 6.35% in humans and 4.52% in animals using i-ELISA. The degree of agreement between the three tests in humans and animals was compared using Fleiss' kappa statistics where a moderate agreement (MA) was obtained for both with kappa value 0.57 in animals and 0.51 in humans and p<0.001. Kappa values in animals were 0.52 (MA) for RBPT and i-ELISA, 0.61 (MA) for RBPT and SAT, and 0.82 substantial agreement (SA) for SAT and i-ELISA. The kappa values in humans were 0.52 (MA) for RBPT and i-ELISA, 0.57 (MA) for RBPT and SAT, and 0.82 (SA) for SAT and i-ELISA, respectively. The study revealed a significant agreement in the tests for all the three tests, but there was SA between SAT and i-ELISA in both animal and human samples. Sensitivity and specificity of RBT and SAT were estimated using i-ELISA as a gold standard as follows, in goats RBPT: 100 and 91% and SAT: 100 and 99%, respectively, and in humans RBPT: 100 and 92% and SAT: 88 and 99%, respectively.
Conclusion: It appears that RBPT is good as a screening test, whereas SAT and i-ELISA are good for diagnosis purposes or confirmatory test.
5. Molecular detection and immunopathological examination of Deltapapillomavirus 4 in skin and udder of Egyptian cattle
Emad Beshir Ata, Mohamed Abd El-Fatah Mahmoud and A. A. Madboli
Veterinary World, 11(7): 915-920
Aim: Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are the main cause of bovine papillomatosis resulting in cutaneous and/or mucosal benign tumors that could be transformed to malignant ones with marked economic importance, especially in the dairy farms. Molecular, pathological, and immunohistochemical (IHC) diagnosis of bovine papillomatosis cases was conducted to identify and characterize the circulating BPV genotype in some Egyptian governorates.
Materials and Methods: Wart-like lesions in skin, udder, and teats were collected from 123 infected cases in Giza, Beni Suef, and El Menoufia Governorates, Egypt, during 2016-2017. Pathological and IHC characterization, molecular identification, genotyping, and phylogenetic analysis based on the conserved late (L1) gene of the all samples were carried out.
Results: 89 of the 123 collected samples (72.3%) were positively detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequence analysis of the obtained PCR amplicons was identical revealing identification and genotyping of only one type (Deltapapillomavirus 4 isolate EGY 2017) with accession number (MG547343) which found to be closely related to the recently detected Deltapapillomavirus 4 isolate 04_asi_UK (accession no. MF384288.1) and isolate Deltapapillomavirus 4 isolate 25_equ_CH (accession no. MF384286.1) with 99% nucleotide sequence identity. Histopathological examination revealed severe hyperkeratosis in stratum corneum and acanthosis in most of the cases. These tissue changes were confirmed by the presence of golden brown stained proliferating cell nuclear antigen which was localized intranuclear and perinuclear in other cells using IHC Technique.
Conclusion: It is the first time to detect and genotype the BPVs in these areas with no record of previous genotyping in the whole country. The obtained results will highlight the importance of this disease.
4. Effects of various surgical procedures on biochemical parameters of Nigerian dogs and their clinical implications
Aboh Iku Kisani, Terzungwe Tughgba and Abdullahi Teleh Elsa
Veterinary World, 11(7): 909-914
Aim: The importance of physical and psychological stress caused by pain during surgery cannot be overemphasized. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ovariohysterectomy (OVH), gastrotomy (GST), and intestinal resection and anastomosis (IRA) on biochemical parameters of Nigerian dogs anesthetized with the xylazine-propofol combination.
Materials and Methods: A total of 12 dogs were randomly divided into three groups of four each. The animals were treated with xylazine and propofol anesthetics for OVH, GST, and IRA in Groups 1-3, respectively. Blood samples were collected at 0 h, 2, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h postsurgery for determination of cortisol (CORT), glucose (GLU), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GL), and ALB/GL ratio.
Results: There were significant increases (p<0.05) in mean CORT concentrations 2 h postsurgery in the three groups and at 24 h in Group 3 and 96 h in Groups 1 and 3, respectively. GLU concentrations increased significantly (p<0.05) in the three groups at 2 h postsurgery. The mean protein concentrations in Groups 2 and 3 decreased significantly (p<0.05) at 2h and 24 h and 72 h, 96 h, 120 h, and 144 h in Group 3, respectively. There was significant decrease (p<0.05) in the mean ALB concentrations at 2 h, 24 h, 72 h, 96 h, 120 h, and 144 h postsurgery. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the mean GL concentrations in Group 3 at 24 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 144 h. All other parameters were not significantly different (p>0.05) in comparison with the control.
Conclusion: Xylazine-propofol combination could decrease humoral immune status and increase serum GLU level invariably portending a high risk of diabetes in the vulnerable dogs.
3. Antimicrobial residue occurrence and its public health risk of beef meat in Debre Tabor and Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia
Birhan Agmas and Mulugojjam Adugna
Veterinary World, 11(7): 902-908
Background and Aim: Antimicrobial residues are the parent compounds, their metabolites, and associated impurities of veterinary drugs in any edible portion of an animal product. It can result in severe consequences in human if it is consumed concentration level higher than the standard residue limits. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and its public health risk of antimicrobial residue in fresh beef meat at Bahir Dar and Debre Tabor towns, Northwest Ethiopia.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to November 2017. The data were collected through interview questionnaire survey and laboratory experiment using Premi® (R-Biopharm, Germany) test Kit. Data were entered; analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.
Results: The result of this study showed that almost all beef farms 42 (97.67%) were using tetracycline (oxytetracycline). In addition to β-lactams, (pinstripe) 21 (48.84%), and sulfonamides drugs including sulfadimidine and diminazene aceturate each 4 (9.30%). No one beef farm has respected drug withdrawal period and lack of awareness about antimicrobial side effects in 37 (86.05%) farms. Of 250 beef cattle slaughtered, antimicrobial residue positivity were 191 (76.4%) giving a 95% confidence interval of 71.10-81.70%. Origin of beef farm system was not significantly associated (p>0.05) with antimicrobial residue positivity.
Conclusion: Prevalence of antimicrobial residue in beef meat in Bahir Dar and Debre Tabor towns were high and also the drug residue detected was higher than the standard level. It implies that; it has the public health hazard.
Keywords: antimicrobial residue, beef, Ethiopia, with drawl time.
2. Production and characterization of Newcastle disease antibody as a reagent to develop a rapid immunodiagnostic test tool
Dwi Desmiyeni Putri, Ekowati Handharyani, Retno Damajanti Soejoedono, Agus Setiyono and Okti Nadia Poetri
Veterinary World, 11(7): 895-901
Aim: This research was conducted to produce and characterize ND antibody as reagent candidate to develop a rapid immunodiagnostic test tool.
Materials and Methods: Four New Zealand White rabbits were used in this study and divided into two groups. First group was injected by Sato ND antigen, and second group was injected by genotype VII ND antigen. This study is divided into three steps: (a) ND antibody production, (b) ND antibody purification, and (c) ND antibody characterization. First group was rabbit injected by Sato NDV (5x108.25 egg lethal doses (ELD)50/ml) and second group was injected by genotype VII NDV (5x106.5 ELD50/ml). Antigen induction was performed by subcutaneous administrated for first (day 1) and second (day 14) injection and intravenous administrated for third (day 30) injection. Blood was collected on day 8 after third injection.
Results: Antibody production increased on second antigen injection and reached a peak on day 9 after second antigen injection. Sato and genotype VII ND antibody can be produced without adjuvant within 38 days with the highest titer 210. Based on antibody titer data, both antigens induced antibody production in a similar trend. The characterization antibody by SDS-PAGE indicated that molecular weight of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is 154.93 kDa (whole IgG), heavy chain 54.39 kDa, and light chain 27.74 kDa. ND antibodies have specificity to homologous and heterologous NDVs in varying virulence.
Conclusion: Sato and genotype VII ND antibodies have been successfully produced within 38 days without adjuvant. Specificity of ND antibodies to NDVs in varying virulence and cross-reaction between Sato ND antibody and genotype VII ND antibody indicates that the characterized ND antibodies can be used as a reagent to develop rapid immunodiagnostic test tools.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to define the onset of puberty in Tazegzawt ram lambs, an Algerian sheep breed in endangered status with a small population in its local area.
Materials and Methods: Body growth (body weight and thoracic perimeter), scrotal circumference (SC), penis development stages, and seminal parameters (volume, concentration, and motility) were measured. Data were recorded at fortnightly intervals in 10 animals from 9 to 49 weeks of age.
Results: On the basis of seminal analyses, puberty occurred between 29 and 45 weeks of age. At 29 weeks of age, 30% of lambs reached puberty, and at 45 weeks of age, puberty was observed in 100% of the analyzed animals. Body weight appeared as the most determinant factor, and the onset of puberty was observed when animals reached 43.2±6.4 kg body weight with 25.8±3.7 cm of SC. Seminal analyses revealed that all parameters increased regularly from puberty onset except for sperm concentration. The mean semen volume during the study period was 0.48±0.33 mL with 0.84±0.6 mL at 37 weeks of age. Sperm concentration evolved similarly as semen volume; at 29 and 43 weeks of age, the sperm concentration was 942x106 and 1904x106 spermatozoa/mL, respectively. Kinematic parameters including the percentage of motility, the percentage of progressive motility, and gametes velocities as determined by Computer-Aided Sperm Analyzer showed the highest values at 49 weeks of age.
Conclusion: The current results revealed that, in Tazegzawt ram lambs, puberty occurs between 29 and 45 weeks when animals reach 43.2±4.6 kg body weight.
Background and Aim: During the last decades, reproduction performances declined dramatically worldwide, but little is known concerning the involvement of oxidative stress as a causative factor. Oxidative stress may act at different levels, with negative impacts on cell membrane integrity and other active molecules with potential subsequent effects on reproduction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the oxidative stress status in cows according to their reproductive performances.
Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood concentration of two oxidative stress biomarkers, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and other biochemical parameters (glucose, total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, albumin, total proteins, calcium, urea, creatinine, direct bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) were determined in 40 healthy cows. Body condition score (BCS), calving to first service interval (FSI), calving to conception interval (CCI), and the number of service per conception (SPC) were simultaneously recorded for each cow.
Results: Concerning FSI, three groups were established: Group 1 (from 44 to 60 days), Group 2 (from 60 to 70 days), and Group 3 (from 70 to 80 days). For CCI, two groups were considered: Group 1 (<110 days) and Group 2 (>110 days). MDA showed significant high values only in cows with the lowest BCS (1.5) compared to cows with BCS note of 2.5 and 3.5. No significant difference was observed in cows oxidative stress status (MDA and GST) according to reproductive performances (FSI, CCI, and SPC) in all studied groups.
Conclusion: The results revealed relatively altered oxidative stress status in cows with abnormal reproductive performances; however, no significant difference was recorded whatever the considered reproductive parameter.
22. Hematological parameters and selected intestinal microbiota populations in the Indonesian indigenous crossbred chickens fed basal diet supplemented with multi-strain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals
Sugiharto Sugiharto, Turrini Yudiarti, Isroli Isroli, Endang Widiastuti and Hanny I. Wahyuni
Veterinary World, 11(6): 874-882
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with multi-strain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals on the hematological parameters and selected intestinal microbiota populations in the Indonesian indigenous crossbred chickens.
Materials and Methods: A total of 240 one-day-old Indonesian indigenous crossbred chicks were raised for 10 weeks. The chicks were distributed to one of four groups, i.e., chicks receiving basal diet without any additive (CONT), chicks receiving basal diet with 0.04% of zinc bacitracin (AGP), chicks receiving basal diet with 0.01% of commercial probiotic Bacillus subtilis preparation (PROB1), and chicks receiving basal diet with 0.5% of multi-strain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals (PROB2). Blood was collected on the week 8, while the internal organs and eviscerated carcasses were collected on the week 10.
Results: PROB2 tended (p=0.09) to have a lower body weight (BW) compared to CONT chicks. Feed conversion ratio was higher (p<0.05) in PROB1 and PROB2 compared to CONT birds. The number of thrombocytes tended (p=0.09) to be higher in CONT than in other groups. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus vaccine was higher (p<0.05) in PROB1 and PROB2 than in CONT group. Serum triglyceride concentration was lower (p<0.05) in PROB2 than in other birds. AGP chicks had lower (p<0.05) serum total protein and globulin concentrations than CONT and PROB1 chicks. Serum albumin level was lower (p<0.05) in PROB2 than in CONT and PROB1 birds. Albumin to globulin ratio tended (p=0.06) to be higher in AGP than in other birds. Lactose-negative Enterobacteriaceae tended (p=0.07) to be lower in PROB1 and PROB2 than in CONT group. PROB1 and PROB2 tended (p=0.06) to have greater lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population than in CONT and AGP birds.
Conclusion: Multi-strain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals was able to improve immune response and control the potentially pathogenic bacteria. However, the additive could not improve the growth performance of the Indonesian indigenous crossbred chickens.
21. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing multidrug resistance Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Klebsiella pneumoniae in pig population of Assam and Meghalaya, India
A. Lalruatdiki, T. K. Dutta, P. Roychoudhury and P. K. Subudhi
Veterinary World, 11(6): 868-873
Aim: The present study was conducted to record the prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae from pig population of Assam and Meghalaya and to record the ability of the resistant bacteria to transfer the resistance genes horizontally.
Materials and Methods: Fecal samples (n=228), collected from pigs of Assam (n=99) and Meghalaya (n=129), were processed for isolation and identification of E. coli and Salmonella spp. All the isolates were tested for ESBLs production by double disc synergy test (DDST) followed by screening for ESBLs producing genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, and blaCMY) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Possible transfer of resistance encoding genes between enteric bacterial species was carried out by in vitro and in vivo horizontal gene transfer (HGT) method.
Results: A total of 897 enteric bacteria (867 E. coli and 30 Salmonella) were isolated and identified. Altogether 25.41% isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers by DDST method. Majority of the isolates were E. colifollowed by Salmonella. By PCR, 9.03% isolates were found positive for at least one of the target resistance genes. blaSHV was absent in all the isolates. blaCMY was the most prevalent gene. All the E. coli isolates from Assam were negative for blaTEM. A total of 2.76% isolates were positive for blaTEM + blaCMY. On the other hand, 0.67% isolates were positive for blaCTX-M + blaCMY genes. Only 0.33% isolates carried all the three genes. Altogether, 4.68% bacteria carried the resistance encoding genes in their plasmids. blaTEM gene could be successfully transferred from Salmonella (donor) to E. coli (recipient) by in vitro (5.5-5.7x10-5) and in vivo (6.5x10-5to 8.8x10-4) methods. In vivo method was more effective than in vitro in the transfer of resistance genes.
Conclusion: The pig population of Assam and Meghalaya are carrying multidrug resistance and ESBLs producing E. coli and Salmonella. The isolates are also capable to transfer their resistance trait to other bacterial species by HGT. The present finding could be considered as a serious public health concern as similar trait can also be transmitted to the human commensal bacteria as well as pathogens.
Keywords:Enterobacteriaceae, multidrug resistance, North East India, pigs.
20. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance patterns of avian fecal Escherichia coli from turkeys, geese, and ducks
Nokukhanya Dube and Joshua Mbanga
Veterinary World, 11(6): 859-867
Background and Aim: Avian fecal Escherichia coli (AFEC) are considered to be the natural reservoir of pathogenic strains in extraintestinal infections as such characterization of AFEC gives insight into the spread of the potential pathogenic lineage. The aim of the study was to investigate the reservoirs of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) from fecal samples of healthy ducks, geese, and turkeys by determining the antibiotic resistance patterns of AFEC isolates from turkeys, geese and ducks and characterization of the isolates using virulence genes, plasmid profiles, and phylogenetic grouping.
Materials and Methods: The disc diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic resistance of 100 AFEC isolates from turkeys (9), geese (29), and ducks (62) to 8 antibiotics. Molecular characterization of the isolates was done by multiplex polymerase chain reaction to investigate the presence of 12 virulence genes, plasmid profiling, and phylogenetic grouping based on the 16S rRNA sequences.
Results: Antibiogram profiles indicated maximum resistance to cloxacillin (100%) and bacitracin (100%) for all AFEC isolates and high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin; however, all isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance. The AFEC isolates from turkeys (6) and geese (12) did not contain virulence genes. The frz (3.7%), sitD (29.6%), and fimH (92.5%) were detected in the duck isolates. None of the isolates had the KpsM, iutA, vat, sitA, hlyF, pstB, ompT, uvrY, and sopB genes. Plasmid profiling gave four plasmid profiles with the plasmids ranging from 1.5 to 55 kb. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed similarities between AFEC isolates from the different poultry species, as the isolates did not cluster according to avian species.
Conclusion: AFEC isolates are potential reservoirs of APEC as they contain some of the virulence genes associated with APEC. Multidrug resistance is high in AFEC isolated from healthy birds. This is a public health concern.
Regulation of pH in spermatozoa is a complex and dynamic process as sperm cells encounter different pH gradients during their journey from testes to the site of fertilization in female genital tract. The precise regulations of pH in sperm cells regulate the sperm functions such as motility, hyperactivity, capacitation, and acrosome reaction. Electrophysiological, pharmacological, and molecular studies have revealed the presence of different ion channels and exchanger systems which regulate intracellular pH in sperm cells as well as regulate sperm functions. Recent studies also have shown the potential involvement of pH in the regulation of fertility competence of sperm cells, and alterations in pH have shown to impede sperm functions. This mini-review discusses the probable mechanisms involved in pH regulation in sperm cells and how pH is involved in regulation of various sperm functions.
18. Preliminary study on the tick population of Benin wildlife at the moment of its invasion by the Rhipicephalus microplus tick (Canestrini, 1888)
Kossi Justin Adinci, Yao Akpo, Camus Adoligbe, Safiou Bienvenu Adehan, Roland Eric Yessinou, Akoeugnigan Idelphonse Sode, Guy Appolinaire Mensah, Abdou Karim Issaka Youssao, Brice Sinsin and Souaibou Farougou
Veterinary World, 11(6): 845-851
Background and Aim:Rhipicephalus microplus (Rm) is one of the most problematic livestock tick species in the world. Its rapid propagation and resistance to acaricides make it control difficult in the sub-region and Benin particularly. The aim of this work was to check its presence in wildlife and to confirm the possible role of reservoir wildlife may play in the propagation of the parasite. This will help to design more efficient control strategy.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from February to March 2017 in the National Parks of Benin (Pendjari and W Park) and wildfowl's assembly and selling point in Benin. Ticks were manually picked with forceps from each animal after slaughtering by hunters then stored in 70° ethanol. Collected ticks were counted and identified in the laboratory using the identification key as described by Walker.
Results: Overall, seven species of ticks (Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Rm, Boophilus spp., Hyalomma spp., Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus spp.) were identified on nine wild animal species sampled (Cane rat, wildcat, Hare, Doe, Cricetoma, Buffalo, Buffon Cobe, and Bushbuck and Warthog). The average number of ticks varies from 3 to 6 between animal species, 3 to 7 between localities visited, and 2 to 5 between tick species. However, these differences are statistically significant only for localities. Considering tick species and animal species, the parasite load of Rm and Rhipicephalus spp. is higher; the buffalo being more infested. The analysis of deviance reveals that the abundance of ticks observed depends only on the observed localities (p>0.05). However, the interactions between animal species and localities on the one hand and between animal and tick species on the other hand, although not significant, have influenced the abundance of ticks as they reduce the residual deviance after their inclusion in the model.
Conclusion: This study reported the presence of Rm in wildlife of Benin and confirmed its role in the maintenance and spread of the parasites. It is, therefore, an important risk factor that we must not neglect in the epidemiological surveillance and ticks control strategies in the West African sub-region and particularly in Benin.