Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
25. Hard tick (Acari: Ixodidae) species of livestock and their seasonal activity in Boyer-Ahmad and Dena cities of Kohgiluyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province, Southwest of Iran
Zohreh Fatemian, Aref Salehzadeh, Mohammad Mehdi Sedaghat, Zakieh Telmadarraiy, Ahmad Ali Hanafi-Bojd and Amir Hosein Zahirnia
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1357-1363
Aim: The present study was carried out to identify the Ixodidae ticks fauna of livestock and their seasonal activity in the cities of Boyer-Ahmad and Dena of Kohgiluyeh Province, south-west of Iran.
Materials and Methods: Hard ticks from sheep, goats, and cattle were collected manually, stored in 70% ethanol, and identified using morphological characters.
Results: During the study, a total of 1273 hard ticks from four genera, including Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, Dermacentor, and Haemaphysalis, were collected. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (s.l.) had the highest frequencies in both cities with 62.08 and 62.88% of collected specimens, followed by Hyalomma scupense with 14.36 and 13.54% in Boyer-Ahmad and Dena, respectively. Furthermore, Hyalomma marginatum with only one sample or 0.12% of collected ticks showed the lowest frequencies in the studied areas. Dermacentor marginatus with three samples or 0.37% was recorded only in Boyer-Ahmad, and Haemaphysalis sulcata with two samples or 0.43% was recorded only in Dena. In both cities, sheep were the most infested ruminant, and the ears in sheep and goats were the most affected areas. The highest activity was observed in spring, and the lowest activity was observed in winter and autumn.
Conclusion: The results of the present study showed that Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus genera were the most widespread genera in the study areas. Regarding the importance of genera, such as Rhipicephalus, Hyalomma, and Haemaphysalis, in transmitting disease agents and the location of Kohgiloyeh and Boyer-Ahmad Province in the routes of migrant birds, further studies are required to elucidate their exact roles in human and livestock health in these areas.
24. Effects of secretome on cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction in rats
Surya Agus Prihatno, Irma Padeta, Arinda Devi Larasati, Betty Sundari, Annisa Hidayati, Yuda Heru Fibrianto and Teguh Budipitojo
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1349-1356
Background: Testicular dysfunction is a degenerative disorder characterized by failure in the synthesis of reproductive hormones and spermatogenesis. Secretome derived from the human umbilical mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) has been reported to repair some degenerative disorders.
Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect of secretome derived from the human umbilical MSCs on cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction in rats.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into the control and secretome-treated groups. In the secretome-treated group, testicular dysfunction was induced by 3 mg/kg BW of cisplatin intraperitoneally 3 times with 3-day intervals. The secretome-treated group was divided according to dose: Low-dose (0.2 mL/kg BW) and high-dose (0.5 mL/kg BW) groups. Secretomes were injected intraperitoneally once a week for 3 weeks. 1 week after the injection of secretome, the cauda epididymis of the rats was removed for spermatozoa evaluation and histological examination.
Results: After the injection of secretome, the sperm motility of the high-dose group showed thin wave-like, rare, and slow movements. No abnormal sperm morphology was observed in all the treated groups. The number of spermatozoa increased gradually in the high-dose group after the injection of secretome. The developmental stages of the spermatogenic cells were complete in both spermatozoa groups after the injection of secretome. However, the spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules of the high-dose group were denser. Vimentin and cytokeratin immunoreactivities were very strong in the high-dose group 1 week after the second secretome injection.
Conclusion: High-dose secretome derived from the human fetal umbilical cord could increase the number and motility of sperms in rats with cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction. The administration of high-dose secretome was effective 1 week after the second dose, as indicated by very strong immunoreactivity for vimentin and cytokeratin. Moreover, secretome could promote the regeneration of the seminiferous tubules of both the groups.
23. Dietary encapsulated probiotic effect on broiler serum biochemical parameters
P. Yazhini, P. Visha, P. Selvaraj, P. Vasanthakumar and V. Chandran
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1344-1348
Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of encapsulated probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus lactis and Bifidobacterium bifidum) on broiler serum biochemical parameters.
Materials and Methods: Encapsulation protects the probiotics and increases their livability on exposure to unfavorable processing and storage temperatures and gastrointestinal pH. Hence, an in vitro study was undertaken to encapsulate the probiotic bacteria L. lactis and B. bifidum with sodium alginate and chitosan and evaluate the encapsulation efficiency. This experiment was conducted with 288-day-old broiler chicken; they were distributed randomly into eight treatments and six replicates in each treatment (six birds in each replicate) and given with standard feed.
Results: Supplementation of the encapsulated bacteria either alone or in combination (T4, T6, and T8) significantly (p<0.05) increased mean total serum protein, albumin, and globulin as compared to the birds that were not supplemented with any probiotic (T1 and T2) or supplemented with non-encapsulated bacteria (T3, T5, and T7). Supplementation of the encapsulated bacteria either alone or in combination (T4, T6, and T8) significantly (p<0.05) lowered mean total serum cholesterol, serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and serum triglycerides, as compared to the birds that were not supplemented with any probiotic (T1 and T2) or supplemented with non-encapsulated bacteria (T3, T5, and T7).
Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of the encapsulated probiotic bacteria either alone or in combination significantly increased total serum protein, albumin, and globulin and significantly lowered mean total serum cholesterol, serum LDL cholesterol, and serum triglycerides as compared to the birds that were not supplemented with any probiotic or supplemented with non-encapsulated bacteria.
22. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii copro-prevalence by polymerase chain reaction using repetitive 529 bp gene in feces of pet cats (Felis catus) in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Muhammad Hanafiah, Joko Prastowo, Sri Hartati, Dwinna Aliza and Raden Wisnu Nurcahyo
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1338-1343
Aim: The aim of this research was to determine the copro-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with repetitive 529 bp gene and to construct the phylogenetic tree of Toxoplasmaoocyst from pet cats in Yogyakarta.
Materials and Methods: 9 of 132 pet cat samples which serologically positive for Toxoplasma were used in this research. To determine the copro-prevalence of T. gondii in pet cat, 10 g of feces samples taken from practitioners and household cats in Yogyakarta were used in the PCR method utilizing repetitive 529 bp gene sequences.
Results: The result shows that copro-prevalence by PCR using repetitive 529 bp gene was 33.3% (3/9). The phylogenetic tree of Toxoplasma grouped into two clades, which clade 1 consists of Toxoplasma isolates collected from pet cats in Yogyakarta Indonesia and T. gondii isolates from China and in clade 2 consist of the T. gondii isolates from India.
Conclusion: Copro-prevalence of T. gondii in pet cats in Yogyakarta by means of PCR using repetitive 529 bp gene is around 33.3%.
Keywords: copro-prevalence, pet cat, polymerase chain reaction, Toxoplasma gondii.
21. Epidemiological surveillance of bovine viral diarrhea and rift valley fever infections in camel
Halla E. K. El Bahgy, Hala K. Abdelmegeed and Marawan A. Marawan
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1331-1337
Aim: This study was designed to investigate the current epidemiological situation of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and rift valley fever virus (RVFV) infection of camels originating from Sudan "smuggler" and Egypt as part of our future plan for a national surveillance program in Egyptian provinces, which will aid in establishment of control strategy for animal diseases.
Materials and Methods: This investigation was accomplished using serological diagnostic and molecular biology techniques. A total number of 200 blood samples were collected from camel (120 originated from Sudan "smuggler" and 80 from local breed) and were subjected for testing both BVDV and RVFV occurrence with different age and sex.
Results: Sixty-six of the 200 camels (33%) were positive for BVDV antibodies, and 44 (22%) for BVDV antigen (Ag), and 27 of the 200 camels (13.5%) were positive for RVFV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. On the other hand, the seroprevalence of BVDV for antibodies (47.5%), Ag (31.6%), and RVFV IgG antibodies (16.6%) was higher in camel originated from Sudan "smuggler" than of local breed which was 11.2% for BVDV antibodies and 7.5% for BVDV Ag, while it was 8.7% for RVFV IgG antibodies. The incidence of BVDV antibodies, Ag, and RVFV IgG antibodies was the highest in male, up to 9 years of age. The frequency of positive cases was significantly different according to the origin of samples and sex and age of camel for BVDV and RVFV. In addition, seven serologically positive samples for BVDV and five serologically positive samples for RVFV were submitted as a buffy coat for molecular detection by one-step - reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results demonstrated that three samples were positive for BVDV of camel originated from Sudan (smuggler), while no RVFV Ag was detected in all five samples. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the amplicons obtained from positive RT-PCR samples (three samples) indicated 100% nucleotide homology with Sudan strain 2015 except only one (missense point mutation) by substitution of A to T at position 345 that changed the coded amino acids from T (Threonine) to S (Serine) at residue 115.
Conclusion: Camels act as risk animals for the introduction of many infectious diseases from Sudan to Egypt, especially transboundary animal diseases, so strict quarantine measures should be taken during importation of live animals from Sudan to prevent the spread of such diseases.
20. First-time serological and molecular detection of Helicobacter pylori in milk from Algerian local-breed cows
Meryem Guessoum, Zehor Guechi and Mounir Adnane
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1326-1330
Aim: The present study was conducted to detect and identify Helicobacter pylori within local cow breeds in the central region of Algeria.
Materials and Methods: Two hundred (n=200) cows from three provinces of the central region of Algeria were studied, between January 2016 and September 2017. Each cow was subject to stool, milk, and blood sampling. Milk and fecal samples were used to detect and identify H. pylori using bacteriology culture method. Blood and milk samples were used to detect H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the abundance of H. pylori in milk by detecting glmM gene.
Results: Out of 200 sera and 200 milk samples, 12% (24) and 4% (8/200) were positive for the H. pylori IgG antibody. glmM gene was detected in the milk of 13% of cows and was confirmed in all cows presenting IgG in milk.
Conclusion: From the present study, we concluded that the glmM gene is an important marker for detecting H. pylori in milk. Moreover, Algerian local-breed cows are a source of H. pylori and could be responsible for serious zoonosis.
19. Prevalence of antibodies against visceralizing Leishmania spp. in brown rats from Grenada, West Indies
Alexa Rosypal von Dohlen, Nautica Cheathem, Keshaw Tiwari and Ravindra Nath Sharma
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1321-1325
Background and Aim:Leishmania spp. are known to cause disease in man and animals. Rats are considered important reservoir hosts and transmission takes place through the bite of female sand fly, Phlebotomusspp. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published information on Leishmania infection in rats in Grenada. This study was conducted to estimate the antibodies for visceralizing Leishmania spp. (VL) in rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Grenada.
Materials and Methods: A total of 146 brown rats (R. norvegicus) were trapped live from two parishes (St. George and St. David) in Grenada. Following anesthesia, blood was collected from the heart through thoracic puncture. The serum was collected after the centrifugation of blood. Serum was tested for antibodies to VL. with a commercially available immunochromatographic dipstick test which is licensed for use in animals and humans.
Results: The seroprevalence of antibodies against Leishmania spp. was found in 34 of 146 rats (23.3%; CI 95% from 16.70 to 30.99). No significant differences were found between sexes and young or adults. The prevalence between parishes (St. George and St. David) was also not significant.
Conclusion: The results show that rats (R. norvegicus) in Grenada are exposed to Leishmania spp. The rats could play an important role in the transmission of leishmaniasis to humans and other animals in Grenada.
Keywords: brown rats, Grenada, leishmaniasis, prevalence, serum antibodies.
18. Effect of Newcastle disease virus level of infection on embryonic length, embryonic death, and protein profile changes
Dahliatul Qosimah, Sri Murwani, Edhy Sudjarwo and M. Arfan Lesmana
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1316-1320
Background and Aim: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an obligate intracellular parasite. Virus can only live on living cells. The embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) are one of the growth media of virus that is a cheap, easy to do, and accurate for showing patterns of virus change in the host. Higher virus titers indicate the higher number of viruses and more virulent to infect host. This research aimed to investigate the effect of different level of NDV titer infection in ECEs on protein profile, embryonic length, mortality, and pathological change.
Materials and Methods: The study used a completely randomized design of six treatments and seven replications. The treatments were different level of NDV titer infection in allantoic fluid (AF) of 9-11 days ECEs, i.e., P1=20, P2=26, P3=27, P4=28, P5=29, and P6=210 hemagglutination unit (HAU). All samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with p=0.05 for length of the embryo and descriptive analysis for embryo mortality, pathology change, and protein band.
Results: The result showed that protein profile of NDV-infected ECEs of all different levels is more complex than protein profile of no NDV-infected ECEs. NDV infected of all different levels showed longer size embryo, higher mortality embryo at the first 2 days, and higher occurrence of hemorrhagic in all part of bodies of embryo than those of no NDV infected.
Conclusion: It was concluded that NDV infection of all different level decreased health conditions of chicken embryo of ECEs of 9-11 days old. Different level of NDV infection of ECEs of 9-11 days old showed no significantly different embryo profiles. However, all of the NDV-infected embryos were shorter, death on the 2nd day, and suffered more hemorrhage on all body surfaces than uninfected NDV embryos.
8. Prevalence and risk factors associated with brucellosis among high-risk individuals in Lafia, Nasarawa state, Nigeria
Charity Ashe'osla Agada, Jibrin Mohammed, Anthony Ekele Joseph Okoh and Joseph Akwoba Ogugua
International Journal of One Health, 4: 45-51
Background: Brucellosis caused by Brucella species is a zoonotic disease prevalent in Nigeria. Data on this disease in humans and its risk factors in Lafia, Nasarawa State, are lacking.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on high-risk individuals in the area using the Rose Bengal test (RBT) and questionnaire.
Results: Out of the 160 respondents tested for seropositivity to brucellosis, 10% (16/160) prevalence was recorded with the RBT. None of the factors evaluated was found to be significantly associated with the seroprevalence of brucellosis in the area. On the other hand, final logistic regression analysis found the knowledge of brucellosis to be significantly associated with the profession (OR=11.52; 95% CI=1.47-90.46; p=0.02) and age (OR=2.6; 95% CI=1.11-4.19; p=0.023). Furthermore, practices that expose to Brucella infection were found to be significantly associated with the site (OR=4.02; 95% CI=5.29- 333.33; p=0.000) and marital status (OR=2.44; 95% CI=1.03-5.75; p=0.042).
Conclusion: Brucellosis is prevalent among occupationally exposed individuals in Lafia. There should be continued surveillance for the disease and education of high-risk individuals in the area.
17. Ruminal impaction due to plastic materials - An increasing threat to ruminants and its impact on human health in developing countries
M. Priyanka and S. Dey
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1307-1315
Ruminal impaction due to plastic materials is a condition, in which indigestible plastic foreign bodies accumulate in the rumen of ruminants leading to ruminal impaction, indigestion, recurrent tympany, and many other adverse health effects. It is caused by the indiscriminate feeding of ruminants on indigestible plastic waste materials. The disease is primarily noticed in stray animals residing in urban areas of developing countries. Ingested plastic materials in the rumen slowly release the chemicals in rumen fluid, which intern enter the food chain through milk and meat products. These chemicals have a detrimental effect on human health. At present, exploratory rumenotomy is the only choice for both diagnosis and treatment of ruminal impaction due to plastic materials in ruminants. Control measures include good animal husbandry practices and proper disposal of plastic waste materials. The present review discusses in depth about the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, prevention, and control of ruminal impaction due to plastic materials in ruminants and also highlights its impact on human health.
16. The prevalence and intensity of external and internal parasites in working donkeys (Equus asinus) in Egypt
Marwa M. Attia, Marwa M. Khalifa and Marwa Th. Atwa
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1298-1306
Aim: This study aims to record and update the prevalence and intensity of external and internal parasites in working donkeys (Equus asinus) in Egypt during the period from January to December 2017.
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 donkeys (10 donkeys each month) were examined at Giza zoo abattoir through bimonthly visits. The examined donkeys were obtained from five governorates (Giza , Fayoum , Beni Suef , Monofia , and Assiut ). The animals were grouped according to age and sex.
Results: All examined donkeys were positive with at least one internal or even external parasitic species. The overall prevalence rate was 100%. A total of 11 helminths species (10 nematodes and 1 metacestode); 7 protozoal and 7 arthropod species were collected. The number of each parasite and intensity of infection with regard to age and sex was recorded.
Conclusion: All examined donkeys were infected with parasites with an overall prevalence of 100%. So, we recommended following up and continuous treatment of such diseased animal.
15. Acute oral toxicity of pesticide combination (acephate 50% and imidacloprid 1.8% as active ingredients) in Sprague-Dawley rats
Rajendra Palkhade, Suresh Yadav, SukhDev Mishra and Jaseer Muhamed
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1291-1297
Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the acute toxic interaction and lethal dose (LD50) of pesticide combination product (acephate 50% and imidacloprid 1.8% as active ingredients) available in the market in Sprague-Dawley female rats by oral route.
Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into two groups, comprising five rats in each dose group. Both groups were identified as control and test groups, respectively. Control group received sterile water as vehicle and test group received pesticide combination (acephate 50% and imidacloprid 1.8% as active ingredients) at a dose of 0 and 2000 mg/kg body weight. As per the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Guideline 420, initially one animal each from both the control and test groups were dosed with 0 and 2000 mg/kg, respectively, as sighting study. Based on the results of sighting study, additionally, four animals each from both groups were dosed with the same dose to make a total of five animals in each group. Dose volume was constant as 10 mL/kg. All animals were observed daily twice for clinical signs and mortality. Body weight was recorded on day 0 and weekly thereafter during 14 days' observation period; last body weight (fasted) was recorded on day 15. All the rats of both the groups were humanely sacrificed on day 15 for gross pathology, collection of organs for histopathology, organ weighing, and morphometry. Organ weights were taken as absolute values, and relative organ weights to last fasted body weights were calculated.
Results: Pesticide combination (acephate 50% and imidacloprid 1.8% as active ingredients) treated rats showed cholinergic signs with one mortality in the test group. No significant difference was observed in body weight, relative organ weights, and organ morphometry between pesticide combination exposed and non-exposed groups. Gross pathology of the treated rats was also comparable with respect to control group. Histopathological changes in the liver, kidneys, heart, lung, adrenaline, spleen, and ovaries of test group rats were found to be comparable with control group rats.
Conclusion: The present study demonstrated the LD50 of one of the combination products available in the market having acephate 50% and imidacloprid 1.8% as active ingredients in Sprague-Dawley female rats which is >2000 mg/kg body weight. Furthermore, gross, histopathology and histoarchitectural alterations of all the vital organs of the test group were comparable to the control.
14. Occurrence of human enterovirus in tropical fish and shellfish and their relationship with fecal indicator bacteria
Manjusha Lekshmi, Oishi Das, Sanath Kumar and Binaya Bhusan Nayak
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1285-1290
Aim: Human enteroviruses in fish and shellfish are a health concern worldwide. Human infections occur due to the consumption of raw or insufficiently cooked fish or shellfish. The objective of this study was to determine the occurrence of human enteric viruses belonging to Enterovirus (EV) group in seafood in Mumbai and to correlate their occurrence with the bacterial indicators of fecal contamination.
Materials and Methods: Samples of fresh fish and shellfish collected from fish landing centers and retail fish markets were analyzed by virus concentration, nucleic acid extraction, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Bacterial indicators of fecal contamination were estimated by the most probable number technique. The relationship between the presence of virus and fecal indicators was determined by statistical analysis.
Results: A total of 89 samples comprising of fish, shrimps, oysters, clams, and mussels were screened in this study. EV was detected in 32 (35.95%) samples, and all the virus-positive samples belonged to bivalve molluscan group. None of the finfish and crustacean shellfish samples was positive for the enteric viruses. Clams were found to be the most contaminated with 48.4% of the samples being positive for EV. The prevalence of enteric viruses in seafood samples showed a strong positive correlation with the bacteriological indicators of fecal contamination, suggesting that fecal coliform bacteria are good indicators of EVs in tropical seafood.
Conclusion: The presence of EVs in seafood is a public health hazard. Increasing level of coastal water contamination from anthropogenic sources is the primary reason for the contamination of seafood with EVs. Continuous monitoring of coastal waters and seafood for enteric viruses will help to ensure the safety of fish and shellfish for human consumption.
Aim: The objective of this study was to uncover new candidate genes related to patellar luxation (PL) in dogs to select for those with low susceptibility for breeding purposes.
Materials and Methods: The inter simple sequence repeat (ISSR) technique was performed to construct DNA fingerprints of 61 Chihuahua dogs with PL and 30 healthy Chihuahua dogs. DNA polymorphisms were detected by comparing the sequences between the affected and unaffected dogs, using the pairwise alignments in MultAlin. Genotyping was performed using allele-specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR). The association analysis of ISSR DNA fingerprints and genotypes or phenotypes was performed using the Chi-square (χ2) model and generalized linear model (GLM), respectively.
Results: Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), namely SNP1UBC811 (g.91175C>G) and SNP2UBC811 (g.92259T>C), were found in the intron of the Dystroglycan 1 (DAG1) gene, which was obtained using the PL-related marker UBC811 primer (p=0.02), and genotyped by AS-PCR. When investigated using the GLM, g.91175C>G had a significant association with PL (p=0.0424), whereas g.92259T>C did not have such an association (p=0.0959).
Conclusion:DAG1 might be one of the genes related to PL in Chihuahuas and could aid the process of marker-assisted selection in genetic breeding for Chihuahua dogs without PL.
Keywords: DNA marker, Dystroglycan 1 gene, inter simple sequence repeat, patellar luxation, single-nucleotide polymorphism.
12. Evaluation of specific and non-specific immune response of four vaccines for caseous lymphadenitis in sheep challenged
Sohier M. Syame, Azza S. M. Abuelnaga, Eman S. Ibrahim and Ashraf S. Hakim
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1272-1276
Background: Caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) is a serious disease affects sheep and goat, caused by Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. Due to it is non-treatable disease, so the effective preventive vaccines are considered a significant way to combat the disease. All strains of C. pseudotuberculosis have several virulence factors that associated with their cell invasion, survival, and proliferation such as phospholipase D (PLD), outer lipid coat, and secreted proteases.
Aim: The present study was directed to perform a comparative innate and acquired immune response assessment of different four vaccine formulas to evoke protection against induced (CLA) challenge in sheep.
Materials and Methods: Negative ELISA (free of CLA) 15 local breed male (Balady) sheep were divided into five groups, each has received a different vaccine while the control has received saline buffer. The first vaccine composed of toxoid PLD alone the second composed of toxoid PLD with bacterin (formalinkilled bacteria), the third vaccine composed of toxoid PLD plus covaccine 8, while the fourth one composed of toxoid PLD plus locally produced polyvalent clostridial vaccine. The specific immune response was evaluated through lymphocyte proliferation assay using ELISA BrdU kit, while the non-specific response was estimated by superoxide anion production and lysozyme activity assays.
Results: The study revealed that PLD toxoid could evoke the highest specific immune response, showing a stimulation index (9.12%). On the other hand, combined toxoid PLD with bacterin followed by PLD toxoid showed a significant increase in the non-specific innate immune response.
Conclusion: The present study indicated that the toxoid PLD alone vaccine was most efficient and provided innate and acquired immune response in animals against CLA.
11. The effect of dry cow therapy using systemic tylosin in combination with common intramammary medications on mastitis rate, cull rate, somatic cell count, and milk production in dairy cows affected with subclinical mastitis
Zuhair Bani Ismail, Mohammad Musab Muhaffel and Ehab Abu-Basha
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1266-1271
Aim: This study was performed to evaluate the effect of systemic tylosin on mastitis rates, cull rates because of mastitis, and quality and quantity of milk production in dairy cows affected with subclinical mastitis.
Materials and Methods: A total of 130 California mastitis test (CMT)-positive cows were randomly selected and divided into four different treatment groups. All treatments were performed on the day of drying off. Cows in Group 1 (n=34) received 12 g of tylosin intramuscularly (IM) and intramammary (IMM) 400 mg novobiocin sodium and 200,000IU penicillin G procaine. Group 2 (n=33) received 12 g tylosin IM and IMM 280 mg benethamine penicillin, 100 mg penethamate hydriodide, and 100 mg framycetin sulfate. Group 3 (n=33) received IMM alone with 400 mg novobiocin sodium and 200,000 IU penicillin G procaine. Group 4 (n=30) received IMM alone with 280 mg benethamine penicillin, 100 mg penethamate hydriodide, and 100 mg framycetin sulfate. The incidence and severity of clinical mastitis (CM), incidence of chronic mastitis, and cow cull rate because of mastitis were recorded during the first 100 days in milk (DIM). In addition, somatic cell count (SCC) and milk production parameters including the average days to peak milk yield, the average milk yield at peak, the average milk yield during the first 100 DIM, and the average 305-corrected milk yield were reported.
Results: The rate of CM was significantly (p≤0.05) less in Group 2 when compared between the current and previous lactations (30% vs. 64%). In Group 1 and 4, the rate of CM was decreased but not significant between the two lactations (59% vs. 79% and 63% vs. 77%, respectively) while in Group 3, the rate of CM was slightly increased (82% vs. 91%). When compared between the four groups in the current lactation, CM rate was significantly (p≤0.05) less in Group 2 compared to the other groups. A significant (p≤0.05) percentage of CM cases in Group 2 was classified as mild. In Groups 1 and 3, a significant (p≤0.05) percentage of CM cases was classified as moderate while severe clinical signs were recorded more significantly (p≤0.05) in Groups 3 and 4. The rate of chronic mastitis was significantly less in Group 1 and Group 2 in the current lactation compared to that in the previous lactation (6% vs. 12% and 0% vs. 6%, respectively). In Groups 3 and 4, the rate of chronic mastitis was not changed significantly when compared between the current and previous lactations. No cows were culled because of mastitis in Groups 1 and 3 while one cow was culled in each of Groups 2 and 4 during the first 100 DIM in the current lactation. The average milk yield during the first 100 DIM and the 305-corrected milk yield were significantly (p≤0.05) increased in Group 2 when compared between the previous and current lactations. Furthermore, cows in Group 2 produced significantly (p≤0.05) more milk during the first 100 DIM and significantly (p≤0.05) more 305-corrected milk yield compared to the other groups. In Group 2, the average SCC dropped significantly (p≤0.05) from 1,600,000 cells/ml at the start of the study to <200,000 cells/ml at 100 DIM.
Conclusion: In dairy herds with subclinical mastitis, dry cow therapy of CMT-positive cows using a combination of tylosin (12 g, IM) and IMM administration of benethamine penicillin, penethamate hydriodide, and framycetin sulfate (Ubrostar; Boehringer Ingelheim, Germany) may result in a significant reduction of the rate and severity of acute and chronic mastitis and cull rates due to mastitis within the first 100 DIM. Furthermore, treated cows may produce significantly more milk with less SCC during the first 100 DIM and therefore produce significantly more 305-corrected milk in the lactation following treatment.
10. Occurrence of Toxoplasma gondii in raw goat, sheep, and camel milk in Upper Egypt
Nagah M. Saad, Asmaa A. A. Hussein and Rania M. Ewida
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1262-1265
Background and Aim: Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonotic disease with harmful effects on animal and human health. Ingestion of contaminated raw milk has been suggested as a vehicle for transmission of Toxoplasma gondii to human. The present study was performed for the detection of T. gondii in raw milk samples of goat, sheep, and camel in Upper Egypt using two different techniques (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] and quantitative polymerase chain reaction [qPCR]).
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted to determine the T. gondii prevalence using ELISA and qPCR in raw goat, sheep, and camels milk (30 samples for each) collected from different locations in Upper Egypt.
Results:T. gondii IgG antibodies were detected in 90.0, 60.0, and 3.33% of goat, sheep, and camel milk samples, respectively. From the positive samples of T. gondii IgG, the parasitic DNA was detected only in two examined milk samples, one of them was present in goat milk sample and another one was found in sheep milk sample. On the other hand, the parasite was not detected in camels' milk samples.
Conclusion: These results concluded that the raw milk was contaminated by T. gondii tachyzoites which could be a source of human infection. Restricted hygienic programs should be implemented in the animal farms to decrease the risk of milk contamination by this parasite.
9. Cloning and sequencing gB, gD, and gM genes to perform the genetic variability of bovine herpesvirus-1 from Indonesia
Dewi Noor Hidayati, Tri Untari, Michael Haryadi Wibowo, Koichi Akiyama and Widya Asmara
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1255-1261
Aim: Previous research has shown that bovine herpesvirus-1 (BHV-1) in Indonesia was closely related to subtype-1 based on glycoprotein D genes. This study aimed to analyze the genetic variability of the BHV-1 isolated from the recent case in Indonesia not only based on gD but also other genes such as gB and gM and to study the homology and similarity of the sample to other BHV-1 isolated in other countries or regions.
Materials and Methods: Samples were drawn from the tracheal organ in recent field case and prepared for DNA extraction. The gB, gD, and gM were amplified using nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) with our specifically designed primer pair and based on the specified bands of 350 bp gB, 325 bp gD, and 734 bp gM confirmed as BHV-1. The PCR product was ligated into pGEM-T and transformed into competent Escherichia coli. The purified plasmid was subsequently sequenced.
Results: The virus sample isolated from the recent field case of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) from Indonesia showed variability based on the gB, gD, and gM sequences. However, all of the genes had high similarity (98-100%) to BHV-1.2.
Conclusion: The recent field case of IBR in Indonesia was similar to BHV-1.2.
8. n-Propanol extract of boiled and fermented koro benguk (Mucuna pruriens seed) shows a neuroprotective effect in paraquat dichloride-induced Parkinson's disease rat model
Yosua Kristian Adi, Rini Widayanti and Tri Wahyu Pangestiningsih
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1250-1254
Aim: n-Propanol extracts from fresh, boiled, and fermented seeds were studied to evaluate their neuroprotective effects in a Parkinson's disease (PD) rat model, based on the total number of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc).
Materials and Methods: Rats were induced with paraquat dichloride at a dosage of 7 mg/kg BW intraperitoneally twice a week and at the same time supplemented with extract at a dosage of 70 mg/kg BW orally every day for 3 weeks. On the 24th day, all rats were perfused and fixed with 4% paraformaldehyde. The left part of the SNpc was processed for immunohistochemical staining with tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-antibody. The total number of DA neurons in SNpc was evaluated with a stereological method.
Results: TH-immunoreactive cells found in the SNpc were identified as DA neurons. The average total number of DA neurons in the SNpc increased significantly in the PD rat model that was given an n-propanol extract of boiled and fermented seeds compared with a control PD rat model. Surprisingly, there was no significant difference in the average total number of DA neurons in SNpc between the PD rat model that was given n-propanol extract of fresh seeds and the control PD rat model.
Conclusion: n-Propanol extract of boiled and fermented seeds could produce a higher neuroprotective effect against DA neuron than fresh seeds in a PD rat model.
Aim: The present study was undertaken to study the clinical and hemato-biochemical alterations, ultrasonography, and surgical treatment of bovine suffering from cecal dilatation and cecal impaction.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 11 bovines (9 buffaloes and 2 cattle) suffering from cecal dilatation (n=6) and cecal impaction (n=5). The diagnosis of surgical affections of cecum was made on the basis of clinical examination, hematobiochemistry, ultrasonography, and exploratory laparotomy.
Results: A marked decrease in serum total protein, albumin, chloride, potassium, and calcium levels while an increase in lactate concentrations was recorded. Peritoneal fluid examination revealed an increase in total protein concentration. Per rectal examination along with ultrasonography was used as a confirmatory diagnostic tool for cecal dilatation and cecal impaction. Ultrasonographic features of cecal dilatation and cecal impaction were recorded. Left flank laparorumenotomy was performed in six animals with dilated cecum along with colonic fecalith. Post-rumenotomy, these animals were treated with massage of cecum along with kneading of colonic fecalith. Right flank typhlotomy was done in the remaining five animals having impacted cecum for decompression of the dilated cecum. 9 of 11 animals survived which underwent surgery and remained healthy up to 3-month follow-up.
Conclusion: Ultrasonography was reliable in the diagnosis of cecal dilatation and cecal impaction in bovine. Left flank exploration after laparorumenotomy is an ideal surgical technique for the management of cecal dilatation, while right flank typhlotomy is ideal for the management of cecal impaction in bovine.