Saturday, 29 November 2014

Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (blaCTX-M-1 and blaTEM) in Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from poultry in North Eastern India

Research (Published online: 30-11-2014)
23. Detection of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (blaCTX-M-1 and blaTEM) in Escherichia coliSalmonella spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from poultry in North Eastern India H. Lalzampuia, T. K. Dutta, Iadarilin Warjri and Rajesh Chandra
Veterinary World, 7(11): 1026-1031

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1026-1031

Aim: The present study was conducted to record the association of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing enteric bacteria with diarrhea of poultry birds in Mizoram, India.
Materials and Methods: Fecal samples were collected from poultry birds with the history of diarrhea from different parts of Mizoram. Samples were processed for isolation and identification of Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. All the isolates were subjected to antibiotic sensitivity assays. Phenotypically, ESBLs production ability was determined by double discs synergy test (DDST) method. ESBLs producing isolates were subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of ESBLs genes. Plasmids were cured by acridine orange. Transfer of resistance from donor to recipient strains was done by in vitro horizontal method.
Results: A total of 134 enteric bacteria was isolated, of which 102 (76.12%), 21 (15.67%) and 11 (8.21%) were E. coli, Salmonella spp. and K. pneumoniae, respectively. By DDST 7 (5.22%) isolates (6 E. coli and 1 K. pneumoniae) were ESBLs producer. PCR analysis confirmed 5 (3.73%) (4 E. coli and K. pneumoniae) isolates harboured blaCTX-M-1 gene and/or blaTEM gene. All the isolates were carrying plasmids ranging between 0.9 kb and ~30 kb. Of the 4 isolates positive for blaCTX-M-1 and/or blaTEM, 2 (1.84%) were confirmed for blaCTX-M-1 gene in their plasmid. No blaTEM gene was detected from plasmid. The resistance plasmid could not be transferred to the recipient by in vitro horizontal gene transfer method.
Conclusion: ESBLs producing enteric bacteria are circulating in poultry in North Eastern Region of India. As poultry is one of the most common food animals in this region, these organisms may enter in human population through them.
Keywords: blaCTX-M-1blaTEM, extended spectrum β-Lactamases, North East India, poultry.

Bone marrow derived cell-seeded extracellular matrix: A novel biomaterial in the field of wound management

Research (Published online: 30-11-2014)
22. Bone marrow derived cell-seeded extracellular matrix: A novel biomaterial in the field of wound management V. Remya, Naveen Kumar, A. K. Sharma, Dayamon D. Mathew, Mamta Negi, S. K. Maiti, Sameer Shrivastava, S. Sonal and N. P. Kurade
Veterinary World, 7(11): 1019-1025

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1019-1025

Aim: Extensive or irreversible damage to the skin often requires additional skin substitutes for reconstruction. Biomaterials have become critical components in the development of effective new medical therapies for wound care.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, a cell matrix construct (bone marrow-derived cells (BMdc) seeded extracellular matrix [ECM]) was used as a biological substitute for the repair of full-thickness skin wound. ECM was developed by decellularizing fish swim bladder (FSB). Goat bone marrow-derived cells (G-BMdc) were seeded over this decellularized matrix. Efficacy of this cell matrix construct in wound repair was tested by implanting it over 20 mm2 × 20 mm2 size fullthickness skin wound created over the dorsum of rat. The study was conducted in 16 clinically healthy adult rats of either sex. The animals were randomly divided into 2 equal groups of 8 animals each. In Group I, animal’s wounds were repaired with a cellular FSB matrix. In Group II, wounds were repaired with G-BMdc seeded a cellular FSB matrix. Immune response and efficacy of healing were analyzed.
Results: Quality of healing and immuno tolerance to the biological substitute was significantly better in Group II than Group I.
Conclusion: Seeding with BMdc increases the wound healing potency and modulates the immune response to a significantly negligible level. The BMdc seeded acellular FSB matrix was found to be a novel biomaterial for wound management.
Keywords: biomaterial, decellular, extra cellular matrix, wound.

The effectiveness of novel bacteriocin derived from Escherichia coli colonized in the fermented pineapple Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. against pathogenic bacteria isolated from aquaculture sites

Research (Published online: 30-11-2014)
21. The effectiveness of novel bacteriocin derived from Escherichia coli colonized in the fermented pineapple Ananas comosus (L.) Merr. against pathogenic bacteria isolated from aquaculture sites - S. W. Lee, W. Wendy, L. Montira and A. U. Siti Hazirah
Veterinary World, 7(11): 1014-1018

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1014-1018

Aim: The aim was to evaluate antimicrobial property of bacteriocin isolated from Escherichia coli against pathogenic bacteria from aquaculture sites.
Materials and Methods: E. coli was isolated from fermented pineapple Ananas comosus using eosin methylene blue agar. The antimicrobial activity of the isolated E. coli was screened using hole-plate diffusion method. The bacterial strain that showed the widest inhibition zone was selected and grown in tryptic soy broth, followed by partial purification of bacteriocin by using ammonium sulphate. Bacteriocin derived from the E. coli was subjected to the antimicrobial test against 55 bacteria strains namely Aeromonas hydrophila(n=10), Citrobacter freundii (n=5), Edwardsiella tarda (n=10), Flavobacterium spp. (n=10), Pseudomonas spp. (n=10), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (n=5) and Vibrio alginolyticus (n=5) by using twofold broth microdilution method to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of the bacteriocin against the tested bacteria.
Results: The results of the present study showed that the MIC values of the partially purified bacteriocin against present pathogenic bacteria isolates ranged from 7.81 to 31.25 ppm whereas the MIC values of kanamycin (positive control) ranged from 15.63 to 125 ppm.
Conclusion: The results of the present study showed the bacteriocin derived from E. coli can control all the present bacterial isolates indicating the huge potential of the bacteriocin as a new antimicrobial agent for aquaculture uses.
Keywords: Escherichia coli, partially purified bacteriocin, pathogenic bacteria.

Thursday, 27 November 2014

Size tunable gold nanoparticle and its characterization for labeling application in animal health

Research (Published online: 27-11-2014)
20. Size tunable gold nanoparticle and its characterization for labeling application in animal health - P. R. Sahoo and Praveen Singh
Veterinary World, 7(11): 1010-1013

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1010-1013

Aim: The aim of the present study was to synthesize different sizes of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) and their characterization for use as a label in lateral flow assay particular for the detection of bluetongue in small ruminants.
Materials and Methods: Size controlled synthesis of GNPs was done by using different concentration of sodium citrate. In this study, five different types of GNP were synthesized by using trisodium citrate (Na3C6H5O72H2O) that reduces 20 mM concentration of gold solution (HAuCl4). These different types of GNPs were characterized in terms of morphology, size, shape and λmax by transmission electron microscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy respectively.
Results: In the present work, it was found that the size of GNP mainly depends upon the concentration of sodium citrate. By use of 0.09375%, 0.1875%, 0.375%, 0.75% and 1.5% of sodium citrate solution, GNPs were synthesized. In our study, the size of GNP was found ranging from 25 nm to 230 nm. The size was found large with less concentration of sodium citrate (i.e. with 0.09735%) and small with large concentration of sodium citrate (1.5%) and λmax was found to be 450-530 nm in all size of GNP.
Conclusions: The size of GNPs is mainly dependant on the concentration of trisodium citrate, gold salt concentration, optimum pH and temperature. The GNP synthesized by this method has been used as a label for the development of lateral flow assay against diagnosis of bluetongue disease in small ruminant.
Keywords: gold nanoparticles, size controlled synthesis, sodium citrate, tetrachloroauric acid, transmission electron microscopy.

Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat seafood marketed in Thessaloniki (Northern Greece)

Research (Published online: 27-11-2014)
19. Prevalence of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat seafood marketed in Thessaloniki (Northern Greece) - N. Soultos, E. Iossifidou, Z. Tzikas, D. Sergelidis, Th. Lazou, G. Drakopoulos and I. Konstantelis
Veterinary World, 7(11): 1004-1009

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.1004-1009

Aim: In the current study, a contribution to the knowledge on the prevalence and level of contamination of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat (RTE) seafood marketed in Thessaloniki (Northern Greece) was provided; the serovar identity of the L. monocytogenesisolates was also determined.
Materials and Methods: A total of 132 RTE seafood samples consisting of 74 smoked fish products, 18 salted fish products, 16 dried fish products, 9 raw marinated fish products, 10 cooked marinated cephalopods and 5 surimi crab stick products were analyzed. L. monocytogenes were isolated and enumerated based on ISO 11290-1/A1 and ISO 11290-2/A1 protocols, respectively, and identified using a multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system utilizing genus and species specific primers. For the identification of serotypes a second multiplex PCR assay was used which clusters L. monocytogenes strains into four major serogroups.
Results: Of the samples examined, 11 (8.3%) proved positive for Listeria spp. with 8 (6.1%) yielding L. monocytogenes. Only in one sample of smoked mackerel the level of L. monocytogenes exceeded the legal safety limit of 100 cfu/g set out in Commission Regulation (EC) No. 1441/2007. Serotyping showed higher percentages of isolates belonging to PCR serogroup 3:1/2b, 3b, 7 (46.7%) and serogroup 1:1/2a, 3a (40%) followed by serogroup 4:4b, 4d, 4e (13.3%).
Conclusion: This study demonstrated that L. monocytogenes can be isolated from processed RTE seafood products at retail in Thessaloniki (Northern Greece) in low concentrations. However, the presence of this human pathogen in RTE seafood should not be overlooked, but it should be considered as having significance public health implications, particularly among the persons who are at greater risk. Therefore, RTE seafood should be produced under appropriate hygienic and technological conditions since the product does not undergo any treatment before consumption.
Keywords: level, Listeria monocytogenes, Northern Greece, prevalence, ready-to-eat seafood, serotyping.

Seroepidemiological pattern of leptospirosis in bovine of South Gujarat, India

Research (Published online: 27-11-2014)
18. Seroepidemiological pattern of leptospirosis in bovine of South Gujarat, India J. M. Patel, P. D.Vihol, M. C. Prasad, I. H. Kalyani, J. K. Raval, K. M. Patel, Sushma R. A. Thirumalesh and V. Balamurugan

Veterinary World, 7(11): 999-1003

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.999-1003

Aim: Seroepidemiological study of leptospirosis in cattle of various South Gujarat district (Navsari, Tapi, Surat, Valsad).
Materials and Methods: Whole blood samples were collected randomly from different age groups, and breeds of cattle of either sex reared in different districts (Navsari, Surat, Tapi, Valsad) of South Gujarat. To obtain serum, whole blood was kept in slanting position in 9.0 ml plain vacutainers until serum extracted out of the whole blood. Then these 9.0 ml plain vacutainers were centrifuged at 7000 rpm for 10 min. The straw colored serum was then collected in 1.5 ml sterile cryo vials and aliquoted and stored at 20°C for microscopic agglutination test.
Results: In the present study, overall 12.81% (51/398) seroprevalence were recorded with highest seroprevalence (47.06%, 24/51) from Valsad followed by Navsari (9.14%, 18/197), Surat (6.90%, 2/29) and Tapi (5.79%, 7/121) among cattle. The seroprevalence rate of breed and sex wise did not differ significantly (p0.05). Maximum incidence of seropositivity was found above 4 years (16.32%, 39/239) of age group followed by animals between 1 and 4 years (9.68%, 12/124). Thus, the age was significantly influencing the seropositivity (p0.05). In cattle out of 398 sera screened, 51 were positive with one or more serovars. The highest seropositivity was recorded against serovar Pomona (28.89%).
Conclusions: Overall 12.81% seroprevalence of leptospirosis in apparently healthy and clinically ailing bovine of South Gujarat indicating potential zoonotic risk to farmers, labor, and animal owners.
Keywords: cattle, leptospirosis, seroepidemiology, zoonosis.

Evaluation of antibacterial effect of some Sinai medicinal plant extracts on bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis

Research (Published online: 27-11-2014)
17. Evaluation of antibacterial effect of some Sinai medicinal plant extracts on bacteria isolated from bovine mastitis - Gamil S. G. Zeedan, Abeer M. Abdalhamed, Eman Abdeen, Mahmoud E. Ottai and Sobhy Abdel-Shafy
Veterinary World, 7(11): 991-998

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.991-998

Aim: Bovine mastitis is the most economically important disease affecting dairy cattle worldwide from an economic, diagnostic and public-health point of view. The present study aimed to isolate and identify of bacteria causes mastitis in dairy cows and to evaluate the antibacterial activities of some selected medicinal plants extracts comparing antibiotics used in the treatment of mastitis in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: A total of 203 milk samples of dairy cows were collected during the period from February to June 2013 at different Governorates in Egypt. The use clinical inspection and California mastitis test examination were provided efficient diagnostic tool for detection of clinical, subclinical mastitis and apparently normal health cattle. The collected milk samples were cultured on Nutrient, Blood agar, Mannitol salt, Edward’s and MacConkey agar plates supporting the growth of various types of bacteria for their biochemical studies and isolation. The antimicrobial activity of plants extracts (Jasonia montana and Artemisia herb alba)with different solvent (ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform and acetone)were studied in vitro against isolated bacteria from mastitis by paper desk diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration method (MIC).
Results: The prevalence of clinical, subclinical mastitis and normal healthy animals were 34.50%, 24.7% and 40.8% respectively. The major pathogens isolated from collected milk samples were Escherichia coli (22.16%), Staphylococcus aureus (20.19%), Streptococcusspp. (13.3%), Streptococcus agalactiae (12.8%), Streptococcus dysgalactia (0.5%), Pasteurella spp. (2.45%), Klebsiella spp. (1.47%)andPseudomonas spp. (0.45%). The highest antibacterial activity of J. montana plant extracted with acetone solvent against S. agalactiaeE. coli, S. aureus, Klebsiella spp and coagulase-negative Staphylococci with zone of inhibition values ± standard deviation (SD), ranging from 4.33±0.57 to 25.6±0.60 mm. The MIC values for the extracts ranged from 0.01 to 1.56 mg/ml. when comparing antibacterial activity of A. herb alba plant extracted with acetone solvent on the same bacteria with zone of inhibition values ± SD, ranging from 00±00 to 5.6±0.60 mm. Both extracts from J. montana and A. herb alba plant extracts with petroleum ether, methanol and chloroform solvent were less antibacterial activities than acetone solvent extract.
Conclusion: The present study spot highlight on isolation and identification of mastitis pathogens that are fundamental aspects of milk quality, udder health control programs and public health and food safety issues associated with food borne pathogens. J. montana and A. herb alba plants have antibacterial effects more than antibiotics used in the treatment of mastitis. Finally, the medicinal plant extracts can be used to discover bioactive natural product in the form of antibacterial that may be serve the development of new pharmaceutical products. But still need further research necessary to identify active compounds and research to mechanism and drug interaction.
Keywords: antimicrobial agent, Artemisia herb alba, California mastitis test, Jasonia montana, minimum inhibitory concentration.

Xylazine-ketamine immobilization and propofol anesthesia for surgical excision of sebaceous adenoma in a jaguar (Panthera onca)

Research (Published online: 27-11-2014)
16. Xylazine-ketamine immobilization and propofol anesthesia for surgical excision of sebaceous adenoma in a jaguar (Panthera onca) -M. Bharathidasan, R. Thirumurugan, B. Justin William, R. S. George, A. Arunprasad, T. A. Kannan and S. Viramuthu
Veterinary World, 7(11): 986-990

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.986-990

Aim: A captive male jaguar (Panthera onca) was anaesthetized for surgical excision of a tumor at the left belly fold under xylazine-ketamine immobilization and propofol anesthesia. The objective was to assess the dose of xylazine and ketamine required to abolish ear flick reflex for safe approach when the jaguar was under chemical immobilization and efficacy of propofol induced anesthesia.
Materials and Methods: A male jaguar (P. onca) aged 14 years and weighing approximately 90 kg was subjected to chemical immobilization using a combination of xylazine and ketamine using a blow pipe. The jaguar was approached after the absence of ear flick reflex and transported to zoo Operation Theater. Propofol was administered intravenously to induce and maintain anesthesia. The tumor was excised using thermocautery and subjected to histopathology.
Results: Ear flick reflex was stimulated at 5 and 10 min after immobilization and observed shaking of head and movement of fore limb following administration of xylazine and ketamine. Dose of xylazine and ketamine required for chemical immobilization, characterized by absence of ear flick reflex was 1.0 and 3.5 mg/kg body weight respectively, and was achieved in 13 min. The surgical plane of anesthesia was maintained for 11 min following administration of propofol at a dose of 2 mg/kg body weight intravenously. The jaguar recovered in 41 min following surgery. The excised tumor was confirmed as sebaceous adenoma on histopathological examination. The animal recovered uneventfully, and no recurrence of the tumor was noticed in 3 months follow-up period.
Conclusion: The total dose xylazine and ketamine required for chemical immobilization with absence of ear flick reflex was 1.0 and 3.5 mg/kg body weight respectively. Further, administration of propofol intravenously, at a dose of 2 mg/kg maintained anesthesia for 11 min. Histopathological examination of the excised tumor at the belly fold was confirmed as sebaceous adenoma.
Keywords: ear flick reflex, jaguar, ketamine, Panthera onca, propofol, sebaceous adenoma, xylazine.

Pathogens isolated from clinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes and their antibiogram

Research (Published online: 27-11-2014)
15. Pathogens isolated from clinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes and their antibiogram - Gaurav Charaya, Anshu Sharma, Ashok Kumar, Mahavir Singh and Parveen Goel
Veterinary World, 7(11): 980-985

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.980-985

Aim: To determine the etiology of clinical mastitis in Murrah buffaloes and to develop an antibiogram of organisms isolated.
Materials and Methods: A total of 564 quarter milk samples of 144 buffaloes suffering from clinical mastitis received in Veterinary College Central Laboratory were inoculated on blood agar, MacConkey’s lactose agar and sabouraud dextrose agar. Bacteria isolated were characterized to the species level and subjected to in-vitro antimicrobial sensitivity testing.
Results: Out of 564 quarters examined for mastitis, 320 (56.73%) quarters were found culturally positive showing isolation ofStaphylococcus aureus 140 (38.04%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae 112 (30.43%), Streptococcus agalactiae 13 (3.53%), Escherichia coli 74 (20.10%) and Corynebacterium pyogenes 29 (7.88%). On carrying antibiogram staphylococci and streptococci revealed high sensitivity towards chloramphenicol, gentamicin, amikacin and enrofloxacin. Streptococci showed high sensitivity towards ceftriaxone and cefaperazone also. E. coli was found highly sensitive to chloramphenicol and gentamicin. C. pyogenes was sensitive to the majority of antibiotics.
Conclusion: S. aureus was the most predominant bacteria isolated from mastitis cases and irrespective of the isolates chloramphenicol was found to be most sensitive when tested in-vitro.
Keywords: antibiogram, Escherichia coli., mastitis, staphylococci, streptococci.

Tuesday, 18 November 2014

Some biochemical constituents in follicular fluid of indigenous cows of Assam

Research (Published online: 19-11-2014)
14. Some biochemical constituents in follicular fluid of indigenous cows of Assam - S. S. Deka, D. J. Kalita, S. Sarma and D. J. Dutta
Veterinary World, 7(11): 976-979

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.976-979

Aim: Estimation of some biochemical constituents in follicular fluid of non-descript cows of Assam.
Materials and Methods: Twenty five pairs of ovaries were collected from local slaughter house and the follicular fluid was aspirated from small (2-4 mm), medium (4-6 mm) and large (6-9 mm) follicles. Aspirated fluid samples were centrifuged at 4000 rpm for 20 min in a refrigerated centrifuge to remove granulosa cells and other cell debris. Supernatant was used for estimation of glucose, total protein, cholesterol, acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase. Data generated in the study were analyzed statiscally by SPSS (version 16.0). SPSS South Asia Pvt. Limited, Kacharakanahalli, Bangalore, 560043).
Results: A non significant difference was recorded in case of total protein and cholesterol of follicular fluid of small, medium and large sized follicles of cow. However, the glucose level significantly (p<0.01) increased with the increase of follicular size where as the activity of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase significantly (p<0.01) decreased with increase of size.
Conclusion: Certain biochemical constituents and enzyme activities of follicular fluid changes with the growth of follicles in non-descript cows of Assam. The glucose concentration increased with the growth of the follicles while acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase levels had an inverse relation with the size of the ovarian follicles.
Keywords: biochemical parameters, follicles, follicular fluid, oocytes maturation, phosphatase.

Effect of feeding sweet sorghum stover based complete ration on nutrient utilization in Nellore lambs

Research (Published online: 19-11-2014)
13. Effect of feeding sweet sorghum stover based complete ration on nutrient utilization in Nellore lambs - Jagannatham Babu, Nagireddy Nalini Kumari, Yerradoddi Ramana Reddy, Thirunahari Raghunandan and Kalakuntla Sridhar
Veterinary World, 7(11): 970-975

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.970-975

Aim: The present study was carried out to evaluate the nutrient digestibility of sweet sorghum stover, an unconventional roughage source in ram lambs in comparison to conventional sorghum and maize stovers.
Materials and Methods: 18 Nellore ram lambs aged about 3 months (average body weight 15.65±0.10 kg) were randomly allotted to three complete rations formulated with roughage to concentrate ratio of 60:40 using sorghum stover (D1), maize stover (D2) and sweet sorghum stover (D3) as roughage source for a period of 120 days. At the end of the growth trial, a metabolism trial was conducted to evaluate the nutrient utilization of the complete diets.
Results: There was no significant difference in nutrient digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein (CP), crude fibre, ether extract and nitrogen free extract in ram lambs fed D1, D2 and D3 diets, respectively. The digestibilities of acid detergent fibre and neutral detergent fibre did not differ significantly among the ram lambs fed various experimental diets. All the lambs were on positive nitrogen balance. Nitrogen balance was comparable among the various groups. The digestible CP and total digestible nutrients, digestible energy and metabolisable energy content of D1, D2 and D3 diets did not show any significant difference.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that, sweet sorghum stover can be incorporated in the complete diets of sheep at 60% level by replacing conventional roughages such as sorghum stover and maize stover, processed as mash form without affecting the voluntary intake and digestibility of nutrients.
Keywords: complete ration, lambs, nutrient utilization, sweet sorghum stover.

Sunday, 16 November 2014

Echocardiography as an approach for canine cardiac disease diagnosis

Research (Published online: 16-11-2014)
11. Echocardiography as an approach for canine cardiac disease diagnosis - P. Singh, N. Singh, S. K. Mahajan and T. Singh
Veterinary World, 7(11): 960-965

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.960-965

Aim: The aim of the study was to establish the methods for diagnosis various canine cardiac ailments using echocardiography.
Materials and Methods: M-mode, two-dimensional echocardiography and Doppler studies were performed on 10 cases. Dogs showing signs of cardiac ailment either clinically, radiographic or via electrocardiographic examination were selected for study. Right parasternal short axis view was used for echocardiographic measurements. Right parasternal long axis and left parasternal apical views were used for Doppler studies. Doppler studies were performed at the level of aortic valve and atrioventricular valves for semi quantitative diagnosis of regurgitation.
Results: Dogs were found affected with dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) (n=5), pericardial effusion (PE) (n=1), combined PE and DCM (n=2) and remaining two showed abnormality on radiographic or electrographically evaluation but were found out to be normal echocardiographically (n=2).
Conclusion: Echocardiography is an effective tool for diagnosis of various heart ailments.
Keywords: dilated cardiomyopathy, doppler studies, echocardiography, M-mode, pericardial effusion, two dimensional.

The use of Na+ and K+ ion concentrations as potential diagnostic indicators of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows

Research (Published online: 16-11-2014)
12. The use of Na+ and K+ ion concentrations as potential diagnostic indicators of subclinical mastitis in dairy cows - Abdul Wahid Haron, Faez Firdaus Jesse Abdullah, Abdulnasir Tijjani, Yusuf Abba, Lawan Adamu, Konto Mohammed, Aisyah Munira Mohammed Amir, Mohammad Abubakar Sadiq and Mohd Azmi Mohd Lila
Veterinary World, 7(11): 966-969

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.966-969

Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the concentrations of sodium (Na+) and potassium (K+) ions in milk of lactating dairy cows with and without subclinical mastitis as putative indicators for detecting subclinical mastitis in dairy cows.
Materials and Methods: Thirty seven lactating dairy cows were screened for the evidence of subclinical mastitis using California mastitis test (CMT). The lactating dairy cows were categorized as CMT-Positive (CMT-P; n=20) and CMT-Negative (CMT-N; n=17) based on whether they were positive or negative for CMT using a standard kit. The CMT-P lactating dairy cows were further sub divided into subclinical 1+ (S1+; n=6), subclinical 2+ (S2+; n=9), and subclinical 3+(S3+; n=5). Direct microscopy somatic cell count (SCC) was used to determine the SCC using Wright’s stain. The samples were filtered and diluted at 1:100 dilutions before being measured for the concentrations of Na+ and K+ using atomic absorption spectrophotometer.
Results: There was a significant increase (p<0.05) in SCCs and Na+ concentration in the milk of CMT-P dairy cows, with a mean Log10 SCC score of 5.35±0.06 cells/ml and mean Na+ concentration of 232±19.1 mg/dL. However, there was a significant reduction (p<0.05) in the concentration of K+ (123±7.6 mg/dL) in the milk samples of the CMT-P cows. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in SCC, Na+ and K+ concentrations between milk samples from the CMT-N dairy cows and CMT-P subgroups; S1+, S2+, and S3+ respectively. Potassium (K+) concentration had a significant strong negative correlation with sodium (Na+) concentration (r=−0.688; p<0.01) and weak positive correlation with SCC (r=−0.436; p<0.01). The sensitivity of using Na+ and K+ concentrations as detection indices for sub-clinical mastitis is 40% and 90%, respectively, while the specificity of each was 100%.
Conclusion: This study thus shows that evaluation of Na+ and K+ concentrations from milk samples of dairy cows with sub clinical mastitis can be of immense diagnostic benefit and will compliments detection using CMT alone.
Keywords: potassium ion, sodium ion, somatic cell count, subclinical mastitis.

Friday, 14 November 2014

Current practices and research updates on diabetes mellitus in canine

Review (Published online: 14-11-2014)
10. Current practices and research updates on diabetes mellitus in canine - Pankaj Kumar, Rashmi Rekha Kumari, Manish Kumar, Sanjiv Kumar and Asit Chakrabarti
Veterinary World, 7(10): 952-959

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.952-959

Diabetes has evidence in ancient literatures, though recently is being considered as one amongst the most emerging disease condition in both human and companion animals. Diabetes mellitus is one of the common endocrinopathy of dog characterized by hyperglycemia, glycosuria and weight loss. Reports suggests high fraction of canine population suffer with diabetes world over. Studies in different veterinary hospitals of United States suggest increase in cases of canine diabetes and decrease in case fatality rate over time. Increase in cases of canine diabetes worldwide is attributed to awareness amongst pet owners, better veterinary health facilities, breed preferences by dog owners, increase dependence on commercial feeds, obesity, etc. Diabetes in most dogs is immune mediated and insulin dependent. Breed predisposition in canine is attributed to dog leukocyte antigen gene pool encoding form major histocompatibility complex-II molecules, however research is still underway. Diagnosis of diabetes still relies on blood sugar evaluation for screening of canine population, though many other diagnostic methods have shown promising benefits including measurement of fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin. Management of diabetes in dog is based on insulin therapy, diet modification and exercise. Use of oral anti-diabetics drugs in canine is limited though experimental studies have shown promising results. Alternative therapies have been explored, but only a few approaches have shown promise for clinical application.
Keywords: canine, diabetes mellitus, emergence, fructosamine, glycated haemoglobin, insulin, streptozotocin.

Effect of shatavari and vitamin E on hemato-biochemical profile of broilers during the winter season

Research (Published online: 14-11-2014)
9. Effect of shatavari and vitamin E on hemato-biochemical profile of broilers during the winter season - Shashi Kant, Nazim Ali, Gulab Chandra and Riyaz Ahmad Siddique
Veterinary World, 7(10): 948-951

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.948-951

Aim: The study was carried out to investigate the effect of shatavari and vitamin E on hemato-biochemical profile of broilers during the winter season.
Materials and Methods: For this 120 day old chicks, randomly distributed into six groups were reared up to 6 weeks on standard managemental conditions. The powder of shatavari and vitamin E was added to the basal diet@ 0% and 0 mg/kg feed, 1% and 0 mg/kg feed, 1.5% and 0 mg/kg feed, 0% and 200 mg/kg feed, 1% and 200 mg/kg feed, 1.5% and 200 mg/kg feed in T1 to T6 respectively.
Results: The significant (p<0.05) increase in hematological parameters like total erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb and mean corpuscular Hb concentration in shatavari and vitamin E treated groups than control group. Whereas biochemical parameters like total serum protein, albumin, globin were significantly (p<0.05) higher and cholesterol, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase were significantly (p<0.05) lower in shatavari and vitamin E treated groups than control group.
Conclusions: Supplementation of shatavari and vitamin E supplementation removes cold stress and improves immuno status of broilers.
Keywords: broilers, shatavari, vitamin E.

Thursday, 13 November 2014

Assessment of innate immunity by phagocytic activity in non-descript and Sahiwal cattle in Chhattisgarh

Research (Published online: 13-11-2014)
8Assessment of innate immunity by phagocytic activity in non-descript and Sahiwal cattle in Chhattisgarh - Govina Dewangan, S. D. Hirpurkar, Devesh Kumar Giri and Deepak Kumar Kashyap
Veterinary World, 7(10): 943-947

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2014.943-947

Aim: The objective of the research was to assess the innate immunity status of non-descript (ND) cattle in comparison to Sahiwal cattle in Chattisgarh by the determination of the phagocytosis activity (PA) and opsonocytophagic index (OI).
Materials and Methods: In-vitro phagocytic activity of neutrophil was studied in ND and Sahiwal (S) cattle after dividing them in groupsviz. ND-I, ND-II, S-I and S-II. Neutrophils were separated from the blood and activated with Staphylococcus aureus. PA and OI were observed under high power of a microscope at ×1000  magnification.
Results: PA (percent) in groups ND-I, ND-II, S-I and S-II was 73.00±1.03, 82.25±1.51, 80.75±1.36 and 82.37±1.27, respectively which vary significantly (p<0.01), with respect to age. The observations regarding the OI (bacteria per neutrophil) in groups ND-I, ND-II, S-I and S-II was 7.17±0.04, 7.76±0.09, 7.02±0.04 and 7.79±0.06, respectively. Age difference was evident, i.e., OI increases as age increases.
Conclusion: Innate immunity plays a vital role in host defense against diseases. Neutrophil kills the invading pathogen by phagocytic action. PA and OI is an important tool for the assessing innate immune status. After coincubation of neutrophil with bacterial cells, PA was significantly lower (p<0.01) in ND-I, calves group then other groups. Further, the result of OI clearly indicates that OI has increased as age increases in both breeds. The study will, therefore, generate first hand information on ND cattle along with their relative statistical differences, if any, when compared with Sahiwal.
Keywords: innate immunity, non-descript cattle, opsonocytophagic index, phagocytosis activity.