Tuesday, 28 February 2017
Evaluation of some heavy metals residues in batteries and deep litter rearing systems in Japanese quail meat and offal in Egypt
Research (Published online: 28-02-2017)
20. Evaluation of some heavy metals residues in batteries and deep litter rearing systems in Japanese quail meat and offal in Egypt - Ali M. Ahmed, Dalia M. Hamed and Nagwa T. Elsharawy
Veterinary World, 10(2): 262-269
Aim: The main objectives of this study were for comparing the effect of batteries and deep litter rearing systems of domesticated Japanese quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica, on the concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc from the quail meat and offal in Ismailia, Egypt.
Materials and Methods: A total of 40 quail meat and their offal samples were randomly collected from two main quail rearing systems: Battery (Group I) and deep litter system (Group II) for determination of concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc. In addition, 80 water and feed samples were randomly collected from water and feeders of both systems in the Food Hygiene Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Suez Canal University for heavy metals determination.
Results: The mean concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in Group I were 0.010, 0.027, 1.137, and 0.516 ppm and for Group II were 0.093, 0.832, 0.601, and 1.651 ppm, respectively. The mean concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in quail feed in Group I were 1.114, 1.606, 5.822, and 35.11 ppm and for Group II were 3.010, 2.576, 5.852, and 23.616 ppm, respectively. The mean concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in quail meat for Group I were 0.058, 5.902, 10.244, and 290 ppm and for Group II were 0.086, 6.092, 0.136, and 1.280 ppm, respectively. The mean concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc for liver samples in Group I were 0.15, 8.32, 1.05, and 3.41 ppm and for Group II were 0.13, 8.88, 0.95, and 4.21 ppm, respectively. The mean concentration levels of cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in kidney samples for the Group I were 0.24, 4.21, 1.96, and 4.03 ppm and for Group II were 0.20, 5.00, 1.56, and 3.78 ppm, respectively. Kidney had the highest concentration levels of heavy metals followed by liver then muscles. The highest concentration levels of copper were observed in liver samples. The order of the levels of these trace elements obtained from the four different quail organs is Ca > Pb > Zn > Cu. Lead and cadmium concentration levels in quail meat samples were exceeded the Egyptian standardization limits and suggesting a health threat from lead and cadmium to the quail consumers.
Conclusion: Battery rearing system is more hygienic than deep litter system from the point of heavy metals pollution of water and feeds of quail. Feed samples from battery system had means concentration levels of lead not significantly higher (p>0.05) than those samples from deep litter system. Meanwhile, water samples from battery system had means concentration levels of cadmium, copper, and zinc significantly higher (p>0.05) than those samples from deep litter system. Quail may carry health risks to consumers.
Keywords: batteries, deep litter, heavy metals, offal, poultry meat.
Monday, 27 February 2017
Risk factors associated with cystic echinococcosis in humans in selected pastoral and agro-pastoral areas of Uganda
Research (Published online: 26-02-2017)
1. Risk factors associated with cystic echinococcosis in humans in selected pastoral and agro-pastoral areas of Uganda - Emmanuel Othieno, Andrew Livex Okwi, Ezekiel Mupere, Eberhard Zeyhle, Peter Oba, Martin Chamai, Leonard Omadang, Francis Olaki Inangolet, Ludwing Siefert, Francis Ejobi and Michael Ocaido
International Journal of One Health, 3: 1-6
Aim: It was to determine the risk factors responsible of occurrence of cystic echinococcosis (CE) of humans in the pastoral and agro-pastoral (PAP) in Uganda.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in districts: Moroto, Napak, Nakapiripirit and Amudat in Karamoja region; in agro-pastoral communities of Teso region, in the districts of Kumi and Bukedea; Nakasongola district in Central region and in Kasese district in the Western region. People were subjected to voluntary ultrasound screening for CE. Those found positive to CE on ultrasound screening were interviewed using a special designed form to find out the probable predisposing factors for acquisition of CE infection. Predisposing factors considered were location, age, sex, dog ownership, occupation, water source, and religion. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify key risk factors.
Results: In Karamoja region, being female, age beyond 40 years and open spring water sources were the risk factors. While for Nakasongola age beyond 40 years was a risk factor. In Kasese dog ownership, age >60 years and being a Muslim were risk factors. In Teso region dog ownership and age >60 years were the risk factors.
Conclusion: Being a pastoralist, a female, increasing age beyond 40 years, open spring water sources, dog ownership and being a Muslim were the risk factors for CE in PAP areas in Uganda.
Keywords: agro-pastoral, cystic echinococcosis, humans, risk factors pastoral, Uganda.
Clinical and hematobiochemical response in canine monocytic ehrlichiosis seropositive dogs of Punjab
Research (Published online: 27-02-2017)
19. Clinical and hematobiochemical response in canine monocytic ehrlichiosis seropositive dogs of Punjab - Manasa R. Kottadamane, Pritpal Singh Dhaliwal, Lachhman Das Singla, Baljider Kumar Bansal and Sanjeev Kumar Uppal
Veterinary World, 10(2): 255-261
Aim: As in India especially, the Punjab state sero-prevalence and distribution of ehrlichiosis in relation to clinico-hematobiochemical response remains largely unexplored. Thus, this study was designed to determine the prevalence of vector (tick)-borne tropical canine pancytopenia caused by Ehrlichia canis through enzyme labeled ImmunoComb® (IC) assay in dogs from in and around Ludhiana, Punjab. Correlation of prevalence was made with various clinico-hematobiochemical parameters.
Materials and Methods: Seroprevalence study was carried out using IC® test kit (Biogal, Galed Labs). The study was conducted in 84 dogs presented to the Small Animal Clinics, Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, Punjab.
Results: Out of 84 suspected dogs for ehrlichiosis, based on peripheral thin blood smear examination 12 (14.28%) cases were positive for the morulae of E. canis and 73 (86.90%) dogs were found positive to E. canis antibodies through IC® canine Ehrlichia antibody test kit, respectively. Among the different age groups 1-3 years of aged group showed highest prevalence (41.09%), followed by the 3-6 years age group (32.87%), infection levels were lower in the <1 year of age group dogs (13.69%) and more than 6 years age group dogs (12.32%). The highest prevalence was seen in Labrador retriever. This study indicates that season plays a very important role in the prevalence of ehrlichiosis. The most common findings observed were anemia, leukocytosis, neutropenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia followed by hyperbilirubinemia, increased levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase, hypoalbuminemia, hyperglobulinaemia, decrease in albumin and globulin ratio, increase in blood urea nitrogen and creatinine.
Conclusions: Serological techniques like IC® are more useful for detecting chronic and subclinical infections and are ideally suited to epidemiological investigations.
Keywords: dogs, Ehrlichia canis, ImmunoComb test, morulae.
Friday, 24 February 2017
Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis as an alternative to antibiotics as a growth promoter on broiler performance, serum biochemistry, and immune responses
Research (Published online: 24-02-2017)
18. Effect of ethanolic extract of propolis as an alternative to antibiotics as a growth promoter on broiler performance, serum biochemistry, and immune responses - Abbasali Gheisari, Shekofa Shahrvand, and Nasir Landy
Veterinary World, 10(2): 249-254
Aim: An in vivo experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different levels of ethanolic extract of propolis, on growth performance, carcass traits, serum biochemistry, and humoral immune responses of chickens, as compared with the antibiotic flavophospholipol.
Materials and Methods: 312 1-day-old as-hatched broiler chicks (Ross 308) were randomly allotted to 6 treatments with 4 replicate pens per treatment. The 6 dietary treatments fed for 42 days consisted of a corn-soybean meal basal diet (control); control plus 4.5 mg/kg flavophospholipol, and control plus 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg ethanol extracts of propolis, respectively.
Results: Neither propolis nor antibiotic affected the performance criteria; however, dietary treatments tended to enhance to enhance body weight and daily feed intake of broiler chickens compared with control group (p>0.05). None of the dietary treatments significantly altered feed: Gain though; broilers fed diet supplemented with 200 mg/kg propolis had better feed: gain values compared with other groups in starter, and grower phases as well as the whole experimental period (p>0.05). Carcass yield and internal organ relative weights were not affected by treatments on day 42, except for abdominal fat pad weight that decreased in broilers supplemented with antibiotic. None of the treatments significantly affected humoral immune function. Dietary treatments failed to induce any significant effect on serum biochemistry (p>0.05); though broilers receiving 100 mg/kg propolis had greater high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and lower triglyceride concentrations compared with other groups.
Conclusion: In conclusion, the results indicated that addition of ethanolic extract of propolis to routine dietary components of broilers, such as corn and soybean, seems not to have a positive influence on performance criteria.
Keywords: antibiotic, broilers, growth performance, immune responses, propolis, serum biochemistry.
Wednesday, 22 February 2017
Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism in protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11 gene in Murrah bulls
Research (Published online: 23-02-2017)
17. Identification of single nucleotide polymorphism in protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11 gene in Murrah bulls - Varsha Jain, Brijesh Patel, Farhat Paul Umar, H. M. Ajithakumar, Suraj K. Gurjar, I. D. Gupta and Archana Verma
Veterinary World, 10(2): 244-248
Aim: This study was conducted with the objective to identify single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11 (PPP1R11) gene in Murrah bulls.
Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was isolated by phenol–chloroform extraction method from the frozen semen samples of 65 Murrah bulls maintained at Artificial Breeding Research Centre, ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. The quality and concentration of DNA was checked by spectrophotometer reading and agarose gel electrophoresis. The target region of PPP1R11 gene was amplified using four sets of primer designed based on Bos taurus reference sequence. The amplified products were sequenced and aligned using Clustal Omega for identification of SNPs. Animals were genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using EcoNI restriction enzyme.
Results: The sequences in the NCBI accession number NW_005785016.1 for Bubalus bubalis were compared and aligned with the edited sequences of Murrah bulls with Clustal Omega software. A total of 10 SNPs were found, out of which 1 at 5’UTR, 3 at intron 1, and 6 at intron 2 region. PCR-RFLP using restriction enzyme EcoNI revealed only AA genotype indicating monomorphism in PPP1R11 gene of all Murrah animals included in the study.
Conclusion: A total of 10 SNPs were found. PCR-RFLP revealed only AA genotype indicating monomorphism in PPP1R11 gene of all Murrah animals included in the study, due to which association analysis with conception rate was not feasible.
Keywords: Murrah bulls, protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11, polymerase chain reaction, restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Tuesday, 21 February 2017
Outbreak of foot and mouth disease and peste des petits ruminants in sheep flock imported for immediate slaughter in Riyadh
Research (Published online: 22-02-2017)
16. Outbreak of foot and mouth disease and peste des petits ruminants in sheep flock imported for immediate slaughter in Riyadh - M. A. Mahmoud and S. A. Galbat
Veterinary World, 10(2): 238-243
Aim: To detect and identify the causative agent or agents of the following clinical symptoms which were fever, lack of appetite, salivation, vesiculation, erosions of the buccal mucosa, nose, and feet. The signs vary from mild to severe. The mortality rate of the disease is high. The morbidity rate reaches up to 100%. Sheep also show bloody diarrhea and rapid respiration. Sheep flock resident in El-Kharje Governorate.
Materials and Methods: A total of 50 serum samples and 50 buffy coat samples were collected from Marino sheep flock suffered from high mortalities, fever, lameness, diarrhea, stomatitis, and respiratory distress. PrioCHECK® foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) nonstructural (NS) (marketable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay [ELISA] kit) was used for revealing of the NS antibodies and liquid phase blocking enzyme immunoassay (LPBE) for identifying the FMD serotype and examined by competitive ELISA (cELISA) for detection of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) antibodies. The buffy coat samples were examined by immunocapture ELISA (Ic ELISA) for detection of PPR antigen.
Results: Using PrioCHECK® FMDV NS: Commercial ELISA kit: 38/50 (76%) of the serum samples were positive for the presence of FMD NS viral proteins. In addition, using LPBE the positive samples were identified as FMD serotype O. Examination of the serum sample by cELISA for detection of PPR antibodies gave positive results in 32/50 (64%). While the Ic ELISA identified 32 (64%) positive reactors for PPR antigen.
Conclusion: This study reflected high susceptibility of the imported sheep flocks to the infection with FMD and PPR viruses, which are endemic in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Hence, the imported flocks that prepared for slaughter must be vaccinated with the used vaccine in KSA in the quarantine for the control of FMD especially when importation occurs from counters that are free from these diseases.
Keywords: foot and mouth disease, peste des petits ruminants, Marino sheep, virus, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Monday, 20 February 2017
Research (Published online: 21-02-2017)
15. Potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey - Ahmed G. Hegazi, Faiz M. Al Guthami, Ahmed F. M. Al Gethami, Fyrouz M. Abd Allah, Ashraf A. Saleh and Ehab A. Fouad
Veterinary World, 10(2): 233-237
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the potential antibacterial activity of some Saudi Arabia honey against selected bacterial strains of medical importance.
Materials and Methods: A total of 10 Saudi Arabia honey used to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some antibiotic-resistant pathogenic bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Results: The antibacterial activity of Saudi honey against five bacterial strains showed different levels of inhibition according to the type of honey. The overall results showed that the potential activity was differing according to the pathogen and honey type.
Conclusion: It could be concluded that the Saudi honey inhibit the growth of bacterial strains and that honey can be used as complementary antimicrobial agent against selected pathogenic bacteria.
Keywords: antibiotic-resistant, potential antibacterial activity, Saudi Arabia honey.
Sunday, 19 February 2017
Research (Published online: 19-02-2017)
14. Effect of various levels of date palm kernel on growth performance of broilers - Muhammad Hamza Tareen, Rani Wagan, Farman Ali Siyal, Daryoush Babazadeh, Zohaib Ahmed Bhutto, Muhammad Asif Arain and Muhammad Saeed
Veterinary World, 10(2): 227-232
Aim: The aim of this study was the assessment of various levels of date palm kernel (DPK) on the growth performance of broilers.
Materials and Methods: A 250-day-old broiler chicks were randomly selected and categorized into five groups (50 chicks/group) contained A (control), B, C, D and E fed with 0%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4% levels of DPK in balanced ration, respectively, for 6 weeks. Feed and water intake were recorded daily in the morning and evening. The data for feed intake, water intake, live body weight, and feed conversion ratio (FCR) were recorded from all birds regularly. The carcass weight and percentage obtained via six slaughtered birds were randomly selected from each group. Finally, economic aspects of the rations evaluated.
Results: The most feed intakes of broilers were recorded in Group A (3915.1 g) that was significantly higher than Groups D and E. The highest water intake was in Group E (9067.78 ml) that was significantly higher than Group A and control group. Live body weight was highest in Group E (979.85 g) than Groups B, C, and control group. The best growth weights were determined significantly in Groups D (1921.96 g) and E (1935.95 g). The lowest FCRs were indicated significantly in Groups D (1.97 g/g) and E (1.92 g/g) than Groups B and A. The highest carcass weights were recorded in Groups D (1214.01 g) and E (1230.88 g) that were significantly more than other groups. Dressing percentages in Groups D (61.76%) and E (62.17%) were higher than other groups (p<0.05). The net profits (Rs.) in Groups A, B, C, D and E were indicated 27.01, 32.77, 36.78, 43.47 and 44.51 per broiler, respectively.
Conclusion: It was concluded that the high levels of DPK (3-4%) significantly decreased broiler feed intake and increased water intake, live body weight, growth weight, carcass weight, dressing percentage, net profit per bird and also had positive effects on growth of broilers.
Keywords: broiler, date palm kernel, growth performance.
Attribution of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Cassia tora extract toward its growth promoting effect in broiler birds
Research (Published online: 19-02-2017)
13. Attribution of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of Cassia tora extract toward its growth promoting effect in broiler birds - Jyoti Sahu, K. M. Koley and B. D. Sahu
Veterinary World, 10(2): 221-226
Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the attribution of antibacterial and antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of Cassia tora toward its growth promoting effect in broiler birds.
Materials and Methods: A limit test was conducted for C. tora extract in Wistar albino rats. Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract of leaves of C. tora was carried out. In-vitro antibacterial activity was measured by disc diffusion method. 1-day-old Ven Cobb broiler birds (n=90) were randomly allocated into three groups consisting of three replicates with 10 birds in each group. The birds of group T1 (Control) received basal diet, whereas birds of group T2 (Standard) received an antibiotic (Lincomycin at 0.05% in feed). The birds of group T3 (Test) received Cassia tora extract (CSE) at 0.4 g/L in drinking water in addition to basal diet. The treatment was given to birds of all the groups for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activity of C. tora was determined in blood of broiler birds. Cumulative body weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), dressing percent, and organ weight factor were evaluated to determine growth performance in broiler birds.
Results: Phytochemicals in C. tora were screened. Sensitivity to Escherichia coli and resistant to Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was observed in in-vitro antibacterial activity test. At the end of 6th week, antioxidant activity reflected significantly (p≤0.05) lower level of erythrocyte malondialdehyde and higher levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH peroxidase in broiler birds of group T2 and T3 as compared to broiler of group T1. Mean cumulative body weight gain of birds of T2 and T3 were significantly (p≤0.05) higher as compared to T1. Mean FCR of birds of group T3 decreased significantly than group T1.
Conclusion: Supplementation of C. tora leaves extract at 0.4 g/L in drinking water improved growth performance in broiler birds due to its antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. Therefore, it could be used as an alternative to antibiotic growth promoter in poultry ration.
Keywords: antibacterial activity, antioxidant activity, broiler birds, Cassia tora, growth promoter.
Friday, 17 February 2017
Biochemical components of seminal plasma and their correlation to the fresh seminal characteristics in Marwari stallions and Poitou jacks
Research (Published online: 18-02-2017)
12. Biochemical components of seminal plasma and their correlation to the fresh seminal characteristics in Marwari stallions and Poitou jacks - Thirumala Rao Talluri, Gorakh Mal and Sanjay Kumar Ravi
Veterinary World, 10(2): 214-220
Aim: To investigate various biochemical components of seminal plasma in Marwari stallions and Poitou Jacks and to find out their correlation with that of the seminal characteristics.
Materials and Methods: In this study, semen was collected from six Marwari stallions and six Poitou jacks aged from 4 to 6 years and with known fertility status. The semen collection from the stallions were collected during the breeding season, i.e., between the months of April and June. From the collected semen ejaculates, we estimated the values of some biochemical components, viz., total protein content, total lipid content, and enzymes such as glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT), glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), acid phosphatase (ACP), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as concentrations of glucose, cholesterol, total calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (P) and correlations among different seminal parameters were statistically examined using the Pearson correlation coefficient.
Results: In this study, we found positive correlations between semen volume as well as sperm concentration and GOT, GPT, ALP and ACP for both the group stallions. Significant correlation between motility and glucose, GOT and GPT could be an indication for their role metabolism and protection against free radicals to the spermatozoa.
Conclusion: Based on the results, it is concluded that there is a positive correlation between some biochemical values such as glucose, Ca, ALP, and LDH and seminal parameters which play a key role in capacitation and onward movement of the spermatozoa.
Keywords: alkaline phosphatase, biochemical components, lactate-dehydrogenase, Marwari, Poitou, stallion, seminal plasma.
Research (Published online: 17-02-2017)
11. A combinatorial model for effective estrus detection in Murrah buffalo - Ramu Muthu Selvam and Govindaraju Archunan
Veterinary World, 10(2): 209-213
Background: Buffaloes are silent heat animals and lacunae in their estrus detection results a substantial economic loss in developing countries. Many advanced tools to aid heat detection have been developed but are neither affordable nor easily interpretable by marginal farmers.
Aim: The present investigation was made to develop a cost-effective estrus detection model by combining several known estrus predicting parameters.
Materials and Methods: Various signs of estrus were classified under major parameters such as visual, cow behavioral, bull behavioral, biochemical, and gyneco-clinical. Expression of those parameters was observed in buffaloes, and the percentage of positive estrus detection was calculated for each combination of estrus prediction parameters.
Results: The present result concludes that the model comprises of five parameters group with several signals with twentysix different combinations. It was observed that the expression of individual combinations and their corresponding estrus detection efficiency varies significantly, i.e., detection efficiency rises as the number of combination increases.
Conclusion: Combination of three parameters would provide an estrus detection efficiency >70% and suggested for an easy estrus detection. This would be a cost-effective model for farmers and benefits in enhancing buffalo population/reproduction.
Keywords: behavior, estrus detection, fern pattern, Flehmen, mounting, visual.
Thursday, 16 February 2017
Toxoplasma gondii infection in meat animals from Africa: Systematic review and meta-analysis of sero-epidemiological studies
Research (Published online: 16-02-2017)
10. Toxoplasma gondii infection in meat animals from Africa: Systematic review and meta-analysis of sero-epidemiological studies -Aretas Babatoundé Nounnagnon Tonouhewa, Yao Akpo, Philippe Sessou, Camus Adoligbe, Eric Yessinou, Yaovi Gildas Hounmanou, Marc Napoléon Assogba, Issaka Youssao and Souaïbou Farougou
Veterinary World, 10(2): 194-208
Aim: Toxoplasma gondii is an ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite which causes toxoplasmosis in humans and animals. Felids especially cats are definitive hosts and almost all warm-blooded mammals, including livestock and human can serve as intermediate hosts. Food animals can be reservoirs for T. gondii and act as one of the sources for parasite transmission to humans. The objective of this study is to collect serological data on the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody, and risk factors for certain food animals from Africa to provide a quantitative estimate of T. gondii infection among these species from different African countries.
Materials and Methods: Four databases were used to search seroepidemiological data on the prevalence of anti-T. gondii antibody in food animals between 1969 and 2016 from African countries. The search focused on data obtained by serologic test in food animals and meta-analyses were performed per species.
Results: A total of 30,742 individual samples from 24 countries, described in 68 articles were studied. The overall estimated prevalence for toxoplasmosis in chicken, camel, cattle, sheep, goat, pig were 37.4% (29.2-46.0%), 36% (18-56%), 12% (8-17%), 26.1% (17.0-37.0%), 22.9% (12.3-36.0%), and 26.0% (20-32.0%), respectively. Moreover, major risk factor of infection was age, farming system, and farm location.
Conclusions: A significant variation in the seroepidemiological data was observed within each species and country. The results can aid in an updated epidemiological analysis but also can be used as an important input in quantitative microbial risk assessment models. Further studies are required for a better and continual evaluation of the occurrence of this zoonotic infection.
Keywords: animal health, meta-analysis, Toxoplasmosis, zoonosis.
Monday, 13 February 2017
Preparation of mucosal nanoparticles and polymer-based inactivated vaccine for Newcastle disease and H9N2 AI viruses
Research (Published online: 14-02-2017)
9. Preparation of mucosal nanoparticles and polymer-based inactivated vaccine for Newcastle disease and H9N2 AI viruses - Heba M. El Naggar, Mohamed Sayed Madkour and Hussein Ali Hussein
Veterinary World, 10(2): 187-193
Aim: To develop a mucosal inactivated vaccines for Newcastle disease (ND) and H9N2 viruses to protect against these viruses at sites of infections through mucosal immunity.
Materials and Methods: In this study, we prepared two new formulations for mucosal bivalent inactivated vaccine formulations for Newcastle and Avian Influenza (H9N2) based on the use of nanoparticles and polymer adjuvants. The prepared vaccines were delivered via intranasal and spray routes of administration in specific pathogen-free chickens. Cell-mediated and humoral immune response was measured as well as challenge trial was carried out. In addition, ISA71 water in oil was also evaluated.
Results: Our results showed that the use of spray route as vaccination delivery method of polymer and nanoparticles MontanideTM adjuvants revealed that it enhanced the cell mediated immune response as indicated by phagocytic activity, gamma interferon and interleukin 6 responses and induced protection against challenge with Newcastle and Avian Influenza (H9N2) viruses.
Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate the potentiality of polymer compared to nanoparticles adjuvantes when used via spray route. Mass application of such vaccines will add value to improve the vaccination strategies against ND virus and Avian influenza viruses.
Keywords: adjuvant, H9N2, mucosal, nanoparticles, Newcastle, polymer.