Thursday, 30 November 2017
Wednesday, 29 November 2017
Tuesday, 28 November 2017
Mingling of human and veterinary strains of Staphylococcus aureus: An emerging issue in health-care systems
Research (Published online: 28-11-2017)
12. Mingling of human and veterinary strains of Staphylococcus aureus: An emerging issue in health-care systems - Sara Giordana Rimoldi, Annamaria Di Gregorio, Vittorio Sala, Eleonora De Faveri, Cristina Pagani, Pietro Olivieri, Claudio Savi, Anna Lisa Ridolfo, Antona Carlo and Maria Rita Gismondo
International Journal of One Health, 3: 77-82
Aim: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus remains a leading cause of hospital and community infections. We report a retrospective molecular characterization of S. aureus strains from different settings: hospital workers and patients, and veterinarian surgeons and pets.
Materials and Methods: Eighty-nine S. aureus isolates obtained from nasal swabs of 10 patients, 17 health-care workers (HCWs), 9 pets, and 53 veterinarians were genotypically characterized by means of repetitive extragenic palindromic polymerase chain reaction (Rep PCR) and whole-genome sequencing.
Results: Thirteen different sequence types (STs) were detected: ST398, ST22, ST8, ST30, ST15, ST5, ST121, ST45, ST10, ST6, ST34, ST97, and ST1. Two new STs differing from ST22 and ST5 for a single multilocus sequence typing gene were also identified. Rep PCR documented a genetic relationship among isolates obtained from 5 veterinarians and 10 HCWs.
Conclusion: The large diversity of S. aureus strains detected may reflect a larger epidemiology within the hospital and community, in which companion animals likely act as a reservoir. We identified the circulation of ST5, ST8, ST15, ST22, ST30, ST45, and ST121 both in the hospital and veterinarian environment. Starting from the idea of a unique setting where our population lives, we consider the relationship between community- and hospital-acquired S. aureus.
Keywords: health-care workers, multilocus sequence typing, S. aureus, single-nucleotide polymorphisms, pets, veterinarians.
Monday, 27 November 2017
Sunday, 26 November 2017
Friday, 24 November 2017
Tuesday, 21 November 2017
Sunday, 19 November 2017
Thursday, 16 November 2017
Wednesday, 15 November 2017
Tuesday, 14 November 2017
Monday, 13 November 2017
Saturday, 11 November 2017
Friday, 10 November 2017
Wednesday, 8 November 2017
Tuesday, 7 November 2017
Aim: Canine lymphoma is one of the most common canine neoplasms, but little is known regarding the effects of exposure to tobacco smoke on their biologic behavior. As cytology is the most frequent diagnostic method of canine lymphoma, the aims of this study were to perform an immunocytochemical study of canine lymphomas, including subtyping and cell proliferation analysis, and to establish their correlation with tobacco smoke exposure.
Materials and Methods: A total of 23 dogs diagnosed with lymphoma were subjected to careful fine-needle biopsies of enlarged lymph nodes. The smears were air-dried, fixed with cold acetone, and immunocytochemically stained using CD3, PAX5, and Ki-67. Owners were requested to complete an epidemiologic questionnaire.
Results: According to the updated Kiel classification, 65% were B-cell lymphomas - three low grade (LG) and 12 high grade (HG) and 35% were T-cell - two LG and six HG. Thirteen tumors presented high Ki67 indexes (>40%) (11 HG and 2 LG), two revealed moderate ones (20-40%) (1 HG and 1 LG), and three had low indexes (≤20%) (1 HG and 2 LG). Both a significant positive correlation and a significant linear-by-linear association (p=0.018) were observed between high Ki67 indexes and smoking owners (r=0.753, p=0.002) as well as with the number of smokers in the household (r=0.641, p=0.001). Moreover, the mean percentage of Ki67+ cells from the group of "smoker owners" was statically higher (p=0.011) than that from the "non-smoker owners."
Conclusion: The results suggest that cytological diagnosis of canine lymphomas benefits from being complemented with immunocytochemical studies that include subtyping and assessment of proliferative activity, both contributing for the prognosis and therapeutic planning. Furthermore, exposure to tobacco smoke seems to be related to the biological behavior of canine lymphomas.
Keywords: canine lymphoma, immunocytochemistry, proliferation, tobacco smoke.
Saturday, 4 November 2017
Prevention, detection, and response to anthrax outbreak in Northern Tanzania using one health approach: A case study of Selela ward in Monduli district
Research (Published online: 04-11-2017)
11. Prevention, detection, and response to anthrax outbreak in Northern Tanzania using one health approach: A case study of Selela ward in Monduli district - Elibariki R. Mwakapeje, Justine A. Assenga, John S. Kunda, Ernest E. Mjingo, Zachariah E. Makondo, Hezron E. Nonga, Robinson H. Mdegela and Eystein Skjerve
International Journal of One Health, 3: 66-76
Background: Anthrax is an infectious fatal zoonotic disease caused by Bacillus anthracis. Anthrax outbreak was confirmed in samples of wild animals following rumors of the outbreak in wild animals, livestock, and humans in Selela ward, Monduli district of Northern Tanzania. Therefore, a multi-sectorial team was deployed for outbreak response in the affected areas.
Objectives: The aim of the response was to manage the outbreak in a One Health approach and specifically: (i) To determine the magnitude of anthrax outbreak in humans, livestock, and wild animals in Selela ward, (ii) to assess the outbreak local response capacity, (iii) to establish mechanisms for safe disposal of animal carcasses in the affected areas, and (iv) to mount effective control and preventive strategies using One Health approach in the affected areas.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional field survey using: (i) Active searching of suspected human cases at health facilities and community level, (ii) physical counting and disposal of wild animal carcasses in the affected area, (iii) collection of specimens from suspected human cases and animal carcasses for laboratory analysis, and (iv) meetings with local animal and human health staff, political, and traditional leaders at local levels. We analyzed data by STATA software, and a map was created using Quantum GIS software.
Results: A total of 21 humans were suspected, and most of them (62%) being from Selela ward. The outbreak caused deaths of 10 cattle, 26 goats, and three sheep, and 131 wild animal carcasses were discarded the majority of them being wildebeest (83%). Based on laboratory results, three blood smears tested positive for anthrax using Giemsa staining while two wildebeest samples tested positive and five human blood samples tested negative for anthrax using quantitative polymerase chain reaction techniques. Clinical forms of anthrax were also observed in humans and livestock which suggest that wild animals may contribute as reservoir of anthrax which can easily be transmitted to humans and livestock.
Conclusion: The rapid outbreak response by multi-sectoral teams using a One Health approach managed to contain the outbreak. The teams were composed of animal and human health experts from national to village levels to control the outbreak. The study testifies the importance of multi-sectoral approach using One Health approach in outbreak preparedness and response.
Keywords: anthrax outbreak, human – livestock and wild animal’s interface, response, Tanzania.