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15. Molecular characterization of pathogenic 4/91-like and QX-like infectious bronchitis virus infecting commercial poultry farms in Indonesia
Michael H. Wibowo, Teridah E. Ginting and Widya Asmara
Veterinary World, 12(2): 277-287
Background and Aim: Existing data on the characteristics of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) gathered throughout Indonesia have been recognized to indicate variants similar to globally distributed vaccine strains. Despite past and current intensive vaccination programs, IBV infections in the country's poultry industry have not been effectively controlled. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the genotype of several isolates based on partial S1 gene sequences. In particular, the investigation is directed to focus on layer chickens in actively vaccinated farms indicating IBV symptoms.
Materials and Methods: Samples were isolated from ten different layer chicken flocks experiencing respiratory problem, drops in egg production, and a "penguin-like" stance, which were collected from commercial poultry farms in Central Java and Yogyakarta regions, Indonesia, within the periods of 2012-2018. Fragment of the S1 gene of IBV sampled from actively vaccinated commercial poultry farms was amplified using primer 5'-aca tgg taa ttt ttc aga tgg-3' (forward) and 5'-cag att gct tac aac cac c-3' (reverse) with the length of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) product at 383 bp. The sequence of samples was then compared with the sequence of reference S1 gene nucleotides of IBV from NCBI GenBank database. The amino acid analysis and multiple alignment sequence were conducted using Mega X.
Results: During necropsy, enlargement of the oviduct and swollen kidney were observed. Reverse transcription-PCR diagnosis of their 383 bp S1 gene showed that all samples were IBV positive. Phylogenetic analysis of the S1 gene discovered seven samples to be clustered as 4/91-like strains. Meanwhile, the remaining three samples were grouped in QX-like strain cluster.
Conclusion: This study is a pioneering report providing molecular evidence of pathogenic QX-like and 4/91-like strains circulating in Indonesia. Findings discovered, in this study, strongly suggested the importance of improving protections by available IBV vaccines through updated circulating strain clusters. It is critical to ensure the delivery of an effective control measurement of and vaccination protocols against IBV infections in the country's commercial poultry industry in particular and worldwide in general.
14. Stimulation of non-specific immunity, gene expression, and disease resistance in Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758), by the methanolic extract of the marine macroalga, Caulerpa scalpelliformis
Omita Yengkhom, Konda Subramanian Shalini, P. A. Subramani and R. Dinakaran Michael
Veterinary World, 12(2): 271-276
Aim: The objective of the present study was to test the immunostimulating potential of marine macroalga, Caulerpa scalpelliformis, in terms of non-specific immune responses, gene expression, and disease resistance of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758).
Materials and Methods:O. niloticus was injected intraperitoneally with three different doses of methanol extract of C. scalpelliformis (CSME) (2 mg/kg, 20 mg/kg, or 200 mg/kg body weight), or MacroGardTM(commercial immunostimulant, positive control, and 20 mg/kg body weight), or distilled water (untreated control). In one set of fish, 5 days post-injection, serum lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, and antiprotease activities were assayed. 24 h after injection, gene expression was analyzed in a separate set of fish. To another set of fish, 1 week post-administration of the products, fish were challenged with lethal dose 50 (LD50) dose of a live virulent pathogen, Aeromonas hydrophila and subsequent resistance to it was noted in terms of cumulative percent mortality.
Results: CSME increased serum lysozyme, myeloperoxidase, and antiprotease activities. There was an increase in the expression of lysozyme gene in the spleen of treated fish. Mid dose of CSME caused the minimum mortality of 10% (consequent relative percentage survival = 73) which is comparable to that of the positive control.
Conclusion: CSME is considered to have the potential to be developed into an immunostimulant for finfish aquaculture.
13. A preliminary molecular survey of Babesia divergens and first evidence of Theileria annulata in cattle from Saudi Arabia
Mohamed W. Ghafar and Sayed A. M. Amer
Veterinary World, 12(2): 266-270
Background and Aim:Babesia divergens causes human babesiosis in Europe where the parasite utilizes cattle as animal reservoir and Ixodes ricinus as tick vector. Importation of infected animals and passive carriage of infected ticks through migratory birds can lead to tick/pathogen geographic expansion and emergence of diseases in naive land. Given the information that Saudi Arabia imports cattle from the European countries and that two global bird flyways pass through the country geographic coordinates, we speculate that B. divergens might be introduced into the Kingdom. Therefore, the aim of this preliminary study was to molecularly detect and characterize B. divergens and other piroplasms (including Theileria spp.) in cattle from Taif district, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples from 20 cattle residing Taif district were collected, and polymerase chain reaction tested using wide and species-specific primers. Amplicons from a positive genus-wide reaction were purified, sequenced, and analyzed. Phylogenetic trees were constructed, and similarity to existing GenBank zoonotic piroplasms was also assessed.
Results: All samples were negative for B. divergens, and only one sample proved positive for Theileria annulata in a wide reaction. Phylogeny clustered our strain with T. annulata from Spanish dog and another one detected in a cow from France. BLAST analysis showed genetic distance from zoonotic piroplasms with identity ranged from 88% to 91%.
Conclusion: Although B. divergens was not detected, we are not able to rule out or affirm the existence of the pathogen in the country. On the other hand, identifying T. annulata strain with a southern European origin strongly supports our speculation that bovine zoonotic Babesia might be introduced into KSA. This study is not only the first molecular survey of B. divergens but also the first report of the molecular identity of T. annulata in Saudi Arabia. A national-wide bovine and tick surveillance are needed to further prove our speculation.
Keywords:Babesia divergens, cattle, molecular, Saudi Arabia, Theileria annulata.
12. Antibiotic resistance: A cross-sectional study on knowledge, attitude, and practices among veterinarians of Haryana state in India
Thulasiraman Parkunan, Manju Ashutosh, Bharathy Sukumar, Jatinder Singh Chera, Sendhil Ramadas, B. Chandrasekhar, S. Ashok Kumar, Rachana Sharma, M. Santhosh Kumar and Sachinandan De
Veterinary World, 12(2): 258-265
Aim: The current study aimed to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices pertaining to antibiotic usage among the field veterinarians who serve as nodal officers playing a crucial role in disseminating knowledge to the farmers regarding livestock management practices in India.
Materials and Methods: A pilot study was conducted in which 106 of the 173 field veterinarians of Haryana, India, agreed to contribute through their valuable participation in the study. The collected data were critically analyzed by simple descriptive statistics, and the responses were ranked using Garrett's ranking method.
Results: Our study found that most of the clinicians were aware of the fundamental clinical aspects of antibiotic resistance (AR), i.e., the general causes and transmission of resistance, response during treatment failure, and safe disposal of hospital waste. Further, implementation of "antibiotic stewardship" (rational/responsible use of antibiotics) and interruption of AR transmission by means of cross-kingdom pathogens are two ways to restrict the spread of resistant pathogens which were not in the clinical purview of majority of the clinicians. This highlights a lack of awareness and scope of improving clinician's knowledge pertaining to AR. Moreover, we got to know the methodology adopted by farmers for disposal of infected milk from diseased udders as well as their attitude toward diseased and unproductive animals.
Conclusion: This study provides snippets of the current animal husbandry practices prevalent at the field level which would assist to plug in the gaps of knowledge regarding AR among the veterinarians as well as the general public and serve to reduce its deleterious impacts in Indian animal farming as well as in the world through the concept of "One World, One Health."
11. Alteration in behavior of rat after chronic exposure to acetamiprid
Samiran Mondal, Saktipada Pradhan and Sunit K. Mukhopadhayay
Veterinary World, 12(2): 254-257
Background and Aim: Acetamiprid is a chemical of neonicotinoid group which binds with nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) and alters the brain function. The present study was taken up to enlight the understanding of nociception behavior in Sprague Dawley (SD) rat after multiple exposures to acetamiprid.
Materials and Methods: For experiment purpose, a total of 48 SD rats were divided into four dose groups having 12 animals each. Group I was control group received only distilled water. Group II, Group III, and Group IV were treated with acetamiprid at a dose rate of 5, 20, and 40 mg/kg body weight, respectively. Rats were tested in induced pain by formalin injection and tail flick test.
Results: The flinch counts in formalin-induced pain in acetamiprid-treated rat were reduced in a dose-dependent manner, whereas, in tail flick test, no such altered pain behavior was observed in treated group compared to control animals.
Conclusion: Acetamiprid alters the centralized nociception through nAChR but could not trigger the associated signal to inhibit the nociception peripherally.
10. Morphology and morphometry of adult nematodes on Sumatran elephants (Elephas maximus sumatranus) in Way Kambas National Park area, Indonesia
Rahmania Prahardani, Lintang Winantya Firdausy, Yanuartono and Wisnu Nurcahyo
Veterinary World, 12(2): 249-253
Background and Aim: Worms from nematodes are the most numerous and the most detrimental in elephants. Most adult worms are located in the digestive tract. Nematode infection is at higher risk in young elephants, which caused several cases such as anemia, hypoalbuminemia, enteritis, and even death. This study aimed to determine the morphology and morphometry of adult nematodes on Sumatran elephants in Way Kambas National Park area.
Materials and Methods: Nematode samples were obtained from Sumatran elephants' feces (Elephas maximus sumatranus) in Way Kambas National Park, Lampung Province, after being given Kalbazen® containing albendazole 1000 mg at a dose of 10 mg/kg by the veterinarian in charge of the National Park area. For the morphological and morphometric examinations, we used an Olympus BX 51 microscope equipped with Olympus DP 12 camera and were conducted at the Parasitology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universitas Gadjah Mada. The scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis was carried out at the Biology Research Center of the Indonesian Institute of Sciences (Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia).
Results: The results of macroscopic observations of the obtained nematodes showed that the nematodes which were found have the characteristics of round, slim, and white color. The size of a female worm was larger than a male worm. Microscopic examination in four anterior papillae indicated that the dorsal lobe in the copulatory bursa was longer than lateral lobe. The result of inspection with the SEM showed a leaf crown consisting of 10 elements, a pair of amphids laterally, and two pairs of papilla in a submedian region.
Conclusion: Based on our morphology and morphometry examinations of adult nematodes in Sumatran elephant (E. maximus sumatranus) in Way Kambas National Park area, the adult nematodes which were found are species of Quilonia travancra.
9. Analysis of bacterial contamination and antibiotic residue of beef meat from city slaughterhouses in East Java Province, Indonesia
Koesnoto Soepranianondo, Dhandy Koesoemo Wardhana, Budiarto and Diyantoro
Veterinary World, 12(2): 243-248
Aim: This research aimed to analyze the presence of microbial contamination and antibiotic residue in beef meat from city slaughterhouses in East Java Province, Indonesia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 40 samples from city slaughterhouses were used in this study. The tests for microbial contamination used several methods including total plate count (TPC), most probable number of Escherichia coli, detection of Staphylococcus aureus using Mannitol Salt Agar media, Salmonella spp. detection using Bismuth Sulfite Agar media and Triple Sugar Iron Agar media, and detection of the antibiotic residue by screening tests.
Results: Most of the samples were contaminated with E. coli (32.5% positive samples) and S. aureus (20.0% positive samples). The mean values of TPC and S. aureus contamination were lower than the maximum limit of contamination, which were 41.58 CFU/g and 13.93 CFU/g, respectively, while the mean value of E. coli contamination was 27.03 CFU/g which was higher than the maximum limit. A low frequency of TPC (5% positive samples) and Salmonella spp. contamination (2.5% positive samples) was found in meat samples. Meat samples from two of the surveyed slaughterhouses were tested positive for antibiotic residue and six of the 40 samples (15%) were also tested positive for the antibiotic residue.
Conclusion: It was concluded that most of the microbial contamination in beef meat from city slaughterhouses was below the maximum limit of contamination and only two slaughterhouses were found antibiotic residues in the meat samples.
Keywords: antibiotic residue, beef meat, city slaughterhouse, microbial contamination.