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25. Effects of rations containing formaldehyde-protected soybean meal on meat production in Kacang goats
Retno Adiwinarti, I. Gede Suparta Budisatria, K. Kustantinah, R. Rusman and Edwin Indarto
Veterinary World, 12(6): 890-895
Aim: This study aimed to investigate effects of rations containing formaldehyde-protected soybean meal on meat production in Kacang goats.
Materials and Methods: Fourteen yearling Kacang bucks, weighing 15.8-19.8 kg, were arranged in a completely randomized design. The treatments included a control (PSBM0): 100% untreated SBM; PSBM50: 50% untreated SBM + 50% formaldehyde-protected SBM; and PSBM100: 100% formaldehyde-protected SBM.
Results: The goats disliked the protected SBM. Therefore, differences in their intakes were reflected in their average daily gain (ADG). The ADG and slaughtered weight of the control group were the highest, while those of the PSBM100 and PSBM50 groups were similar. The carcass weights and meat production of the control group were higher than those of the PSBM50 group, but the retained protein to the meat conversion ratio of the PSBM50 group was lower than that of the control. The carcass percentages were similar between the treatments.
Conclusion: The retained protein to meat conversion ratio of Kacang goats fed with 50% formaldehyde-protected SBM showed the lowest value, indicating that these rations efficiently produced meat in the carcass.
Keywords: carcass, chevon quality, daily gain, Kacang goat, soybean meal.
24. A sensitive serodiagnostic tool for the detection of active infection of zoonotic visceral and nasopharyngeal linguatulosis
Marwa M. Attia, Elshaimaa Ismael and Nagla M. K. Saleh
Veterinary World, 12(6): 883-889
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the different serological techniques for early diagnosis of acute concurrent infections with linguatulosis in the definitive host (dogs) and an intermediate host (goats). This evaluation compared between the gold standard (GS) test (GS; examination of nasal and fecal samples in dogs and examination of lymph nodes in goats), sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA), and indirect ELISA.
Materials and Methods: Fifty goats and fifty dogs were examined for the presence of Linguatula serrata nymphs and adults, respectively, besides the collection of blood samples from the examined animals for serologic testing.
Results: In goats; GS, S-ELISA, and indirect ELISA showed positivity in 32 (64%), 28 (56%), and 39 (78%) samples, respectively. In dogs; GS, S-ELISA, and indirect ELISA showed positivity in 25 (50%), 25 (50%), and 30 (60%) samples, respectively. S-ELISA displayed significant higher agreement with the GS test (≥0.83) than indirect ELISA (≤0.67) in both hosts. Infection with linguatulosis showed significant relation with the age of goats and dogs and the sex of goats (p<0.05).
Conclusion: S-ELISA displayed more sensitivity and specificity for the detection of concurrent infections with linguatulosis in both dogs and goats than indirect ELISA, which could detect the prior infections. Similarly, these assays could be used for diagnosis of concurrent infections with linguatulosis in human, especially the chronic ones.
23. In vitro and in vivoAreca catechu crude aqueous extract as an anthelmintic against Ascaridia galli infection in chickens
Wida Wahidah Mubarokah, Wisnu Nurcahyo, Joko Prastowo and Kurniasih Kurniasih
Veterinary World, 12(6): 877-882
Aim: Intestinal parasites cause severe diseases at poultry farms, especially in developing countries, including Indonesia. Infections cause significant decreases in productivity at poultry farms. Ascaridia galli is a common nematode found in chickens with a prevalence of up to 92%. This study evaluates the in vitro and in vivo effects of Areca catechu crude aqueous extract (AAE) as an anthelmintic against A. galli.
Materials and Methods: In the in vitro study, already-infected slaughtered chickens were collected from local slaughterhouses in Yogyakarta. The chicken intestines were carefully examined and transported to the Parasitological Laboratory of Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta. A. galli was collected from the intestines and put into a Petri dish containing 0.62% saline solution. Sixty A. galli individuals were soaked in different concentrations of the AAE for 3-6 h. The number of deceased A. galli was recorded by ascertaining whether they had ceased movement using a stereo microscope. The morphological characteristics of the parasites were studied. The in vivo study used 40 female chickens that were 1.5 months old and infected with the eggs of A. galli. Approximately 3000 infective eggs were found in each chicken. There were four treatment groups; Group A served as the control and was treated with Aquadestilata, Group B was treated with 26 mg/ml of AAE, Group C was treated with 79 mg/ml of AAE, and Group D was treated with 50 mg/ml of pyrantel pamoate. The AAE was applied using a pipette for 14 days. The observed parameters include the effect of the treatments on hematology, body weight (BW), and the number of A. galli eggs within each gram of fecal matter.
Results: The AAE damaged the morphology, including the anterior end, posterior end, and vulva, of A. galli in vitro. The tegument of the anterior and posterior ends was slightly rougher, wrinkled, and damaged. The vulva and spicule ducts were irregular and indistinct. The average eggs per gram (EPG) in the untreated control increased in vivo from 1450±355.90 to 1975±325.96. The average EPG decreased from 1485±386.62 to 0±0.00 during 14 days of treatment of 79 mg/ml of AAE. The mean BW gain in the treated chickens was significantly (p<0.5) higher than the control. The treatment with 79 mg/ml of AAE increased the total erythrocyte count, total leukocyte count, hemoglobin, and packed cell volume values in the chickens.
Conclusion: AAE can cause morphological changes and subsequent death in adult A. galli in vitro and effectively decrease ascariasis severity in chickens, therefore increasing overall BW in vivo.
Keywords:Areca catechu crude aqueous extract, Ascaridia galli, chickens, in vitro, in vivo.
22. Protective effects of honey by bees (Apis dorsata) on decreased cortical thickness and bone impact strength of ovariohysterectomized rats as models for menopause
Ira Sari Yudaniayanti, Hardany Primarizky, Lianny Nangoi and Gandul Atik Yuliani
Veterinary World, 12(6): 868-876
Aim: This study aimed to determine the potential of honey as anti-osteoporosis by evaluating its effectiveness in increasing bone impact strength and cortical thickness, through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination.
Materials and Methods: Forty-five female rats at 3 months of age, weighing 150-200 g were used in the study. They were placed in individual cages and adapted to food and environment for 10 days. On the 11th day, after the animals were adapted for 10 days, the animals were randomly divided into five treatment groups (n=9): Sham operation group (SH); ovariohysterectomized (OVX) group with no treatment; OVX with treatment Apis dorsata 1 g/kg BW (AD-1); OVX with treatment A. dorsata 2 g/kg BW (AD-2); and OVX with treatment A. dorsata 4 g/kg BW (AD-3). Furthermore, those nine rats in each treatment group were divided into three groups. Three of them were observed at months 1st, 2nd, and 3rd so that in each observation taken three rats in each treatment group. At the end of the study, the rats were euthanized and necropsy for taking their second femoral bone, i.e. dexter region for examining their bone impact strength, while the sinister region was used for measure the cortical thickness of the femoral diaphysis and examining their bone microarchitecture using SEM analysis.
Results: Based on results of the ANOVA test, the cortical thickness measurements of femoral diaphyseal can be seen that from month 1 to month 3 the lowest result was found in the group of rats that were OVX-I. Meanwhile, the highest result was found in the group of rats that were not OVX (SH-III). It was significantly different from the other treatment groups (p<0.05). The groups of rats were OVX with honey supplementation at doses of 2 g/kg BW had shown an increasing pattern in the cortical bone thickness from month 1 to month 3. Even on the observation of the 3rd month, the cortical bone thickness in the AD-2 (AD-2-III) group was not significantly different (p>0.05) from that in the group of rats was not OVX in month 1 (SH-I). The results of the bone impact strength measurement from month 1 to month 3 indicated that the groups of rats were OVX without the administration of honey supplements had the lowest value. The highest bone impact strength was found in the group of rats that was not OVX, but not significantly different (p>0.05) with the groups of rats that were OVX administered honey supplement with a dose of 2 g/kg BW (AD-2) and 4 g/kg BW (AD-3).
Conclusion: The supplement of honey A. dorsata at doses of 2 g/kg BW in the group of rats was that OVX can inhibit the decreasing of the cortical bone thickness and repair damage in microarchitecture to generate bone impact strength. As a result, bones are not easily broken.
21. Potency of probiotics Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus casei to improve growth performance and business analysis in organic laying hens
Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari, Teguh Bagus Pribadi, Anam Al Arif, Soeharsono Soeharsono, Sri Hidanah, Nenny Harijani, Rifqy Najwan, Khoirul Huda, Hana Cipka Pramuda Wardhani, Nabil Fariz Noor Rahman and Andreas Berny Yulianto
Veterinary World, 12(6): 860-867
Aim: This study aimed to determine the use of probiotics Bifidobacterium spp. and Lactobacillus casei as alternative antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) to improve growth performance and business analysis.
Materials and Methods: This study used a completely randomized factorial design. The first factor was the time of administration (1, 2, 3, and 4 weeks) and the second was the use of probiotics (control without probiotics; 0.1% AGP and 0.5% Bifidobacterium spp. + 0.25% L. casei). One hundred and eighty laying hens (Lohmann strain), of 30 weeks old, were divided into 12 treatment groups, composed of five replicates, each consisting of three laying hens.
Results: The results showed that using 0.5% Bifidobacterium spp. + 0.25% L. casei in weeks 1 and 2 showed the lowest feed intake (FI) (112.11-112.19 g/day), the highest egg weight (60.28 g) in the 1st week, the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR) (2.21-2.23), and highest feed efficiency (44.75-45.25%) for 3-4 weeks, and the highest hen-day production (86.66-86.90%) for 3-4 weeks and the most profitable business analysis (IDR. 30,353).
Conclusion: Based on the results, it can be concluded that the addition of 0.5% Bifidobacterium spp. + 25% L. casei probiotics can be used as a substitute for AGP; it can reduce the FI and FCR, increasing egg weight, feed efficiency, and hen-day production, as well as illustrating the results of the most profitable business analysis.
20. Seroprevalence and risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in rabbit of local Algerian population
Mina Henneb, Khaled Harhoura, Mohamed Amine Bekara, Safia Zenia and Miriem Aissi
Veterinary World, 12(6): 855-859
Aim: The objective of this investigation was to determine the seroprevalence and identify the risk factors of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the rabbit of the local Algerian population from five districts of Northern Algeria.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples of 350 rabbits were collected and analyzed for the presence of anti-T. gondii immunoglobulin G antibodies using the indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Additional data concerning the farms and management practices were obtained through a questionnaire used in surveys and interviews.
Results: The overall seroprevalence was 14.6% (51/350). The seroprevalence was significantly higher in outdoor rearing farms and was linked to the presence of animals from other species on the farm. A higher seroprevalence was found in older animals compared to younger ones. No difference in seroprevalence was noted with respect to the origin or gender of animals, type of cage, feed and water sources, presence of cats in the vicinity, hygiene status, or season.
Conclusion: This study has shown that T. gondii prevalence in rabbits of the local population is relevant and may have important implications for public health in rural areas.
Keywords: Algeria, public health, rabbits, seroprevalence, Toxoplasma gondii.
19. Diabetes sepsis on Wistar rat strain (Rattus norvegicus) induced by streptozotocin and bacteria Staphylococcus aureus
Dahliatul Qosimah, Dhita Evi Aryani, Ma. Asuncion Guiang Beltran and Aulanni'am Aulanni'am
Veterinary World, 12(6): 849-854
Background and Aim: Sepsis is characterized by loss of control of the inflammatory response, which can be triggered by various microorganisms and toxic secretions. The mortality rate increases due to impaired endothelial function caused dysfunctional organ systems. Diabetes is closely related to sepsis. The study aimed to determine the method of using animal models of sepsis diabetes through a combination of streptozotocin (STZ) and Staphylococcus aureus infection based on biological marker parameters.
Materials and Methods: A total of 30 male Wistar rats of 2.5-3 months old weighing approximately 150-250 g body weight (BW) divided into six treatment groups with five replications per group were used in the study. Treatment A was negative control (healthy rats) and Treatment B was the positive control (with diabetes) where rats were given STZ dose at 45 mg/kg BW on day 8 intraperitoneally (IP). The blood glucose was measured on day 10, Treatment C was a positive control (bacteria), rats inoculated with S. aureus with a concentration of 108 CFU/mL on day 8 given IP and observed sepsis conditions on day 10th. Treatment group (D, E, and F): Rats given STZ dose at 45 mg/kg BW on day 8th by IP and measured blood glucose on day 10th, then inoculated with S. aureus with different concentrations of 105 CFU/mL, 106 CFU/mL, and 107 CFU/mL on the 10th day, respectively, and were later observed the condition of sepsis on day 12th. Data on diabetes bacteremia were quantitative used blood glucose levels, the bacterial count, and C-reactive protein (CRP) and were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance test with a confidence level of 95%. Physical examination (temperature and respiration) is qualitative.
Results: Physical examination showed that all treatments had a normal temperature, an increased pulse in Groups D, E, and F and a decrease in respiratory rate in the treatment of E and F, the bacteria found in the vital organs in all groups, and CRP levels were not significantly different at all.
Conclusion: Animal model of diabetes sepsis can be observed through a combination of pancreas damage, and respiration, the bacteria in the vital organs.