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18. Slaughter of pregnant goats for meat at Nsukka slaughterhouse and its economic implications: A public health concern
Onyinye Josephine Okorie-Kanu, Ekene Vivienne Ezenduka, Christian Onwuchokwe Okorie-Kanu, Chidiebere Ohazurike Anyaoha, Chukwuebuka Anselm Attah, Toochukwu Eleazar Ejiofor and S. Onyinye Onwumere-Idolor
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1139-1144
Aim: This study was conducted to determine the incidence rate of the slaughter of pregnant goats in Nsukka slaughterhouse, which has become a major cruel occurrence in Nigeria, as well as it's economic and public health implications.
Materials and Methods: All the goats slaughtered at Nsukka slaughterhouse over a period of 3 months (February-April, 2017) were screened. The data collected were: total number of goats slaughtered, age, breed and sex of goats slaughtered, pregnancy status of the goats, and sex of the fetuses observed, and gestational age of the fetuses estimated by crown-rump length.
Results: In the 3-month study, a total of 684 goats were slaughtered, of which 617 (90.2%) were females. 364 (59%) of the females slaughtered were pregnant, and more than 80% of the gestations were in the second and third trimesters. Of 661 fetuses recorded, 320 (48.3%) were males, and 341 (51.7%) were females with 438 (66.3%) predominantly twins. At the cost of ₦ 6,000 ($16) and ₦ 8,000 ($20) for male and female kids, respectively, a total of ₦ 4,648,000 ($11,620) was lost in just one slaughterhouse in 3 months.
Conclusion: This study shows that there is a high rate of slaughter of pregnant goats in Nsukka slaughterhouse with a tremendous economic loss, and most chevon sold in Nsukka are unwholesome and of low meat quality.
17. Seasonal changes of rumen and intestine morphology of the Qinghai yak (Bos grunniens)
Bao A. Ding, Shuang Q. Ma, Zong R. Li, Xi L. Li and Stephen R. Madigosky
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1135-1138
Aim: The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of seasonal changes in grass quality on the ruminal and intestinal morphology of male Qinghai yaks.
Materials and Methods: A total of four male yaks with the same age of 4 years old from each season (summer and winter) were randomly selected and slaughtered to determine the effect of different season on intestinal morphology of yak in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.
Results: The histological analysis shows that male yak has the longer and wider papillae in rumen in green season. The height of villi in duodenum and jejunum was significantly higher in green season, and the width of villi on duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and rectum was significantly wider in green season. Surface area of villi and crypt depth in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum was significantly larger and deeper in green season. Submucosa thickness of duodenum, jejunum, ileum, and rectum was significantly thicker in green season. The muscular thickness of jejunum, cecum, and rectum was significantly thicker in green season.
Conclusion: According to this research, we found that the seasonal changes of ruminal and intestinal morphology of yak showed different length and width papillae, villi, crypt, and submucosa. This fact was confirmed the functional advantages resulting from the ability to successfully adapt to a dry climate and diets, flat, open, and cold grassland may allow yak to overcome both water shortage and energy deficiency in winter.
Keywords: green grass, intestine, morphology, Qinghai yak, rumen.
16. Potency of lactic acid bacteria isolated from balinese bovine (Bos sondaicus) intestinal waste from slaughterhouse to improve nutrient content of wheat pollard as animal feedstuff by fermentation process
Widya Paramita Lokapirnasari, Adriana Monica Sahidu, Koesnoto Soepranianondo, Agus Supriyanto, Andreas Berny Yulianto and Anam Al Arif
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1127-1134
Aim: The purpose of this study was to know the genetic and biochemical identification of isolated lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from Balinese bovine (Bos sondaicus) intestinal waste, acidity, and ox bile salts and to inhibit the growth pathogen of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and the potential of those isolated to improve nutrient value of wheat pollard as animal feed ingredient by fermentation process.
Materials and Methods: This research was divided into three stages. The first stage, isolated LAB were obtained from the bovine intestines at a slaughterhouse in Indonesia. Small intestinal samples were collected from 10 healthy Balinese beef cattle (B. sondaicus). The isolated LAB were identified by VITEK 2, polymerase chain reaction, and 16S rDNA. The basic local alignment search tool (BLAST) was performed to determine the phylogenetic tree. The second stage, the LAB were screened for their tolerance at pH 2, 3, and 4; bile salt, and antagonistic to enteric pathogen. In the third stage, to determine the potency of this isolate to increase nutrient content of wheat pollard by facultative anaerobe fermentation for 3 and 5 days.
Results: The result of the first stage showed that the isolate could be identified as Lactobacillus casei WPL 315. The result of the second stage showed that the isolate tolerance to low pH (pH 2, pH 3, and pH4) for 90 min and 24 h, and this isolate had viability tolerance in 0.3% bile salt. The isolate can inhibit S. aureus and E. coli. The result of the third stage by proximate analysis showed that crude protein increased by 23.08% after fermentation, while crude fiber decreased by 61.24% on the level 0.5% L. casei subsp. WPL 315 in the 3-day fermentation.
Conclusion: Based on the results, it showed that L. casei WPL 315 derived from indigenous intestinal Balinese beef cattle (B. sondaicus) has tolerant characteristic on acidity and ox bile salts, has antagonistic effect against E. coli and S. aureus, and has the ability to increase crude protein and decrease crude fiber content of wheat pollard. It would be interesting to determine whether the strain has a probiotic candidate.
15. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of the native rabbits in Middle Egypt
El-Sayed Mahfouz Abdel-Kafy, Sahar Saad El-Din Ahmed, Amira El-keredy, Neama Ibrahim Ali, Sherif Ramadan and Ahmed Farid
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1120-1126
Aim: Native rabbits in smallholder system are considered as important genetic resources, and the present study was aimed to study the genetic and phenotypic characterization and detection of the maternal origin of the native rabbit populations located at the Middle of Egypt.
Materials and Methods: A survey of native rabbit populations was conducted in three governorates (Fayum [FY], Beni Suef [BN], and El Menia [MN]). The phenotypic characterization of rabbits included the profile body of the head, ears, eyes, neck, and legs and the coat colors. The blood samples were collected for genetic characterization based on mitochondrial (cytochrome b) and the microsatellite markers.
Results: The phenotypic characterization of the body parts in the three populations was almost similar. The body weight of the mature rabbits in MN government was significantly heaviest, and the measurements for the main body parts (body length, chest circumference, and abdominal girth) were the highest compared to the two populations. The results of mitochondrial (cytochrome b) analysis revealed that the rabbits from the three governments belonged to lineage A except one animal was recorded as lineage G from MN's rabbit population. The results of the microsatellite markers revealed that the genetic diversity between the three populations showed genetic interferences; however, a closer genetic relationship was observed between BN and MN than FY. The majority of the genetic diversity was the individual variability.
Conclusion: The mitochondrial lineage A is the major lineage in rabbit populations in the area of the Middle Egypt understudy. The genetic populations' structure is the interferences among the three populations. A large-scale survey should be done on native rabbit populations for the sustainable management and conservation of the local breeds' genetic resources.
14. Molecular and immunological characterization of Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma excavatum(Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of Q fever in camels
Hend H. A. M. Abdullah, Eman E. El-Shanawany, Sobhy Abdel-Shafy, Hala A. A. Abou-Zeina and Eman H. Abdel-Rahman
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1109-1119
Background and Aim: Q fever Coxiella burnetii is a worldwide zoonotic disease, and C. burnetii was detected in mammals and ticks. Ticks play an important role in the spread of C. burnetii in the environment. Therefore, the aims of this study were to detect Q fever C. burnetii in camels and ixodid ticks by molecular tools and identification of Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma excavatum using molecular and immunological assays.
Materials and Methods: A total of 113 blood samples from camels and 190 adult ticks were investigated for the infection with C. burnetii by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing the targeting IS30A spacer. The two tick species H. dromedarii and H. excavatum were characterized molecularly by PCR and sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) and cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (CO1) genes and immunologically by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot.
Results: A total of 52 camels (46%) were positive for Q fever infection. Only 10 adult ticks of H. dromedarii were infected with C. burnetii. The IS30A sequence was around 200 bp in length for C. burnetii in H. dromedariiticks with a similarity of 99% when compared with reference data in GenBank records. The length of 16S rDNA and CO1 was 440 and 850 bp, respectively, for both H. dromedarii and H. excavatum. The phylogenetic status of H. dromedarii was distant from that of H. excavatum. SDS-PAGE revealed seven different bands in the adult antigens of either H. dromedarii or H. excavatum with molecular weights ranged from 132.9 to 17.7 KDa. In western blot analyses, the sera obtained from either infested camel by H. dromedarii or infested cattle by H. excavatum recognized four immunogenic bands (100.7, 49.7, 43.9, and 39.6 kDa) in H. dromedariiantigen. However, the infested camel sera identified two immunogenic bands (117 and 61.4 kDa) in H. excavatum antigen. Furthermore, the sera collected from cattle infested by H. excavatum recognized three immunogenic bands (61.4, 47.3, and 35 kDa) in H. excavatum antigen.
Conclusion: Molecular analyses indicated that both camels and ticks could be sources for infection of animals and humans with Q fever. Furthermore, the molecular analyses are more accurate tools for discriminating H. dromedarii and H. excavatum than immunological tools.
Keywords: 16S ribosomal DNA, Coxiella burnetii, cytochrome oxidase subunit-1, hard ticks, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction, sequence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot.
13. Prevalence and risk factors for Salmonella spp. contamination in broiler chicken farms and slaughterhouses in the northeast of Algeria
Samia Djeffal, Bakir Mamache, Rachid Elgroud, Sana Hireche and Omar Bouaziz
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1102-1108
Aim: The aim of this study was to provide information on the prevalence of Salmonella serotypes and to identify risk factors for Salmonella spp. contamination in broiler chicken farms and slaughterhouses in the northeast of Algeria.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted on 32 poultry farms and five slaughterhouses in the province of Skikda (northeastern Algeria). A questionnaire was answered by the poultry farmers and slaughterhouses' managers. Biological samples (cloacal swabs, droppings, caeca, livers, and neck skins) and environmental ones (water, feed, surface wipes, rinsing water, and sticking knife swabbing) were taken to assess the Salmonella contamination status.
Results: Nearly 34.37% of the poultry farms and all the slaughterhouses were contaminated with Salmonella. The isolated Salmonella strains belonged to two major serotypes: Kentucky and Heidelberg followed by Enteritidis, Virginia, and Newport. There was an evident heterogeneous distribution of serotypes in poultry farms and slaughterhouses. Only one factor (earth floor) was significantly associated with Salmonellacontamination in poultry houses (p<0.05).
Conclusion: A high prevalence rate of Salmonella contamination was found in poultry farms and slaughterhouses in Skikda region. These results showed the foremost hazardous role of poultry production in the spread and persistence of Salmonella contamination in the studied region.
12. A cross-sectional study of the welfare of calves raised in smallholder dairy farms in Meru, Kenya, 2017
Emily K. Kathambi, John A. Van Leeuwen, George K. Gitau and Shawn L. McKenna
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1094-1101
Aim: This study was aimed at describing calf comfort and determining the individual and pen level factors that affect comfort status (in particular, calf leg hygiene scores) of smallholder dairy farms in Meru County, Kenya.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out on 52 calves that were up to 1 year old in 38 dairy farms (mean±standard deviation: Herd size=1.71±0.7 milking cows and milk production=6.7±3.1 L/day) in Meru, Kenya, in 2017, with the intention to describe their comfort and determine the factors associated with leg hygiene as a critical parameter for calf comfort assessment. Calves' biodata, health status, and leg hygiene were assessed, along with pen characteristics such as area, hygiene, and knee impact and knee wetness scores, while a questionnaire was administered to the farmers to gather information regarding calf housing management practices in the farm.
Results: The calves had a mean body weight of 85.2±32.8 kg and average daily weight gain of 0.50±0.45 kg per day. 71% of calves had a good body condition score (≥2.5), and the mean space allowance per calf was 2.52±1.56 m2. Approximately 75% of the calves (39/52) were kept in pens, and the rest were reared outdoors. For 39 calves kept indoors, 26% (10/39) of them had wooden or concrete floors while 74% (29/39) had dirt floors. Nearly two-thirds (62%) of indoor calves (26/39) were reared in pens with bedding, and 23% (9/39) and 33% (13/39) of the calves reared indoors were kept in pens displaying a failed knee impact test and failed knee wetness test. Indoor housed calves had an increased probability of having dirty calf legs (cleanliness score of >2.5) by 8.6 times (p=0.031), compared to outdoor-housed calves. In the final multivariable logistic regression model of 39 calves in pens, concrete or wood floors (odds ratio [OR]=7.9, p=0.047), poor body condition (OR=17.1, p=0.020) and use of bedding (OR=12.5, p=0.046) appeared to be positively correlated with dirtiness of calf legs, compared to dirt floors, good body condition, and no bedding, respectively.
Conclusion: Overall, some calf comfort aspects were covered for the majority of calves examined, but 69% of the pens were categorized as dirty, especially those with wooden or concrete floors and poor bedding management. Smallholder dairy farmers in Kenya should be trained on calf housing management to improve calf comfort and productivity.
Keywords: calf comfort, calf hygiene, dairy calves, Kenya.