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3. Mycoplasma bovis arthritis and pneumonia in calves in Jordan: An emerging disease
Wael M. Hananeh, Waleed M. Al Momani, Mustafa M. Ababneh and Sameeh M. Abutarbush
Veterinary World, 11(12): 1663-1668
Aim: Clinical, microbiological, molecular, and pathological assays were undertaken to characterize an outbreak of increasingly reported signs of unresponsive arthritis and pneumonia of Mycoplasma bovis infection in young calves in Jordan.
Materials and Methods: Clinical history of the affected bovine herd was investigated for the presence of respiratory and/ or joint problems. Two calves with such history were clinically examined and necropsied. Representative tissues were sent for microbiological, molecular, and pathological examinations for M. bovis infection.
Results: The outbreak started in a herd of 220 nursing calves, 2 months before the receiving of two calves for postmortem examination. Clinically, respiratory signs and infection of one or more joints dominated in the affected calves. The morbidity and case fatality rates were 27.27% and 61.7%, respectively. The left carpal joint was markedly swollen in both calves and exhibited necrofibrinous to granulomatous arthritis in varying degrees of severity. The anteroventral lung lobes in both calves were consistently affected and revealed multifocal to coalescing severe necrogranulomatous and fibrinopurulent bronchopneumonia. Microbiological and molecular findings confirmed the pathological examination. Furthermore, bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) was diagnosed in one calf by histopathology and polymerase chain reaction.
Conclusion: This investigation reports the first outbreak of M. bovis infection in calves located in Jordan that could occur concurrently with BVD.
2. An investigation of the effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss and Mentha piperita essential oils to improve the chemical stability of minced meat
Mojtaba Raeisi, Mohammad Hashemi, Majid Aminzare, Asma Afshari, Tayebeh Zeinali and Behrooz Jannat
Veterinary World, 11(12): 1656-1662
Background and Aim: Extending the shelf life of foods is an essential concept in food safety. Most of the time, foods deteriorate through the growth of microorganisms or oxidation process. Essential oils (EOs) derived from plant material have well-documented antioxidant and antibacterial activity. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of Zataria multiflora Boiss EO (ZEO) and Mentha piperita EO (MEO) on the chemical stability of minced meat during storage at 7°C.
Materials and Methods: Total phenolic content, β-Carotene bleaching test, ferric reducing antioxidant potential assay, and 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging activity were used to determine the antioxidant potential of EOs. Five different groups including control, ZEO 0.3%, ZEO 0.5%, MEO 0.3%, and MEO 0.5% were designed to assess the chemical stability of minced meat by measuring pH, thiobarbituric acid (TBA), total volatile base nitrogen (TVBN), and peroxide value (PV).
Results: pH did not have any significant change during storage. TBA values in the control group were significantly higher than the treatment groups, especially from the 5th day of storage. TVBN in the treatment group was significantly lower than the control group during storage. PV values in the treatment group were significantly lower than the control group during storage.
Conclusion: Results indicate that ZEO and MEO had an excellent antioxidant activity and retarded the spoilage process in minced meat.
1. Epidemiology and economic loss of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in Arak, Iran
Mohsen Arbabi, Elnaz Nezami, Hossein Hooshyar and Mahdi Delavari
Veterinary World, 11(12): 1648-1655
Aim: Fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis are important parasitic diseases worldwide, causing significant financial losses due to decrease in production and viscera condemnation in animals. We performed the current research to assess the epidemiology of these infections and determine their significance from an economic perspective in Arak, Iran.
Materials and Methods: In total, we evaluated 118,463 sheep, 207,652 goats, and 43,675 cattle through necropsic analysis at the slaughterhouses. The average weight of sheep, goat, and cattle liver was 1000, 900, and 5000 g, respectively. The average price of liver in the market was 8 USD/kg. Moreover, the elimination of fundamental nutrients and vitamins was evaluated in infected livers. The prevalence of fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis was determined. Analysis of variance test was applied for the statistical analysis, and the significance level was <0.05.
Results: In total, Fasciola hepatica and Dicrocoelium dendriticum were detected in 0.56% (confidence interval CI, 0.54-0.59) and 0.77% (CI, 0.75-0.81) of the animals, respectively (p=0.1). The annual economic loss attributed to fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis was 26698.4 and 30479.2 USD, respectively. The total economic loss was 10,880, 9079.2, and 10,520 dollars in sheep, cattle, and goats, respectively. On the other hand, financial loss resulting from fasciolosis was 7160, 6098.4, and 13,440 dollars in sheep, goats, and cattle, respectively. In addition, economic loss due to dicroceliasis was 10,880, 9079.2, and 10,520 dollars, respectively.
Conclusion: Overall, fasciolosis and dicrocoeliosis in Iran always remain common in sheep, goats, and cattle that afford major economic loss of all the country also exist in Arak province. The present study could provide basic information for further examination of liver fluke infections in Iran.
19. Antibody immunoglobulin G1 and immunoglobulin G2a responses against some cystic fluid proteins of Cysticercus bovis in Balb/c mice
I Nyoman Mantik Astawa, Ida Bagus Made Oka and I Made Dwinata
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1641-1647
Background and Aim: Immunoglobulin (Ig) G1 and IgG2a are the surrogate markers respectively for humoral and cellular immune responses of hosts against antigens including cystic fluid proteins of Cysticercus bovis. A study was conducted to investigate the IgG1 and IgG2a responses of Balb/c mice against some individual cystic fluid proteins of C. bovis in an effort to determine the roles of each protein in inducing the humoral and cellular immune responses in host.
Materials and Methods: Individual p71, p31, and p14 proteins of C. bovis were purified by separation of the proteins using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and elution of individual proteins from the gel. Six female Balb/c mice were immunized 4 times at 10-day intervals with the crude cystic fluid proteins, and sera were collected for the measurement of IgG1 and IgG2a levels against the individual proteins. Sera samples collected before the first immunization were used as negative antibody control, sera samples collected after the fourth immunization were used as positive antibody control, and crude cystic fluid protein was used as positive antigen control.
Results: All immunized mice were immune to p71, p31, p14, and crude cystic fluid proteins of C. bovis. The crude cystic fluid proteins of C. bovis induced a higher IgG2a than IgG1 level following the first and the second immunizations but switched into a higher IgG1 than IgG2a level following the fourth immunization. Protein 71 kDa (p71) induced a higher IgG2a than IgG1 level following the fourth immunization. In contrast, p14 induced a higher IgG1 than IgG2a level following the fourth immunization. Low and balance IgG1 and IgG2a levels against p31 were observed following the first to the fourth immunizations.
Conclusion: Using IgG1 and IgG2a levels as the surrogate markers, it appears that cystic fluid antigens of C. bovis induce both humoral and cellular immune responses in Balb/c mice. The p71 appears to be a better inducer of cellular immune response, whereas p14 is a better inducer of humoral immune response of mice.
18. Potential and safety tests of egg drop syndrome candidate vaccine from Medan isolate, Indonesia
Gusti Ayu Yuniati Kencana, Nyoman Suartha, I Made Kardena, Gusti Ayu Mayani Kristina Dewi, Arini Nurhandayani, Syamsidar and Kadek Karang Agustina
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1637-1640
Aim: The study was aimed to prepare and examine the potential and safety concerns of egg drop syndrome (EDS) vaccine candidate seed. The potential and safety trials of EDS Medan isolate vaccine need to be done before commercial scale of EDS vaccines are made.
Materials and Methods: The safety test of EDS candidate vaccine was tested on 4-week-old specified pathogen-free chickens in an experimentally isolated enclosure.
Results: The result of the safety test obtained 27.3 hemagglutination inhibition (HI) unit of geometric mean titer antibody post-vaccination. However, the potency test of the EDS candidate vaccine was conducted on 17-week-old laying hens. Test results of the EDS potency vaccine in layer obtained antibody titer increased in every week of blood taking with average titer of antibody: Before vaccinated was 22.9 HI unit, 1 week after vaccination was 23.7 HI unit, 2 weeks post-vaccination was 25 HI unit, and 3 weeks after vaccination was 27.3 HI units. In contrast, decreasing trend was observed in control group (unvaccinated chicken).
Conclusion: Serologically, the seed vaccine of EDS virus isolates from Medan was able to produce protective antibody titers starting in the 2nd and 3rd weeks post-vaccination.
Keywords: hemagglutination, inhibition test, Medan isolate, safety and potential test, seed of egg drop syndrome vaccine.
17. The first evidence of a new genotype of nephropathogenic infectious bronchitis virus circulating in vaccinated and unvaccinated broiler flocks in Algeria
A. Lounas, K. Oumouna-Benachour, H. Medkour and M. Oumouna
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1630-1636
Background and Aim: Avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) frequently infects broilers and is responsible for severe economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. It has also been associated with kidney damage in the broiler flocks. The aim of the present study is to determine the presence of IBV and its possible involvement in kidney damage of broiler chicks.
Materials and Methods: 14 clinically diseased broiler flocks from Western and Central Algeria were sampled and analyzed by hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) followed by phylogenic analysis.
Results: The QX (100%) and 4/91 (60%) IBV serotypes were the most prevalent in the kidney damaged broilers regardless of vaccination status. The molecular detection of avian IBV by RT-PCR identified six samples as positive, of which only two isolates were typable by sequencing. We identified a novel IBDZ13a genotype which showed 93% sequence homology to the partial-S1 gene sequence of the IB 4/91 commercial vaccine strain. Sequencing analysis characterized this virus as a novel and divergent IB 4/91 field virus with eight amino acid substitutions that might have resulted in altered immunogenicity.
Conclusion: The isolation of a new IBV strain (IBDZ13a) from vaccinated broiler flocks may explain the failure of the vaccination programs against IBV field strains. Combination of the HI test and RT-PCR indicated that the nephropathogenic IB outbreaks in broilers are related to this novel strain.
16. Effects of Artemisia herba-alba or olive leaf (Olea europaea) powder supplementation on growth performance, carcass yield, and blood biochemical parameters in broilers
Asma Ait-Kaki, Mamadou Tandiang Diaw, Fikremariam Geda and Nassim Moula
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1624-1629
Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate the effects of Artemisia herba-alba (white wormwood) or olive leaf (Olea europaea) powder supplementation on growth performance, carcass yield, and serum biochemical parameters in broilers.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from April to May 2017 in Chemini region, Northern Algeria. A total of 60 1-day-old Ross 308 male chicks were divided into three groups consisted of 10 chicks, in each of two replications. The chicks in Group 1 were fed with a standard commercial diet (SCD); Group 2 received the same SCD with 2% supplementation of A. herba-alba powder; and Group 3 received the same SCD with 2% supplementation of O. europaea powder. Growth performance was measured with body weights every 2 weeks, daily feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and carcass yield at the end of 42 days of rearing. Blood samples were collected to analyze serum glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, and total protein levels.
Results: Results showed that, at 42 days of rearing, supplementation of O. europaea and A. herba-alba significantly increased (p<0.001) mean body weight (2230.10±26.38 g and 2117.42±26.38 g, respectively, vs. 2336.66±27.88 g in chicks of Group 1), but there was no significant difference (p≥0.05) among the three diets for FCR or percentage carcass yield. Among the serum biochemical parameters, glucose was significantly affected (p<0.01) by supplementation of olive leaf powder (1.90 g/L: Group 3), compared to the SCD (2.24 g/L: Group 1) or Artemisia powder (2.05 g/L: Group 2). Moreover, the supplementation of olive leaf powder in Group 3 broilers significantly affected (p<0.05) the serum cholesterol level (0.95 g/L), compared to the control diet (1.13 g/L). There was no significant difference (p≥0.05) for the other selected serum biochemical concentrations, namely triglycerides, urea, and total protein.
Conclusion: The supplementation of Artemisia or olive leaf powder into the diet for broilers improved body weight by about 5% or 10%, respectively, at slaughter with moderate changes in blood biochemical parameters.