Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
17. Opportunities and challenges associated with fecal progesterone metabolite analysis
Innocent Damudu Peter, Abd Wahid Haron, Faez Firdaus Abdullah Jesse, Mokrish Ajat, Mark Hiew Wen Han, Wan Nor Fitri, Muhammad Sanusi Yahaya and Mohammed Saad M. Alamaary
Veterinary World, 11(10): 1466-1472
Conventionally, plasma or milk progesterone evaluations are used to determine the reproductive status of female animals. Collection of such samples is often associated with difficulties of animal handling and restraint. Measurable quantities of progesterone metabolites are found in feces of animals. Their concentrations are known to be well correlated to plasma progesterone levels and are, therefore, used as non-invasive samples for assessing reproductive function in a wide range of animal species. Although the analysis of fecal progesterone metabolites has been widely accepted in many laboratories, several factors are known to affect the results from this valuable analytical technique. Some of these factors include storage/ transportation media for fecal samples, type of solvent that is used for extraction of progesterone metabolites from feces, and the type and sensitivity of an assaying technique employed. Although fecal progesterone metabolites analysis is associated with some difficulties, it can effectively be used to monitor reproductive function in a wide range of animal species. This review aims to highlight the usefulness of fecal progesterone metabolite analysis as a non-invasive technique in monitoring reproductive function in animals. The article mainly focuses on the many opportunities and challenges associated with this analytical technique.
16. Antibiotic Susceptibility profile of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from sausages in Meknes, Morocco
Abdelaziz Ed-Dra, Fouzia Rhazi Filali, Aziz Bouymajane, Faouzia Benhallam, Abdellah El Allaoui, Abdellah Chaiba and Filippo Giarratana
Veterinary World, 11(10): 1459-1465
Background and Aim:Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common causes of foodborne disease worldwide, due to the consumption of food contaminated by their toxins. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and the antimicrobial resistance of S. aureus isolated from sausages in Meknes city of Morocco.
Materials and Methods: A total of 156 samples (Beef sausages, Turkey sausages, and Artisanal sausages "Merguez") were collected from different shopping sites (butchery, supermarket, street vendors, and weekly market "Souk") and used for the isolation of S. aureus. All the isolated strains were tested for their antimicrobials resistance to 16 antibiotics.
Results: Our results showed the presence of S. aureus in 63 samples (40.38%). Furthermore, the antimicrobial resistance study showed that 84.13% of isolated S. aureus were resistant to streptomycin, 76.20% to tetracycline, 42.86% to ampicillin, 41.27% to doxycycline, 38.1% to penicillin G, and 19.05% to chloramphenicol with the presence of 25 different phenotypic profiles. However, all isolated strains were sensitive to oxacillin, cefoxitin, gentamicin, and vancomycin.
Conclusion: The findings of this study revealed consumption of sausages as a potential risk of foodborne poisonings because of its contamination with the multi-resistant strains of S. aureus. Moreover, this contamination is related to the season, sampling sites and the origin of the raw material.
15. Occurrence of Escherichia coli carrying Shiga toxin-producing genes in buffaloes on smallholdings in Bangladesh
Mukta Das Gupta, Arup Sen and Ashutosh Das
Veterinary World, 11(10): 1454-1458
Background and Aim: Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) has emerged as significant foodborne pathogens. Ruminants are the primary reservoir of the zoonotic STEC. In Bangladesh, previous studies reported the presence of STEC in cattle, goat, and sheep; however, there is little information about STEC carriage by buffaloes. This study aimed to determine the occurrence of STEC in healthy (absence of clinical signs and symptoms) buffaloes on smallholdings in Bangladesh and to assess the antimicrobial resistance pattern of identified STEC isolates.
Materials and Methods: A total of 100 rectal swab samples were obtained from randomly selected buffaloes on 40 smallholdings in Chittagong Division, Bangladesh. Samples were subjected to bacteriological screening to identify E. coli. All E. coli isolates were examined for the presence of the Shiga toxin-producing genes - Shiga toxin 1 (stx1) and Shiga toxin 2 (stx2) using polymerase chain reaction. The antimicrobial susceptibility of identified STEC isolates was tested using the disk diffusion method.
Results: Results show that 71 fecal samples were positive for E. coli in bacteriological screening. The proportion of buffaloes harboring STEC isolates was 11% (11/100) (95% confidence interval [CI] 6.1-18.8], of which 7% (7/100) (95% CI 3.2- 13.9) and 4% (4/100) (95% CI 1.2-10.2) carried stx1 and stx2 genes, respectively. Antibiogram revealed that 91% (10/11), 73% (8/11), 55% (6/11), and 55% (6/11) STEC isolates were resistant to tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, erythromycin, and ampicillin, respectively. In contrast, 91% (10/11) STEC isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin, whereas 73% (8/11) isolates were sensitive to ceftriaxone.
Conclusion: This study highlights, for the first time, a significant proportion of fecal samples from healthy buffaloes on smallholdings in Bangladesh harboring antimicrobial-resistant STEC. Transmission of antimicrobial-resistant STEC from buffaloes to humans could pose an added risk to public health in rural Bangladesh.
14. Antibacterial effect of ozonated water against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureuscontaminating chicken meat in Wasit Province, Iraq
Manal H. G. Kanaan
Veterinary World, 11(10): 1445-1453
Background and Aim: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is one of the most recognized "superbugs" and a common cause of community-associated and nosocomial infections; furthermore, when chicken meat is considered a good growth medium for S. aureus to make a plausible vehicle to propagate MRSA, then this study was conducted to evaluate the efficiency of ozonated water (0.5 ppm) in the elimination or reduction of MRSA contaminating fresh and frozen chicken meat sold in local markets in the Wasit Province.
Materials and Methods: A total of 72 samples of fresh and frozen chicken meat were randomly collected from dissimilar native markets: Fresh chicken meat (n=32) and frozen chicken meat (n=40). Isolation and identification of MRSA isolates were conducted using standard bacteriological, biochemical, RapID™ Staph Plus System (Remel, R8311009), and latex agglutination tests such as Dry SPOT Staphytect Plus (Oxoid, DR0100M) and PBP2' Test Kit (Oxoid, DR0900A). The generation of ozone (O3) was carried out using O3 generator (A2Z/AQUA-6, USA), and its concentration (ppm) in water was determined using CHE-Mets®-Kit, USA.
Results: A total of 39 (54.2%) of 72 fresh and frozen chicken meat were positive for S. aureus; of those 39 positive samples, 13 (33.3%) were identified as MRSA. The antibiotic sensitivity test results revealed that all MRSA isolates had multiple resistance to at least four antimicrobial agents for which these isolates had 12 antibiotic resistance patterns. Results of O3 treatment in MRSA isolate contaminating 13 of both fresh and frozen chicken meat samples showed that, after treatment with ozonated water (0.5 ppm/4°C), the overall negative samples were 23.1% and 69.2% for 30 and 45 min, respectively. The decrease in the percentage of positive samples was very significant from a public health perspective. Furthermore, the antimicrobial efficacy of ozonated water (0.5 ppm) on the reduction of the MRSA count (log10 colony-forming units [CFU]/ml) was assessed in four positive samples of fresh and frozen chicken meat, and the results revealed that, after treatments, the overall reduction was 2-4 log10 (CFU/ml) after 45 min. This reduction is highly significant from a public health perspective.
Conclusion: From the data obtained from this study, it can be concluded that fresh and frozen chicken meat sold in the different markets of Wasit Province was highly contaminated by S. aureus during the study period with a total prevalence of 54.2%; among those, 33.3% were recognized as MRSA. Under the conditions described in the present study, O3 at the concentration of 0.5 ppm is highly effective in reducing the number of MRSA-positive samples and the number decreased with increased exposure time to ozonated water at the same concentration. These findings indicated that O3 treatment might constitute the basis for an alternative method to reduce meat contamination with foodborne pathogens such as MRSA.
13. Antagonistic effect of ursolic acid on Staphylococcal biofilms
J. Shiva Jyothi, Kalyani Putty, Y. Narasimha Reddy, K. Dhanalakshmi and M. A. Hannan Umair
Veterinary World, 11(10): 1440-1444
Aim: The present study was carried out to study the effect of ursolic acid (UA) as a potential anti-biofilm agent in dispersing the biofilm generated by Staphylococcus aureus isolated from milk samples of crossbred dairy cows on the day of drying. Further, in the S. aureus isolates, the presence of intracellular adherence gene locus involved in biofilm production (icaD) was investigated.
Materials and Methods: A total of 50 S. aureus strains were isolated over a period of 3 months from 200 milk samples collected from crossbred dairy cows on the day of drying. These isolates were subjected for biofilm detection by Congo red agar (CRA), microtiter plate assay (MTP), and polymerase chain reaction specific for icaD gene. The antagonistic effect of biofilm formation by UA was studied using different concentrations (30 μg/ml and 60 μg/ml) of UA and compared with the control group.
Results: Among the 50 S. aureus subjected for biofilm detection, 34 and 40 isolates were detected as biofilm agents by CRA and MTP methods, respectively. The in vitro studies on the effect of UA in inhibiting biofilm formation by S. aureus using MTP assay showed 71.5% and 48.6% inhibition at UA concentrations of 60 μg/ml and 30 μg/ml, respectively, with a significant difference (p<0.05) between the treated and untreated isolates, which was further evident by scanning electron microscopy. Interestingly, the isolates that were tested to be resistant through Antibiotic Sensitivity Test to commonly used antibiotics were found to be sensitive to all the tested antibiotics following UA treatment at both the tested concentrations. Furthermore, molecular detection of icaD gene for biofilm detection revealed that all the isolates that were positive by MTP had icaD gene.
Conclusion: Increased incidence of biofilm agents in dairy infections must be considered as an alarming situation. UA treatment significantly enhanced the sensitivity of the microbial pathogens to commonly used antibiotics. Hence, attention must be paid toward implementation of new strategies such as therapeutic regimes with a combination of antibiotic and anti-biofilm agents for effective treatment of infections in dairy farms.
12. Supplementation of whole grain flaxseeds (Linum usitatissimum) along with high cholesterol diet and its effect on hyperlipidemia and initiated atherosclerosis in Wistar albino male rats
H. Srinivasa Naik, Ch. Srilatha, K. Sujatha, B. Sreedevi and T. N. V. K. V. Prasad
Veterinary World, 11(10): 1433-1439
Background and Aim: Flaxseeds are known to have varying antihypercholesterolemic and antiatherogenic activity due to its lignan secoisolariciresinol diglucoside, alpha-linolenic acid, and omega-3 fatty acids. The beneficial effect of whole grain dietary flaxseed was evaluated experimentally in high cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed Wistar albino rats.
Materials and Methods: Male Wistar albino rats (200 g) were divided into four groups of 12 rats each. Group I rats kept as control and given basal rat chew diet, Group II as positive control for induction of hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis by addition of 1% cholesterol and 15% saturated edible oil to the 1000 g of standard rat chew diet (HCD), Group III rats fed with whole grain flaxseed powder at 7.5 g/kg of rat/day in the standard rat chew diet and kept as flaxseed control, and Group IV rats supplemented with flaxseed at 7.5 g/kg of rat/day along with HCD and maintained for 90 days.
Results: Group II rats revealed significantly (p<0.05) higher total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and very LDL-C and significantly (p<0.05) reduced levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), whereas tissue antioxidants such as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione S transferase (GST) were significantly (p<0.05) reduced, and lipid peroxidation products of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) level were nonsignificantly (p<0.05) increased in the heart and liver tissues. Flaxseeds supplementation along with HCD significantly ameliorated the serum levels of TC, TG, LDL-C, and HDL-C along with cellular antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, SOD, GPx, GR, GST, and non-significant amelioration of TBARS in the heart and liver tissues compared to Group II rats. Majority of the histopathologically initiated atherosclerotic changes in the aorta and fatty change in the liver of Group II were not observed in the flaxseed supplemented Group IV; however, interestingly proliferation of endothelial cells with new vascular channel formation in the liver and in between cardiac muscle fibers was observed in Group I and Group IV rats.
Conclusion: The present study established the hypercholesterolemia with initiated atherosclerotic lesion in the aorta but unable to establish the atheromatous plaque in the aorta. Flaxseed supplementation along with HCD showed significant antihypercholesterolemic effect and ameliorated the changes of initiated atherosclerosis in the aorta. It needs further studies to explore all the possible beneficial effects and angiogenic properties of flaxseeds in the laboratory animals and human trials.
11. In vitro antibacterial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles on multiple drug-resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli: An alternative approach for antibacterial therapy of mastitis in sheep
Myassar Alekish, Zuhair Bani Ismail, Borhan Albiss and Sara Nawasrah
Veterinary World, 11(10): 1428-1432
Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the antibacterial effects of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) and its possible alternative use for the treatment for mastitis in sheep and to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of ZnO-NPs against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli strains isolated from subclinical mastitis cases in sheep.
Materials and Methods: A total of 50 pooled milk samples were collected from ewes with subclinical mastitis. Milk samples were cultured using standard laboratory techniques, and multidrug-resistant bacterial strains were determined using the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method. The MIC and MBC of ZnO-NPs were determined against isolated multidrug-resistant S. aureus and E. coli strains using microwell dilution method.
Results: A total of 43 different bacterial isolates were recovered from milk samples of ewes affected with subclinical mastitis. Isolated strains of S. aureus and E. coli were found resistant to three or more common antibacterial agents and were used to determine the MIC and MBC of ZnO-NPs. The MIC and MBC values of ZnO-NPs were significantly lower for S. aureus than that for E. coli. The MIC and MBC of ZnO-NPs against S. aureus were 3.9 μg/ml and 7.81 μg/ml, respectively, while for E. coli, the MIC and MBC of ZnO-NPs were 31.25 μg/ml and 62.5 μg/ml, respectively.
Conclusion: Results of this study indicate the potential antibacterial effects of ZnO-NPs against multidrug-resistant S. aureus and E. coli isolated from ovine subclinical mastitis at concentrations of 3.9 μg/ml and 31.25 μg/ml, respectively.
Keywords: alternative therapy, antibiotics, mastitis, nanotechnology, sheep, zinc oxide.