Thursday, 30 June 2016

Molecular characterization and combined genotype association study of bovine cluster of differentiation 14 gene with clinical mastitis in crossbred dairy cattle

Research (Published online: 01-07-2016)
1. Molecular characterization and combined genotype association study of bovine cluster of differentiation 14 gene with clinical mastitis in crossbred dairy cattle - A. Sakthivel Selvan, I. D. Gupta, A. Verma, M. V. Chaudhari and A. Magotra
Veterinary World, 9(7): 680-684

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.680-684

Aim: The present study was undertaken with the objectives to characterize and to analyze combined genotypes of cluster of differentiation 14 (CD14) gene to explore its association with clinical mastitis in Karan Fries (KF) cows maintained in the National Dairy Research Institute herd, Karnal.
Materials and Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted using blood of randomly selected 94 KF lactating cattle by phenolchloroform method. After checking its quality and quantity, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out using six sets of reported gene-specific primers to amplify complete KF CD14 gene. The forward and reverse sequences for each PCR fragments were assembled to form complete sequence for the respective region of KF CD14 gene. The multiple sequence alignments of the edited sequence with the corresponding reference with reported Bos taurus sequence (EU148610.1) were performed with ClustalW software to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Basic Local Alignment Search Tool analysis was performed to compare the sequence identity of KF CD14 gene with other species. The restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was carried out in all KF cows usingHelicobacter pylori 188I (Hpy188I) (contig 2) and Haemophilus influenzae I (HinfI) (contig 4) restriction enzyme (RE). Cows were assigned genotypes obtained by PCRRFLP analysis, and association study was done using Chi-square (χ2) test. The genotypes of both contigs (loci) number 2 and 4 were combined with respect to each animal to construct combined genotype patterns.
Results: Two types of sequences of KF were obtained: One with 2630 bp having one insertion at 616 nucleotide (nt) position and one deletion at 1117 nt position, and the another sequence was of 2629 bp having only one deletion at 615 nt position. ClustalW, multiple alignments of KF CD14 gene sequence with B. taurus cattle sequence (EU148610.1), revealed 24 nt changes (SNPs). Cows were also screened using PCR-RFLP with Hpy188I (contig 2) and HinfI (contig 4) RE, which revealed three genotypes each that differed significantly regarding mastitis incidence. The maximum possible combination of these two loci shown nine combined genotype patterns and it was observed only eight combined genotypes out of nine: AACC, AACD, AADD, ABCD, ABDD, BBCC, BBCD, and BBDD. The combined genotype ABCC was not observed in the studied population of KF cows. Out of 94 animals, AACD combined genotype animals (10.63%) were found to be not affected with mastitis, and ABDD combined genotyped animals was observed having the highest mastitis incidence of 15.96%.
Conclusion: AACD typed cows were found to be least susceptible to mastitis incidence as compared to other combined genotypes.
Keywords: cluster of differentiation 14, combined genotypes, Helicobacter pylori 188IHaemophilus influenzae I, mastitis, single nucleotide polymorphisms.

Molecular characterization of exon 3 of caprine myostatin gene in Marwari goat

Research (Published online: 30-06-2016)
22. Molecular characterization of exon 3 of caprine myostatin gene in Marwari goat - Jai Prakash Khichar, Gyan Chand Gahlot, Vijay Kumar Agrawal, Kiran, Ajay Singh Dewna, Prakash and Mohammad Ashraf
Veterinary World, 9(6): 676-679

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.676-679

Aim: To estimate genetic variability in exon 3 of caprine myostatin gene in Marwari goats.
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 blood samples from unrelated Marwari goats were randomly collected from different villages of Bikaner (Rajasthan), India. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood using blood DNA isolation kit (Himedia Ltd.) as per manufacturer’s protocol. The quality of extracted genomic DNA was checked on 0.8% agarose gel. Specifically designed a primer set for caprine myostatin (MSTN) gene (Genebank accession no. DQ167575) was used to amplify the exon 3 region of MSTN gene in Marwari goat. The genetic variability in exon 3 of MSTN gene in Marwari goat was assessed on 8% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis to detect single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) pattern.
Results: The exon 3 of MSTN gene in Marwari goat showed two types of conformation patterns on 8% polyacrylamide gel. One of the patterns showed only two bands and was considered as genotype AA, whereas another pattern having an extra band was designated as genotype AB. The frequencies of AA and AB genotype for exon 3 region of MSTN gene were calculated as 0.90 and 0.10, respectively.
Conclusion: Low level of polymorphism was observed at exon 3 region of MSTN gene in Marwari goat through SSCP analysis. This information could be utilized in future breeding plan to exploit the unique characteristics of Marwari goat of Rajasthan.
Keywords: exon 3, Marwari goat, myostatin gene, polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism.

Wednesday, 29 June 2016

Genetic analysis of first lactation production traits in Kankrej cattle

Research (Published online: 29-06-2016)
21. Genetic analysis of first lactation production traits in Kankrej cattle - K. J. Ankuya, N. K. Pareek, M. P. Patel, B. S. Rathod, K. B. Prajapati and J. B. Patel
Veterinary World, 9(6): 672-675

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.672-675

Aim: The aim was to estimate genetic factors affecting the first lactation milk production traits in Kankrej cattle of North Gujarat.
Materials and Methods: The 475 first lactation records of Kankrej cows that were maintained at the Livestock Research Station, Sardarkrushinagar Dantiwada Agricultural University, Sardarkrushinagar, Gujarat, over a period of 35 years from 1980 to 2014 were studied. The least squares maximum likelihood program was used to estimate genetic parameters of first lactation traits. Heritability was estimated through paternal half-sib analysis in adjusted data.
Results: The heritability estimate for production traits was 0.40±0.17, 0.45±0.17, 0.35±0.18, and 0.20±0.14 for standard 300 days milk yield (F300Y), total lactation milk yield (FLY), wet average (FWA), and lactation length (FLL), respectively, in the first parity. All the genetic and phenotypic correlations among different production efficiency traits were high and positive. Genetic correlations between F300Y and FLY, FLL, and FWA were 0.80±0.20, 0.59±0.16, and 0.81±0.32,where as the phenotypic correlations were 0.969, 0.688, and 0.868, respectively. Genetic correlations of FLY with FLL and FWA were 0.60±0.13 and 0.79±0.20, whereas the phenotypic correlations were 0.777 and 0.817, respectively. Genetic and phenotypic correlation between FLL and FWA was 0.63±0.28 and 0.31, respectively.
Conclusion: The heritability estimate of all first parity lactation traits waslow to medium (0.20-0.45) indicated the scope for further improvement in this trait through selection as well as managemental practice. Higher genetic and phenotypic correlation between thefirst lactation milk production traits gives theidea that genetic gain due to selection for one trait also givesmorecorrelated response of selection for other traits which is economically advantageous.
Keywords: correlation, heritability, first parity, Kankrej cattle.

Monday, 27 June 2016

The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health

Review (Published online: 27-06-2016)
20. The detrimental effects of lead on human and animal health - Mohammed Abdulrazzaq Assi, Mohd Noor Mohd Hezmee, Abd Wahid Haron, Mohd Yusof Mohd Sabri and Mohd Ali Rajion
Veterinary World, 9(6): 660-671

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.660-671

Lead, a chemical element in the carbon group with symbol Pb (from Latin: Plumbum, meaning “the liquid silver”) and has an atomic number 82 in the periodic table. It was the first element that was characterized by its kind of toxicity. In animal systems, lead (Pb) has been incriminated in a wide spectrum of toxic effects and it is considered one of the persistent ubiquitous heavy metals. Being exposed to this metal could lead to the change of testicular functions in human beings as well as in the wildlife. The lead poising is a real threat to the public health, especially in the developing countries. Accordingly, great efforts on the part of the occupational and public health have been taken to curb the dangers of this metal. Hematopoietic, renal, reproductive, and central nervous system are among the parts of the human body and systems that are vulnerable toward the dangers following exposure to high level of Pb. In this review, we discussed the massive harmful impact that leads acetate toxicity has on the animals and the worrying fact that this harmful toxicant can be found quite easily in the environment and abundance. Highlighting its (Pb) effects on various organs in the biological systems, its economic, as well as scientific importance, with the view to educate the public/professionals who work in this area. In this study, we focus on the current studies and research related to lead toxicity in animals and also to a certain extent toward human as well.
Keywords: antioxidant, free radical, lead poisoning, oxidative stress.

Friday, 24 June 2016

Prevalence of coccidiosis among village and exotic breed of chickens in Maiduguri, Nigeria

Research (Published online: 25-06-2016)
19. Prevalence of coccidiosis among village and exotic breed of chickens in Maiduguri, Nigeria - Jallailudeen Rabana Lawal, Saleh Mohammed Jajere, Umar Isa Ibrahim, Yaqub Ahmed Geidam, Isa Adamu Gulani, Gambo Musa and Benjamin U. Ibekwe
Veterinary World, 9(6): 653-659

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.653-659

Aim: Coccidiosis is an important enteric parasitic disease of poultry associated with significant economic losses to poultry farmers worldwide. This survey was conducted from June 2014 through July 2015 with the main goal of investigating the prevalence and associated risk factors of coccidiosis among village and exotic breeds of chickens in Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: A total of 600 fecal samples from live and slaughtered birds comprising 284 young, 141, growers and 175 adult birds; 379 male and 221 female birds; 450 exotic and 150 local breeds of birds were randomly collected either as bird’s fresh droppings or cutting open an eviscerated intestine of slaughtered birds, while noting their age, sex, and breeds. Samples were analyzed using standard parasitological methods and techniques.
Results: An overall prevalence rate of 31.8% (95% confidence interval: 28.07-35.52) was obtained. Higher prevalence rates were recorded in growing birds 58.9% (50.78-67.02), female birds 35.3% (29.00-41.60), exotic birds 42.4% (37.83- 46.97), and broiler birds 68.7% (61.28-76.12). Similarly, higher infection rates were also observed among birds sampled from Mairi ward 66.7% (56.03-77.37), intensive management system 46.5% (41.61-51.39), and constructed local cages 54.0% (46.02-61.98). The difference in prevalence of coccidiosis among age groups, breeds, among exotic breeds, sampling locations, husbandry management systems, and litter management systems was statistically significant (<0.0001). However, no significant difference (p>0.05) of infection rates was observed in sex.
Conclusion: Coccidiosis is endemic in both commercial and backyard poultry farms in Maiduguri due to poor management practices encouraging Eimeria oocysts build-up. It is therefore, recommended that poultry farmers should practice strict biosecurity measures on their farms, creating awareness on the prevalence of coccidiosis, routine vaccination against coccidiosis and educating poultry farmers on the need for maintaining good hygienic standards and good flock health management.
Keywords: coccidiosis, exotic breeds, Maiduguri, Northeastern Nigeria, prevalence, village chickens.

Optimization of dry period in Karan Fries cow

Research (Published online: 24-06-2016)
18. Optimization of dry period in Karan Fries cow - K. Puhle Japheth, R. K. Mehla, Mahendra Singh, A. K. Gupta, Ramendra Das, Pranay Bharti and T. Chandrasekar
Veterinary World, 9(6): 648-652

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.648-652

Aim: The objective of this study was to optimize dry period (DP) length that can maximize the production across adjacent lactations and overall lifetime yield.
Materials and Methods: Performance records with respect to DP spread over a period of 15-year in Karan Fries (KF) cattle maintained at Livestock Research Centre (National Dairy Research Institute), were collected for the study. Data of 681 KF cows were analyzed by least square technique to examine the effect of non-genetic factors on DP. Season of calving was classified into four seasons: Winter season (December-March), summer season (April-June), rainy season (July-September), and autumn season (October-November); period of calving into five periods: 1998-2000 (1-period), 2001-2003 (II-period), 2004-2006 (III-period), 2007-2009 (IV-period), and 2010-2012 (V-period), and parity into six parities, i.e., 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, and ˃6th parities to see the effect of non-genetic factors on DP.
Results: Period of calving, season of calving, and parity did not affect the DP significantly (p<0.05). The overall least square mean of DP was 67.93±2.12 days. For the optimization of DP with regard to milk productivity, analysis was carried out by class interval method. DP was classified into eight classes (˂22, 23-45, 46-67, 68-89, 90-111, 112-133, 134-155, and ˃156 days), and optimum level was obtained at 46-67 days (3rd class) with the following respective milk yield (MY) of 305 daily MY (4016.44±43.68 kg), total MY (4704.21±61.51 kg), MY per day of lactation length (13.03±0.13 kg), and MY per day of calving interval (11.68±0.41 kg).
Conclusion: From the study, it was concluded that this optimal DP length (46-67 days) is suitable for maximizing the production. Hence, one should aim to dry off pregnant cows to achieve a DP of appropriate length to enhance productivity in the next lactation, as very short and very long DP reduces the economic profitability in dairy animals.
Keywords: dry period, economic trait, Karan Fries cow, non-genetic factors, optimization.

Wednesday, 22 June 2016

Immunotoxicological, biochemical, and histopathological studies on Roundup and Stomp herbicides in Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus)

Research (Published online: 23-06-2016)
17. Immunotoxicological, biochemical, and histopathological studies on Roundup and Stomp herbicides in Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) - Gihan G. Moustafa, F. E. Shaaban, A. H. Abo Hadeed, and Walaa M. Elhady
Veterinary World, 9(6): 638-647

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.638-647

Aim: The current study was directed to investigate the immunotoxic and oxidative stress effects of Roundup and Stomp herbicides and their combination on Nile catfish (Clarias gariepinus).
Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out on 120 fish that randomly divided into four equal groups with three replicates: The first group kept as control, the second group exposed to 1/2 96 h lethal concentration 50 (LC50) of Roundup, the third group exposed to 1/2 96 h LC50 of Stomp, and the fourth one exposed to a combination of Roundup and Stomp at previously-mentioned doses. The experiment was terminated after 15 days; blood samples were obtained at 1st, 8th, and 15th days of treatment where the sera were separated for estimation of antioxidant enzymes. Meanwhile, at 15th day of exposure part of blood was collected from all groups with an anticoagulant for evaluation of phagocytic activity, then the fish were sacrificed, and specimens from the liver of all groups were obtained for histopathological examination.
Results: Our results indicated that both herbicides either individually or in combination elucidated significant decrease in phagocytic activity that was highly marked in group exposed to both herbicides. Furthermore, our data elicited an obvious elevation in the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Meanwhile, the data depicted reduction in levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST). Histopathological investigation of liver proved the aforementioned results.
Conclusion: It could be concluded that either Roundup or Stomp alone cause significant deleterious effects on aquatic vertebrates. However, the use of their combination enhanced their toxic effects. Toxicity can end up in humans through the food chain.
Keywords: antioxidant enzymes, fish, phagocytosis, Roundup, Stomp.

Prevalence, type, and prognosis of ocular lesions in shelter and ownedclient dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum

Research (Published online: 22-06-2016)
16. Prevalence, type, and prognosis of ocular lesions in shelter and ownedclient dogs naturally infected by Leishmania infantum - Simona Di Pietro, Valentina Rita Francesca Bosco, Chiara Crinò, Francesco Francaviglia and Elisabetta Giudice
Veterinary World, 9(6): 633-637

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.633-637

Aim: The point prevalence of ocular lesions due to leishmaniasis was evaluated in 127 dogs living in a municipal shelter placed in a highly endemic area (Sicily, Italy). Moreover, the period prevalence, the type, and prognosis of lesions due to leishmaniasis were evaluated in 132 dogs with ocular pathologies referred to a Veterinary Teaching Hospital (VTH) in the same endemic area over a 3-year period.
Materials and Methods: All the dogs were submitted to ophthalmological examination. The diagnosis of leishmaniasis was made by cytological, serological (immune-fluorescent antibody test), and molecular (quantitative polymerase chain reaction) tests.
Results: The point prevalence of ocular lesions in 45 shelter dogs with leishmaniasis was 71.11% (45/127 dogs). The most frequent ocular lesion was blepharitis (50%) while anterior uveitis was observed in only 9.37% of cases. The period prevalence of ocular lesions due to leishmaniasis in the VTH group was 36.36% (48/132 dogs). In both groups, most of the lesions were bilateral and involved the anterior segment. Anterior uveitis was the most frequent ophthalmic finding in client-owned dogs (37.50%), but it occurred in only 9.37% of the shelter dogs. Keratouveitis often occurred during or after antiprotozoal treatment (14.58%; 7/48). In this study, the healing of eye injury following systemic antiprotozoal treatment was recorded in about half of cases (48%; 12/25 dogs), in which follow-up was possible. In more than 1/3 of cases (36%; 9/25), there was an improvement, but it was necessary to associate a long-term topical treatment; most of them, as well as those who had not responded to systemic therapy (16%; 4/25), had anterior uveitis or keratoconjunctivitis sicca.
Conclusions: Ocular manifestations involve up to 2/3 of animals affected by canine leishmaniasis and lesions account for over 1/3 of ophthalmic pathologies observed at a referral clinic in an endemic area. The occurrence of anterior uveitis is more frequent in client-owned dogs than in shelter dogs. The onset of keratouveitis during or after antiprotozoal treatment could be attributed to the treatment or to a recurrence of the systemic form. The post-treatment uveal immune reaction, already observed in humans, could explain the difference in the frequency of keratouveitis between client-owned and shelter dogs, which have never been treated.
Keywords: dog, follow-up, leishmaniasis, ocular lesions, post-treatment uveitis.

Tuesday, 21 June 2016

Characterization of promoter sequence of toll-like receptor genes in Vechur cattle

Research (Published online: 21-06-2016)
15. Characterization of promoter sequence of toll-like receptor genes in Vechur cattle - R. Lakshmi, K. K. Jayavardhanan and T. V. Aravindakshan
Veterinary World, 9(6): 626-632

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.626-632

Aim: To analyze the promoter sequence of toll-like receptor (TLR) genes in Vechur cattle, an indigenous breed of Kerala with the sequence of Bos taurus and access the differences that could be attributed to innate immune responses against bovine mastitis.
Materials and Methods: Blood samples were collected from Jugular vein of Vechur cattle, maintained at Vechur cattle conservation center of Kerala Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, using an acid-citrate-dextrose anticoagulant. The genomic DNA was extracted, and polymerase chain reaction was carried out to amplify the promoter region of TLRs. The amplified product of TLR2, 4, and 9 promoter regions was sequenced by Sanger enzymatic DNA sequencing technique.
Results: The sequence of promoter region of TLR2 of Vechur cattle with the B. taurus sequence present in GenBank showed 98% similarity and revealed variants for four sequence motifs. The sequence of the promoter region of TLR4 of Vechur cattle revealed 99% similarity with that of B. taurus sequence but not reveals significant variant in motifregions. However, two heterozygous loci were observed from the chromatogram. Promoter sequence of TLR9 gene also showed 99% similarity to B. taurus sequence and revealed variants for four sequence motifs.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that significant variation in the promoter of TLR2 and 9 genes in Vechur cattle breed and may potentially link the influence the innate immunity response against mastitis diseases.
Keywords: mastitis, promoter, sequence, toll-like receptor, Vechur breed.

Sunday, 19 June 2016

Effect of acute exposure to nonylphenol on biochemical, hormonal, and hematological parameters and muscle tissues residues of Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus

Research (Published online: 20-06-2016)
14. Effect of acute exposure to nonylphenol on biochemical, hormonal, and hematological parameters and muscle tissues residues of Nile tilapia; Oreochromis niloticus - Hager Tarek H. Ismail and Heba Hassan H. Mahboub
Veterinary World, 9(6): 616-625

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.616-625

Aim: This study is aimed to evaluate some biochemical, hormonal, hematological, and histopathological changes in Nile tilapia,Oreochromis niloticus, after acute exposure to nonylphenol (NP). In addition to detection of NP residues in the fish, muscle tissues for human health concern.
Materials and Methods: A total of 90 apparently healthy Nile tilapia, O. niloticus, were randomly divided into three equal groups; each containing 30 fish (three replicates). Groups 1 and 2 kept as a control and solvent control (acetone), respectively, and Group 3 exposed to NP at a dose level of 500 μg/L water for 7 successive days. Blood and tissue samples were collected 2 times randomly from each group after 7 days from fish exposure to NP and 10 days from exposure stopping.
Results: Fish exposed to NP Group 3 showed anorexia, sluggish movement, erythema of the skin, areas of scales loss, and hemorrhagic ulcers in some areas of body region leading to exposing the viscera. Biochemical results revealed a significant increase in serum total proteins and globulins levels, a highly significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activities, triglycerides, cholesterol, and creatinine levels, insignificant increase in serum uric acid level, and a highly significant decrease in serum testosterone and estradiol-β17 levels in Group 3 in compare with the control group. Histopathological finding confirms these results. While hematological results of the same group revealed a significant increase in red blood cells count and packed cell volume value, insignificant increase in hemoglobin concentration, leukopenia, lymphopenia, and monocytopenia in compared with the control group. All of these changes appeared after 7 days from fish exposure to NP. Most of these alterations returned toward the normal level after 10 days from stopping exposure to NP. NP residues detected in fish muscle tissues of Group 3 during exposure and after stopping exposure to it.
Conclusion: It is concluded that NP is a toxic pollutant and has an adverse effect on fish health and reproduction as well as accumulates in fish muscle tissues which may cause human health hazard.
Keywords: biochemical, hematological, hormonal, Nile tilapia, nonylphenol.

Saturday, 18 June 2016

Evaluation of optimum roughage to concentrate ratio in maize stover based complete rations for efficient microbial biomass production using in vitro gas production technique

Research (Published online: 19-06-2016)
13. Evaluation of optimum roughage to concentrate ratio in maize stover based complete rations for efficient microbial biomass production using in vitro gas production technique - Y. Ramana Reddy, N. Nalini Kumari, T. Monika and K. Sridhar
Veterinary World, 9(6): 611-615

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.611-615

Aim: A study was undertaken to evaluate the optimum roughage to concentrate ratio in maize stover (MS) based complete diets for efficient microbial biomass production (EMBP) using in vitro gas production technique.
Materials and Methods: MS based complete diets with roughage to concentrate ratio of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 40:60, and 30:70 were formulated, and 200 mg of oven-dried sample was incubated in water bath at 39°C along with media (rumen liquor [RL] - buffer) in in vitro gas syringes to evaluate the gas production. The gas produced was recorded at 8 and 24 h of inc ubation.In vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME), truly digestible organic matter (TDOM), partitioning factor (PF), and EMBP were calculated using appropriate formulae. Ammonia nitrogen and total volatile fatty acids (TVFAs) production were analyzed in RL fluid-media mixture after 24 h of incubation.
Results: In vitro gas production (ml) at 24 h incubation, IVOMD, ME, TDOM, TVFA concentration, and ammonia nitrogen production were increased (p<0.01) in proportion to the increase in the level of concentrate in the diet. Significantly (p<0.01) higher PF and EMBP was noticed in total mixed ration with roughage to concentrate ratio of 60:40 and 50:50 followed by 70:30 and 40:60.
Conclusion: Based on the results, it was concluded that the MS can be included in complete rations for ruminants at the level of 50-60% for better microbial biomass synthesis which in turn influences the performance of growing sheep.
Keywords: complete ration, in vitro gas technique, maize stover, roughage to concentrate ratio.

Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium promote primary wound healing regeneration

Research (Published online: 19-06-2016)
12. Human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium promote primary wound healing regeneration - Dwi Liliek Kusindarta, Hevi Wihadmadyatami, Yuda Heru Fibrianto, Widagdo Sri Nugroho, Heru Susetya, Dewi Kania Musana, Hery Wijayanto, Surya Agus Prihatna and A. E. T. H. Wahyuni
Veterinary World, 9(6): 605-610

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.605-610

Aim: This research was conducted to clarify the capability of human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium (HU-MSCM) to promote regenerations of primary wound healing on the incision skin injury.
Materials and Methods: In this study, two approaches in vitro and in vivo already done. On in vitro analysis, tube formation was performed using HU vein endothelial cells in the presence of HU-MSCM, in some experiments cells line was incubated prior the presence of lipopolysaccharide and HU-MSCM then apoptosis assay was performed. Furthermore, in vivo experiments 12 female rats (Rattus norvegicus) were used after rats anesthetized, 7 mm wound was made by incision on the left side of the body. The wound was treated with HU-MSCM containing cream, povidone iodine was run as a control. Wound healing regenerations on the skin samples were visualized by hematoxylin-eosin staining.
Results: In vitro models elucidate HU-MSCM may decreasing inflammation at the beginning of wound healing, promote cell migration and angiogenesis. In addition in vivo models show that the incision length on the skin is decreasing and more smaller, HE staining describe decreasing of inflammation phase, increasing of angiogenesis, accelerate fibroplasia, and maturation phase.
Conclusions: Taken together our observation indicates that HU-MSCM could promote the acceleration of skin tissue regenerations in primary wound healing process.
Keywords: human umbilical mesenchymal stem cells conditioned medium, regenerations, wound healing.

Thursday, 16 June 2016

Effect of egg yolk powder on freezability of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen

Research (Published online: 17-06-2016)
11. Effect of egg yolk powder on freezability of Murrah buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) semen - N. Kumar, S. A. Lone, J. K. Prasad, M. H. Jan and S. K. Ghosh
Veterinary World, 9(6): 601-604

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.601-604

Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of commercial egg yolk powder as an alternative to fresh egg yolk on freezability of Murrah buffalo semen.
Materials and Methods: Semen samples (12) from 3 Murrah buffaloes (4 from each bull) with mass motility (≥3+) and total motility (70% and above) were utilized in this study. Immediately after collection, each sample was divided into four groups. Groups I was diluted up to 60×106 sperm/ml with tris extender containing 10% fresh egg yolk and Groups II, III, and IV were diluted up to 60×106sperm/ml with tris extender containing 2%, 4%, and 6% egg yolk powder, respectively. Semen samples were processed and cryopreserved followed by examination of frozen semen samples after 24 h. Semen samples from each group were evaluated for total motility, viability, acrosomal integrity, abnormality, and hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST) response after dilution, pre-freeze, and post-thaw stage.
Results: Pre-freeze total motility was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups III and IV as compared to Groups I and II, and post-thaw total motility was significantly (p<0.01) higher in Group III as compared to other three groups. Viability was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups II, III, and IV than Group I at the pre-freeze stage. Significantly (p<0.01) higher viability and acrosomal integrity were recorded in Group III as compared to other three groups at the post-thaw stage. Abnormality was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Group IV than other three groups. HOST response was significantly (p<0.05) higher in Groups II and III than Groups I and IV at the pre-freeze and post-thaw stages.
Conclusion: Addition of egg yolk powder at 4% level yielded significantly better results in terms of post-thaw semen quality as compared to the fresh egg yolk and other concentrations of egg yolk powder (2% and 6%).
Keywords: buffalo semen, egg yolk powder, freezability.