Monday, 28 March 2016

Caprine leptospirosis: Hematobiochemical and urinalyses studies

Research (Published online: 29-03-2016)
20. Caprine leptospirosis: Hematobiochemical and urinalyses studies - Priti Dilipsinh Vihol, Jignesh M. Patel, Jatin H. Patel, Mahesh C. Prasad, Irsadullakhan H. Kalyani and Balkrushna P. Brahmkshtri
Veterinary World, 9(3): 337-341

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.337-341

Aim: The present study was designed to evaluate clinicopathological alterations in naturally occurring leptospirosis in goats of South Gujarat region, Gujarat.
Materials and Methods: A total 459 blood/serum and 292 urine samples were collected from different districts of South Gujarat region, India. Blood/serum and urine samples were subjected to hematobiochemical analyses and urinalyses. The serum samples were screened for anti-leptospiral antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT). On the bases of presence or absence of anti-leptospiral antibodies in serum, seropositive and seronegative groups were made. The results were analyzed using standard statistical methods to know pathological changes in the disease.
Results: In MAT, out of 459, 116 goats were seropositive, and 343 were seronegative. In hematobiochemical analyses, statistically significant (p<0.01) decrease in values of packed cell volume, hemoglobin (Hb) concentration, mean corpuscular Hb concentration and total protein and increased activity/level of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase and total bilirubin between seropositive and seronegative goats were noted. Urinalyses did not reveal any specific changes. In the dark field microscopy, urine samples were found to be negative for leptospires.
Conclusion: Hematobiochemical changes noted in seropositive goats were indicative of hepatic damage, and this knowledge would aid in the therapeutic management of the disease.
Keywords: goats, hematobiochemical, leptospirosis, urinalysis.

Occurrence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in crustacean shellfishes in coastal parts of Eastern India

Research (Published online: 28-03-2016)
19. Occurrence of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in crustacean shellfishes in coastal parts of Eastern India - S. Parthasarathy, Suresh Chandra Das and Ashok Kumar
Veterinary World, 9(3): 330-336

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.330-336

Aim: The objective of the study was to isolate and characterize pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus from crustacean shellfishes (crab and shrimp) commonly retailed in coastal parts of eastern India.
Materials and Methods: Samples were processed by bacteriological isolation followed by biochemical characterization in Kaper’s medium. Presumptively identified isolates were confirmed by species-specific Vp-toxR polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay. Virulence and pandemic property of the confirmed V. parahaemolyticus isolates were determined by specific PCR assays.
Results: On screening of 167 samples comprising crabs (n=82) and shrimps (n=85) by the standard bacteriological cultural method, V. parahaemolyticus was presumptively identified in 86.6% (71/82) and 82.3% (70/85) of respective samples. Of these, 46 (56%) and 66 (77.6%) isolates from crab and shrimp, respectively, were confirmed as Vparahaemolyticus by biochemical characterization (Kaper’s reaction) followed by specific Vp-toxR PCR assay. About 10 isolates each from crab and shrimp was found to carry the virulence gene (tdh). It denotes that 12.2% of crab and 11.7% of shrimp in the study area are harboring the pathogenic V. parahaemolyticus. Such tdh+isolates (n=20) were subjected for screening of pandemic genotype by pandemic group specific (PGS) - PCR (PGS-PCR) and GS-PCR (toxRS gene) where 11 (6.5%) isolates revealed the pandemic determining amplicon (235 bp) in PGS-PCR and belonged to crab (7.3%) and shrimp (6%) samples; however, 2 (2.4%) isolates were positive in GS-PCR and belonged to crab samples only. These two GS-PCR+isolates from crab were also positive in PGS-PCR.
Conclusion: The findings of the study conclusively indicated that a considerable percentage of crab and shrimp in these areas were harboring pathogenic and pandemic V. parahaemolyticus posing a public health risk in consumption of improperly processed such shellfishes. Cross contamination of other marine and fresh water market fishes by such shellfishes in these areas may provide scope for spreading this pathogen in community food chain.
Keywords: crustaceans, pandemic, pathogenic, toxR-gene, Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

Ultrastructural changes in the sublingual salivary gland of prenatal buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)

Research (Published online: 28-03-2016)
18. Ultrastructural changes in the sublingual salivary gland of prenatal buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) - A. D. Singh and Opinder Singh
Veterinary World, 9(3): 326-329

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.326-329

Aim: The present study was aimed to elucidate ultrastructural changes in the development of sublingual salivary gland of buffalo during prenatal life.
Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on sublingual salivary gland of 36 buffalo fetuses ranging from 13.2 cm curved crown-rump length (CVRL) (88th day) to full term. The fetuses were categorized into three groups based on their CVRL.
Results: The cells lining the terminal tubules were undifferentiated with poorly developed cytoplasmic organelles but lacked secretory granules (SGs) at 13.2 cm CVRL (88th day). The SGs appeared first in the form of membrane-bound secretory vesicles with homogeneous electron-dense as well as electron-lucent contents at 21.2 cm CVRL (122nd day); however, mucous acinar cells contained electron-lucent granules, while serous secretory cells as well as serous demilunes showed electron-dense granules at 34 cm CVRL (150th day) of prenatal life. At 53.5 cm CVRL (194th day), both mucous and serous acini were differentiated by the density of SGs.
Conclusion: The cytoplasm of acinar cells was filled with mitochondria, rough endoplasmic reticulum, and Golgi profiles in mid and late fetal age groups. The SGs were increased in number during the late fetal age group. The myoepithelial cells (MECs) were located at the base of the acinar cells as well as intercalated and striated ducts and were stellate in shape. The ultrastructure of MEC revealed a parallel stream of myofilaments in the cytoplasm and its processes. The mucous cells were predominantly present in the sublingual salivary gland and were pyramidal in shape.
Keywords: buffalo, prenatal, sublingual salivary gland, transmission electron microscopy.

Saturday, 26 March 2016

Ultrastructural study on the granulocytes of Uttara fowl (Gallus domesticus)

Research (Published online: 26-03-2016)
17. Ultrastructural study on the granulocytes of Uttara fowl (Gallus domesticus) - Khan Idrees Mohd, Meena Mrigesh, Balwinder Singh and Ishwar Singh
Veterinary World, 9(3): 320-325

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.320-325

Aim: The present study was conducted to know the ultrastructural detail of the blood cells of Uttara fowl (native fowl of Uttarakhand).
Materials and Methods: The experiment was conducted on 10 apparently healthy adult birds of either sex reared at the Instructional Poultry Farm, G.B. Pant University of Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. The blood was collected from wing vein using ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid as anticoagulant. The blood was further processed for scanning and transmission electron microscopic (TEM) studies separately.
Results: Ultrastructurally, the heterophils were irregularly round in shape. The cytoplasm was laden with pleomorphic membrane-bound granules, viz., large elliptical-, medium oval-, large round-, and medium round-shaped granules. The eosinophils under TEM were irregularly circular in outline showing pseudopodia and finger-like cytoplasmic processes. The cytoplasmic granules were pleomorphic with elliptical-, round-, and rod-shaped granules. The basophils were irregularly circular in outline containing small hook-like cytoplasmic processes. The cytoplasm contained electron dense and electron lucent round-shaped granules.
Conclusion: Granulocytes contained pleomorphic cytoplasmic granules. However, the shape and electron density of granules varied among the different granulocytes and helped in the characterization of different granulocytes.
Keywords: blood cells, cytoplasmic granules, ultrastructure, Uttara fowl.

Friday, 25 March 2016

Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens

Research (Published online: 25-03-2016)
16. Effect of dietary supplementation of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens - Nihar Ranjan Sarangi, L. K. Babu, A. Kumar, C. R. Pradhan, P. K. Pati and J. P. Mishra
Veterinary World, 9(3): 313-319

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.313-319

Aim: The aim was to investigate the effects of dietary supplementations of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic on growth performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens.
Materials and Methods: A total of 360 1-day-old Vencobb broiler chickens of either sex were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments each consisting of three replicates and each replicate having 30 birds for 6 weeks. The dietary treatments were (1) control group with basal diet, (2) basal diet supplemented with prebiotic (at 400 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration), (3) basal diet supplemented with probiotic (at 100 g/tonne of starter ration and 50 g/tonne of finisher ration), and (4) basal diet supplemented with synbiotic(at 500 g/tonne of starter as well as finisher ration). The birds were provided with ad-libitum feed and drinking water during the entire experimental period.
Results: The highest body weight observed in asynbiotic group, which was non-significantly (p>0.05) higher than thecontrol group. Prebiotic and probiotic groups showed lower body weight than synbiotic and control groups. A total feed intake did not show any significant (p>0.05) difference between experimental groups. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in feed conversion ratio of broiler chickens in prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic groups as compared with control group. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the carcass traits with respect to dressing percentage, carcass percentage, heart weight, liver weight and gizzard weight, wing percentage, breast percentage, back percentage, thigh percentage, and drumstick percentage in Cobb broilers under study.
Conclusion: The growth performance and percentage of carcass yield did not show any significant increase by the dietary inclusion of prebiotic, probiotic, and synbiotic compared with unsupplemented control in a commercial broiler chicken.
Keywords: caracass characteristics, growth performance, prebiotic, probiotic, synbiotic, Vencobb broilers.

Evaluation of specific humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated with cell culture adapted classical swine fever vaccine

Research (Published online: 25-03-2016)
15. Evaluation of specific humoral immune response in pigs vaccinated with cell culture adapted classical swine fever vaccine - Mrinal K. Nath, D. K. Sarma, B. C. Das, P. Deka, D. Kalita, J. B. Dutta, G. Mahato, S. Sarma and P. Roychoudhury
Veterinary World, 9(3): 308-312

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.308-312

Aim: To determine an efficient vaccination schedule on the basis of the humoral immune response of cell culture adapted live classical swine fever virus (CSFV) vaccinated pigs and maternally derived antibody (MDA) in piglets of vaccinated sows.
Materials and Methods: A cell culture adapted live CSFV vaccine was subjected to different vaccination schedule in the present study. Serum samples were collected before vaccination (day 0) and 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 180, 194, 208, 270, 284 and 298 days after vaccination and were analyzed by liquid phase blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Moreover, MDA titre was detected in the serum of piglets at 21 and 42 days of age after farrowing of the vaccinated sows.
Results: On 28 days after vaccination, serum samples of 83.33% vaccinated pigs showed the desirable level of antibody titer (log101.50 at 1:32 dilution), whereas 100% animals showed log10 1.50 at 1:32 dilution after 42 days of vaccination. Animals received a booster dose at 28 and 180 days post vaccination showed stable high-level antibody titre till the end of the study period. Further, piglets born from pigs vaccinated 1 month after conception showed the desirable level of MDA up to 42 days of age.
Conclusion: CSF causes major losses in pig industry. Lapinised vaccines against CSFV are used routinely in endemic countries. In the present study, a cell culture adapted live attenuated vaccine has been evaluated. Based on the level of humoral immune response of vaccinated pigs and MDA titer in piglets born from immunized sows, it may be concluded that the more effective vaccination schedule for prevention of CSF is primary vaccination at 2 months of age followed by booster vaccination at 28 and 180 days post primary vaccination and at 1 month of gestation.
Keywords: antibody titer, classical swine fever vaccine, liquid phase blocking-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, pig.

Thursday, 24 March 2016

Characterization of Salmonella isolates from municipal sewage, patients, foods, and animals in Greece using antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis

Research (Published online: 24-03-2016)
3. Characterization of Salmonella isolates from municipal sewage, patients, foods, and animals in Greece using antimicrobial susceptibility testing and pulsed field gel electrophoresis - Theofilos Papadopoulos, Antonios Zdragas, Georgia Mandilara, Georgios Vafeas, Virginia Giantzi, Evanthia Petridou and Alkiviadis Vatopoulos
International Journal of One Health, 2: 12-18

  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2016.12-18


Aims: We aimed to compare Salmonella isolates from different sources using molecular and phenotypic methods, targeting better possibility of understanding the epidemiology of this organism in the Greek context with emphasis in municipal wastewater.
Materials and Methods: In this study, we used pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) in combination with antimicrobial susceptibility testing to analyze a total of 88 Salmonella Enterica isolates from municipal sewage (n=25), humans (n=36), animals (n=24), and foods (n=3) in Greece.
Results: The higher resistance rates were found to the following antimicrobials: streptomycin (59.1%), tetracycline (47.7%), nalidixic acid (46.6%), ampicillin (37.5%), and oxolinic acid (35.2%). Resistance to ciprofloxacin was not observed; 22 isolates (25%) were sensitive to all 9 antimicrobials, 36%, 25% and 12% of human, animal and wastewater origin, respectively, showing a significant difference. Salmonella ser. Hadar was the serovar with the highest resistance rates followed by Salmonella ser. Anatum and Salmonellaser. Typhimurium; Salmonella ser. Infantis strains were almost pansusceptible. Cluster analysis did not reveal close genetic relationship between human animal food and wastewater strains belonging to the same serovars. In most of the cases, distinct clusters were observed between human and non-human isolates indicating diversity and no epidemiological connection.
Conclusion: This study indicates that municipal wastewater would be of interest to further monitor the community’s prevalence of subclinical or non-reported S. Enterica infections.
Keywords: Salmonella, wastewater, sewage, PFGE, antimicrobial resistance.

Prevalence and multidrug-resistant pattern of Salmonella from the eggs and egg-storing trays of retail markets of Bangladesh

Research (Published online: 24-03-2016)
2Prevalence and multidrug-resistant pattern of Salmonella from the eggs and egg-storing trays of retail markets of Bangladesh - Tareq Mahmud, Mohammad Mahmudul Hassan, Mahabub Alam, Md Mamun Khan, Md Saiful Bari and Ariful Islam
International Journal of One Health, 2: 7-11

  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2016.7-11


Aim: Salmonellosis is one of the most common and widely distributed foodborne illnesses in human, and multidrugresistance of Salmonella spp. has increased in developing countries with the indiscriminate use of antibiotics in the poultry production system. A cross-sectional study was conducted on randomly selected retail markets of Chittagong City Corporation to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance pattern of Salmonella isolated from commercial layer eggs, eggshell surface, and egg-storing trays.
Materials and Methods: Chicken eggs, egg surface, and egg-storing trays samples from the retail markets were collected for isolating Salmonella spp. (bacteriological culture methods) followed by antimicrobial susceptibility testing (disc diffusion method) against Salmonella isolates during the period from July to December 2013.
Results: Out of the 310 layer eggs, egg surface, and egg-storing trays samples, the highest prevalence ofSalmonella spp. was found in eggs trays (57.15%) and the lowest (13.33%) in eggs and the prevalence differed significantly (p<0.01). On the other hand, the prevalence was higher (45%) in samples of Pahartali bazar and lower (31.43%) in samples of Bohderhat bazar but the variation among the sites was not varied significantly (p>0.05). Isolated Salmonella was tested for resistance to eight different antimicrobial agents, using disc diffusion method. Among eight antimicrobial tested (n=111), 100% resistance were found to ampicillin and amoxicillin followed by erythromycin (60-100%), tetracycline (72-93%), ciprofloxacin (22-66%), colistin (27-66%), enrofloxacin (42-54%), and pefloxacin 23.07% across the study sites. Ciprofloxacin remained sensitive in 40.9% cases and, pefloxacin and colistin appeared to be almost sensitive (61-72%) against Salmonella isolates at studied areas. Salmonella isolates showed multidrug-resistance pattern up to five of the eight antimicrobials tested.
Conclusion: It can be said that the rational use of antibiotics needs to be adopted in commercial poultry farming system of Bangladesh to prevent the emergence of drug-resistance Salmonella to protect the public health consequences.
Keywords: antimicrobial, public health, prevalence, resistance, Salmonella.

Monday, 21 March 2016

Antigenic evidence of bluetongue virus from small ruminant population of two different geographical regions of Odisha, India

Research (Published online: 21-03-2016)
14. Antigenic evidence of bluetongue virus from small ruminant population of two different geographical regions of Odisha, India -Shaswati Subhadarsini Pany, Sanchay Kumar Biswas, Karam Chand, Nihar Nalini Mohanty, Laxmi Narayan Sarangi, Bimalendu Mondal and Hemant Kumar Panda
Veterinary World, 9(3): 304-307

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.304-307

Aim: The aim of the present study was to carry out antigenic detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) among the small ruminant population of two different geographical regions of Odisha (coastal and central) using recombinant VP7 (r-VP-7) based sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (s-ELISA).
Materials and Methods: Blood samples (n=274) were collected from two different geographical pockets of Odisha, which covered mostly the coastal and central regions. Of the total samples under study 185 were from goat and 89 were from sheep. The blood samples were tested for the presence of BTV antigen by r-VP7 based s-ELISA.
Results: r-VP-7 s-ELISA detected BTV antigen in 52.43% and 44.94% of the goat and sheep population under study, respectively. This study highlights the antigenic persistence of BTV in the state for the 1st time.
Conclusion: This high antigenic presence in both sheep and goat population suggests an alarming BTV infection in field conditions which warrants more systematic study directed toward isolation and characterization studies as well as the implementation of control strategy for BT in Odisha.
Keywords: bluetongue, goat, Odisha, sheep.

Saturday, 19 March 2016

Effect of different antioxidant additives in semen diluent on cryopreservability (−196°C) of buffalo semen

Research (Published online: 20-03-2016)
13. Effect of different antioxidant additives in semen diluent on cryopreservability (−196°C) of buffalo semen - Hardik A. Patel, G. M. Siddiquee, Dinesh V. Chaudhari and Vishal S. Suthar
Veterinary World, 9(3): 299-303

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.299-303

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different antioxidant additives in standard tris-fructose-egg yolkglycerol (TFYG) extender on the cryopreservability of buffalo semen.
Materials and Methods: Semen collection using artificial vagina, twice weekly for 5 weeks from three pedigreed health breeding bulls of Mehsani breed, aged between 6 and 8 years. Immediately after initial evaluation all 30 qualifying ejaculates (10/bull) were split into three aliquots and diluted at 34°C keeping the concentration of 100 million spermatozoa/ml with standard TFYG extender as control and TFYG having two antioxidant additives - Cysteine HCl at 1 mg/ml and ascorbic acid at 0.2 mg/ml to study their comparative performance. Semen filled in French Mini straws using IS-4 system and gradually cooled to 4°C and equilibrated for 4 h in cold handing cabinet. After completion of equilibration, straws were cryopreserved in LN2 by Programmable Bio-freezer. Semen was examined at post-dilution, post-equilibration, and post-thaw stages for sperm quality parameters, and at each stage plasma was separated for enzymatic analysis of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP).
Results: The mean percentage of sperms in TFYG, TFYG + cysteine HCl and TFYG + ascorbic acid diluents at postthaw stage in terms of progressive motility (52.83±0.52, 57.83±0.52, 57.83±0.52), livability (78.70±0.21, 82.33±0.23, 81.73±0.22), and abnormality (5.43±0.21, 5.03±0.17, 5.23±0.18) varied significantly (p<0.05) between control TFYG and TFYG having antioxidant additives. The mean U/L activities of AST (78.70±0.47, 72.80±0.48, 73.30±0.54), LDH (172.70±0.41, 155.78±0.42, 156.33±0.41), and AKP (103.61±0.34, 90.20±0.34, 91.03±0.34) in semen diluted with TFYG, TFYG + cysteine HCl and TFYG + ascorbic acid diluents at post-thaw stage, respectively, which showed significantly (p<0.05) higher leakage of enzymes in control TFYG than TFYG incorporated with additives.
Conclusion: Incorporation of antioxidant additives such as cysteine HCl and ascorbic acid in standard TFYG diluents improves sperm quality parameters, reduces enzyme leakage, and ultimately advances cryopreservability of buffalo semen.
Keywords: antioxidants, cryopreservation, diluent, egg yolk, enzyme, semen.

Friday, 18 March 2016

Estimates of genetic parameters for fat yield in Murrah buffaloes

Research (Published online: 19-03-2016)
12. Estimates of genetic parameters for fat yield in Murrah buffaloes - Manoj Kumar, Vikas Vohra, Poonam Ratwan, Jamuna Valsalan, C. S. Patiland A. K. Chakravarty
Veterinary World, 9(3): 295-298

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.295-298

Aim: The present study was performed to investigate the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors affecting milk fat yield and to estimate genetic parameters of monthly test day fat yields (MTDFY) and lactation 305-day fat yield (L305FY) in Murrah buffaloes.
Materials and Methods: The data on total of 10381 MTDFY records comprising the first four lactations of 470 Murrah buffaloes calved from 1993 to 2014 were assessed. These buffaloes were sired by 75 bulls maintained in an organized farm at ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. Least squares maximum likelihood program was used to estimate genetic and non-genetic parameters. Heritability estimates were obtained using paternal half-sib correlation method. Genetic and phenotypic correlations among MTDFY, and 305-day fat yield were calculated from the analysis of variance and covariance matrix among sire groups.
Results: The overall least squares mean of L305FY was found to be 175.74±4.12 kg. The least squares mean of overall MTDFY ranged from 3.33±0.14 kg (TD-11) to 7.06±0.17 kg (TD-3). The hestimate of L305FY was found to be 0.33±0.16 in this study. The estimates of phenotypic and genetic correlations between 305-day fat yield and different MTDFY ranged from 0.32 to 0.48 and 0.51 to 0.99, respectively.
Conclusions: In this study, all the genetic and non-genetic factors except age at the first calving group, significantly affected the traits under study. The estimates of phenotypic and genetic correlations of MTDFY with 305-day fat yield was generally higher in the MTDFY-5 of lactation suggesting that this TD yields could be used as the selection criteria for early evaluation and selection of Murrah buffaloes.
Keywords: genetic factors, Murrah buffalo, non-genetic factors, test-day fat yields.

Effect of in ovo supplementation of nano forms of zinc, copper, and selenium on post-hatch performance of broiler chicken

Research (Published online: 19-03-2016)
11. Effect of in ovo supplementation of nano forms of zinc, copper, and selenium on post-hatch performance of broiler chicken - P. Patric Joshua, C. Valli and V. Balakrishnan
Veterinary World, 9(3): 287-294

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.287-294

Background and Aim: Nanoparticles can bypass conventional physiological ways of nutrient distribution and transport across tissue and cell membranes, as well as protect compounds against destruction prior to reaching their targets. In ovo administration of nanoparticles, may be seen as a new method of nano-nutrition, providing embryos with an additional quantity of nutrients. The aim of the study is to examine the effect of in ovo supplementation of nano forms of zinc, copper and selenium on the hatchability and post hatch performance of broiler chicken.
Materials and Methods: Nano form of zinc at 20, 40, 60 and 80 μg/egg, nano form of copper at 4, 8, 12 and 16 μg/egg and nano form of selenium at 0.075, 0.15, 0.225 and 0.3 μg/egg were in ovo supplemented (18th day incubation, amniotic route) in fertile broiler eggs. Control group in ovo fed with normal saline alone was also maintained. Each treatment had thirty replicates. Parameters such as hatchability, hatch weight and post hatch performance were studied.
Results: In ovo feeding of nano minerals were not harmful to the developing embryo and did not influence the hatchability. Significantly (p<0.05) best feed efficiency for nano forms of zinc (2.16), copper (2.46) and selenium (2.51) were observed, when 40, 4 and 0.225 μg/egg respectively were in ovo supplemented. Except in nano form of copper at 12 μg per egg which had significantly (p<0.05) highest breast muscle percentage there was no distinct trend to indicate that dressing percentage or breast muscle yield was influenced in other treatments.
Conclusion: Nano forms of zinc, copper and selenium can be prepared at laboratory conditions. In ovo feeding of nano forms of zinc, copper and selenium at 18th day of incubation through amniotic route does not harm the developing embryo, does not affect hatchability.
Keywords: hatchability, hatch weight, in ovo feeding, nanoparticles, and post hatch performance.

Tuesday, 15 March 2016

Evaluation of the effects of the powder of Capsicum frutescens on glycemia in growing rabbits

Research (Published online: 16-03-2016)
10. Evaluation of the effects of the powder of Capsicum frutescens on glycemia in growing rabbits - Tossou Jacques Dougnon and Messanvi Gbeassor
Veterinary World, 9(3): 281-286

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.281-286

Aim: The present study aims to evaluate zootechnic parameters and blood sugar in rabbits submitted to diets containing different levels of pepper (Capsicum frutescens).
Materials and Methods: To this end, 30 rabbits weighing on average 1252±35 g at the beginning of the experiment were subjected to five rations with three repetitions for 56 days: The food R0 (or control) which is floury provender contains 0% of C. frutescens; R5, R10, R15, and R20 provender containing, respectively, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, and 2% of C. frutescens fruits’ powder. Rabbits consumed on average from 75.47 to 80.97 g dry matter.
Results: Digestibility ranged from 52.39% to 61.01%. The average daily gain and feed consumption index were similar for all diets. Blood glucose was amended by the various servings is 0.98 g/L and 0.88 g/L, respectively, for doses.
Conclusion: It appears from this study that rabbits consumed well diets containing C. frutescens. However, C. frutescens’ effect on the growth performances of rabbits is not noticeable. Furthers experiments will be useful to evaluate C. frutescens’ mechanism of action on blood sugar.
Keywords: blood sugar, Capsicum frutescens, consumption index, rabbit.

Genetic trend for growth and wool performance in a closed flock of Bharat Merino sheep at sub temperate region of Kodai hills, Tamil Nadu

Research (Published online: 16-03-2016)
9. Genetic trend for growth and wool performance in a closed flock of Bharat Merino sheep at sub temperate region of Kodai hills, Tamil Nadu - P. K. Mallick, S. M. K. Thirumaran, R. Pourouchottamane, S. Rajapandi, R. Venkataramanan, G. Nagarajan, G. Murali and A. S. Rajendiran
Veterinary World, 9(3): 276-280

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.276-280

Aim: The study was conducted at Southern Regional Research Center, ICAR-Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute (CSWRI), Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu to estimate genetic trends for birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (3WT), 6 months weight (6WT), and greasy fleece weight (GFY) in a Bharat Merino (BM) flock, where selection was practiced for 6WT and GFY.
Materials and Methods: The data for this study represents a total of 1652 BM lambs; progeny of 144 sires spread over 15 years starting from 2000 to 2014, obtained from the BM flock of ICAR-SRRC (CSWRI), Mannavanur, Kodaikanal, Tamil Nadu, India. The genetic trends were calculated by regression of average predicted breeding values using software WOMBAT for the traits BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY versus the animal’s birth year.
Results: The least square means were 3.28±0.02 kg, 19.08±0.23 kg, 25.00±0.35 kg and 2.13±0.07 kg for BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY, respectively. Genetic trends were positive and highly significant (p<0.01) for BWT, while the values for 3WT, 6WT and GFY though positive, were not significant. The estimates of genetic trends in BWT, 3WT, 6WT and GFY were 5 g, 0.8 g, 7 g and 0.3 g/year gain and the fit of the regression shows 55%, 22%, 42% and 12% coefficient of determination with the regressed value, respectively. In this study, estimated mean predicted breeding value (kg) in BWT and 3WT, 6WT and GFY were 0.067, 0.008, 0.036 and −0.003, respectively.
Conclusion: Estimates of genetic trends indicated that there was a positive genetic improvement in all studied traits and selection would be effective for the improvement of body weight traits and GFY of BM sheep.
Keywords: Bharat Merino sheep, breeding value, genetic trend, regression.