Saturday, 28 November 2015

Comparison of molecular and microscopic technique for detection of Theileria annulata from the field cases of cattle

Research (Published online: 28-11-2015)
17. Comparison of molecular and microscopic technique for detection of Theileria annulata from the field cases of cattle - H. C. Chauhan, B. K. Patel, A. G. Bhagat, M. V. Patel, S. I. Patel, S. H. Raval, H. H. Panchasara, M. D. Shrimali, A. C. Patel and B. S. Chandel
Veterinary World, 8(11): 1370-1374

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1370-1374

Aim: Tropical theileriosis is fatal hemoprotozoal disease of dairy animals caused by Theileria annulata. The aim of the present study was to detect the T. annulata and comparison of results of molecular and microscopic techniques.
Materials and Methods: A total of 52 blood samples were collected from the cattle suspected for theileriosis across the Banaskantha district. All the samples were screened for theileriosis using Giemsa’s staining technique and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
Results: Total of 17 (32.69%) and 24 (46.15%) samples were found positive for theileriosis by microscopic examination and PCR test, respectively. It revealed that the study area is endemic for theileriosis, and the microscopic technique has 70.83% sensitivity and 100% specificity with respect to PCR technique.
Conclusion: It may be concluded from the present study that the PCR is comparatively sensitive technique than microscopic examination and may be recommended to use in the field for screening of theileriosis in the study area, where a high prevalence of diseases have been reported due to intensive dairy farming.
Keywords: Giemsa staining, polymerase chain reaction, theileriosis.

Effect of Moringa oleifera on hematological parameters of calves reared in industrial fluorotic area

Research (Published online: 28-11-2015)
16. Effect of Moringa oleifera on hematological parameters of calves reared in industrial fluorotic area - Kruti Debnath Mandal, M. R. Das, M. Pati, P. D. Pati, A. R. Gupta, R. C. Patra and S. K. Senapati
Veterinary World, 8(11): 1364-1369

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1364-1369

Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the ameliorative potential of dried Moringa oleifera fruit powder in fluorosis affected calves reared around the vicinity of aluminium smelter plant.
Materials and Methods: Total 107 calves were screened on the basis of clinical signs and higher plasma fluoride (more than 0.2 ppm) level for evidence of fluorosis. Out of that, 90 samples found positive and from them 18 calves of 6-12 months age group were selected and divided equally into three groups named as Group II, III, and IV. Group II remained as disease control group whereas Group III calves were supplemented with dried M. oleifera fruit powder of 25 g/calve for 60 days. Group IV calves were supplemented with calcium carbonate at 100 mg/kg body weight and boric acid at 10 mg/kg for the same experimental period. Group I consisted of six numbers of healthy calves taken from the non-fluorotic zone, i.e. Bhubaneswar. Plasma fluoride level, hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), total leukocyte count (TLC), differential count (DC), total erythrocyte count, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), and MCH concentration (MCHC) were estimated on day 0, 30, and 60 of the experiment.
Results: Supplementation of dried M. oleifera fruit powder to fluorosis affected calves resulted in significant reduction in plasma fluoride level and increase in Hb%, PCV, TLC and altered DC. Similar results were also recorded in calcium+boron group, except PCV and Hb. No significant changes were observed in MCV, MCH, and MCHC values.
Conclusion: The present study concluded that supplementation of dried M. oleifera fruit powder daily for 60 days has shown protection against chronic fluoride toxicity in calves.
Keywords: aluminum smelter, boron, calcium, calves, fluorosis, Moringa oleifera.

Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting morphometry of Sirohi goats

Research (Published online: 28-11-2015)
15. Genetic and non-genetic factors affecting morphometry of Sirohi goats - S. D. Dudhe, S. B. S. Yadav, R. K. Nagda, Urmila Pannu and
G. C. Gahlot
Veterinary World, 8(11): 1356-1363

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1356-1363

Aim: The aim was to estimate genetic and non-genetic factors affecting morphometric traits of Sirohi goats under field condition.
Materials and Methods: The detailed information of all animals on body measurements at birth, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age was collected from farmer’s flock under field condition born during 2007-2013 to analyze the effect of genetic and non-genetic factors. The least squares maximum likelihood program was used to estimate genetic and non-genetic parameters affecting morphometric traits.
Results and Discussion: Effect of sire, cluster, year of birth, and sex was found to be highly significant (p<0.01) on all three morphometric traits, parity was highly significant (p<0.01) for body height (BH) and body girth (BG) at birth. The hestimates for morphometric traits ranged among 0.528±0.163 to 0.709±0.144 for BH, 0.408±0.159 to 0.605±0.192 for body length (BL), and 0.503±0.197 to 0.695±0.161 for BG.
Conclusion: The effect of sire was highly significant (p<0.01) and also h² estimate of all morphometric traits were medium to high; therefore, it could be concluded on the basis of present findings that animals with higher body measurements at initial phases of growth will perform better with respect to even body weight traits at later stages of growth.
Keywords: correlation, genetic, morphometric traits, non-genetic and Sirohi.

Tuesday, 24 November 2015

The effects of protein dietary supplementation on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis

Research (Published online: 24-11-2015)
14. The effects of protein dietary supplementation on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis - Priyanka Konwar, S. P. Tiwari, M. Gohain and Kiran Kumari
Veterinary World, 8(11): 1351-1355

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1351-1355

Aim: The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of dietary supplementation with different levels of protein on fecal egg counts and hematological parameters in goat kids with subclinical nematodosis under semi-intensive condition.
Materials and Methods: 20 goat kids (3-5 months old with an average body weight of 8.90 kg) were randomly allocated to four groups: T1, served as a negative control, without receiving concentrate feed, and T2, T3, and T4 that received concentrate feed containing 16, 20, and 24% digestible crude protein, respectively. The experiment was carried out for 60 days.
Results: In this study, protein supplementation had a significant (p<0.05) effect on fecal egg counts even after 15 days; hemoglobin (Hb) (g/dl) after 45 days; total leukocyte count (103/mm3) and total erythrocyte count (106/mm3) after 30 days; packed cell volume (%), lymphocyte (%), and eosinophil (%) after 15 days of supplementation, whereas monocyte (%) and neutrophil (%) values were not significantly influenced by protein supplementation effect during the entire experiment. The values of mean corpuscular volume (fl) were affected significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01) due to protein supplementation after 30 days, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH) (pg) after 45 days, but MCH concentration (g/dl) was not significantly different among the experimental groups during the entire experiment.
Conclusion: The dietary supplementation with different levels of protein significantly improved the hematological profiles and inhibited the nematodosis infection in the experimental goat kids.
Keywords: fecal egg count, goat kids, hematological parameter, nematodosis, protein dietary supplementation.

Clinicopathological evaluation of non-parasitic dermatoses in canines

Research (Published online: 24-11-2015)
13. Clinicopathological evaluation of non-parasitic dermatoses in canines - M. J. Sindha, B. J. Trangadia, P. D. Vihol, R. S. Parmar and B. V. Patel
Veterinary World, 8(11): 1346-1350

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1346-1350

Aim: The present study has been carried out to detect non-parasitic dermatoses in canines brought at the Nandini Veterinary Hospital, Surat.
Materials and Methods: The current investigation was carried out on skin scrapping, skin biopsy specimens, blood, and serum samples of 210 freshly registered cases of dogs with dermatological afflictions. Dogs found healthy on clinical examination were used as control animals (n=15). The incidence of non-parasitic dermatoses has been recorded as per age, breed, and sex of dogs. For bacterial isolation, the pus/exudates samples were collected from 40 cases of pyoderma and streaked onto brain-heart infusion agar while 13 skin scrapping samples were inoculated on Sabouraud’s dextrose agar with chloramphenicol for isolation of fungi. The organisms were identified on the basis of gross and microscopic observation of cultural growth on media. The blood and sera samples were also collected to note alteration in hematology and biochemical parameters, respectively. Tissue samples from lesions were collected and subsequently preserved in 10% neutral buffered formalin for histopathology.
Results: Out of 210 cases of dermatoses, 60 cases were of non-parasitic dermatoses, i.e., 28.57%. Of these, bacterial skin infections (pyoderma) were found to be the predominant at 80.00%, followed by other non-parasitic dermatological disorders, i.e., 11.67% and fungal skin infection, i.e., 8.33%. The dogs belonging to age group 1-3 years showed greater susceptibility to non-parasitic dermatological conditions. Breed wise incidence of pyoderma was found more in the Pomeranian breed (20.83%), whereas fungal skin affections were found to be higher in mongrel breed (60.00% and 42.86%, respectively). Male dogs showed greater involvement in bacterial, fungal, and other non-parasitic dermatoses. Bacteriological culture examination of 40 pus swabs resulted in the growth of 39 bacterial isolates. Mycological culture of skin scrapings from 13 suspected cases of fungal dermatoses resulted in the recovery of five fungal isolates. Hematological and serum biochemical parameters revealed a significant difference in all cases of non-parasitic dermatoses. Histopathological study revealed characteristic changes like infiltration of neutrophils with perifolliculitis, hyperkeratosis, and rafts of acantholytic cells. Histochemical staining revealed purple or magenta color fungal elements.
Conclusion: Based on current experiment it has been concluded that among non-parasitic dermatoses bacterial and fungal skin infections are the main ailments, followed by nutritional and other causes in adult and male dogs which can be diagnosed by cultural inoculation, microscopic examination of skin scrapings, and dermatohistopathology along with hematology and biochemistry.
Keywords: bacterial, canines, fungal, non-parasitic dermatoses.

Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract

Research (Published online: 24-11-2015)
12. Biochemical studies in experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler chicken supplemented with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf extract - Vikash Sharma, K. K. Jakhar, Vikas Nehra and Sarvan Kumar
Veterinary World, 8(11): 1340-1345

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1340-1345

Aim: An experimental study was conducted on 192-day-old broiler chicks for evaluating the effect of 10% neem leaf extract (NLE) supplementationon biochemical parameters in chickens experimentally infected with Escherichia coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml at 7 days of age.
Materials and Methods: The 192-day-old broiler chicks were procured. These chicks were divided into two groups (A and B) containing 96 birds each on the 1st day. Diet of all the chicks of Group A was supplemented with 10%NLE in water, whereas chicks of Group B were given feed and water devoid of NLE supplementation throughout the experiment. After rearing for 1 week, chicks of both the groups (A and B) were again divided into two subgroups (Group A into A1 and A2 and Group B into B1 and B2) of 54 and 42 birds, respectively. At the age of 7 days all the chicks of groups A1 and B1 were injected with E. coli O78 at 107 CFU/0.5 ml intraperitoneally. Blood samples were collected from six chicks from each group at day 0, 2, 4, 7, 14, 21, 28 days post-infection and serum was separated for biochemical studies.
Results: There was a significant increase in serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities, globulin concentration and a decrease in total protein (TP), albumin concentrations, and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in both the infected groups. However, the changes in biochemical values, i.e., ALT, AST, LDH, ALP, TP, albumin, and globulin wereof lower magnitude in NLE supplemented group suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.
Conclusions: Fromthe present study, it is reasonable to conclude that significant increase in the value of ALT, AST, LDH, globulin, and significant decrease in the value of ALP, TP, and albumin was of lower magnitude in supplemented infected group (A1) as compared to non-supplemented infected group (B1) suggesting hepatoprotective and cardioprotective effect of NLE.
Keywords: biochemical studies, chicken, experimentally Escherichia coli infected broiler, neem leaf extract.

Histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of infectious bursal disease in poultry birds

Research (Published online: 24-11-2015)
11. Histopathological and immunohistochemical diagnosis of infectious bursal disease in poultry birds - J. Singh, H. S. Banga, R. S. Brar, N. D. Singh, S. Sodhi and G. D. Leishangthem
Veterinary World, 8(11): 1331-1339

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1331-1339

Aim: The aim of the present study was to diagnose infectious bursal disease (IBD) using gross, histopathological, and immunopathological approaches and to compare efficacy of immunohistochemical techniques with conventional diagnostic techniques.
Materials and Methods: A total of 33 samples were collected from the six different poultry farms from Ludhiana and the nearby districts. Upon gross analysis of the necropsied birds, the relevant tissue samples such as bursa, kidney, junction of proventriculus and gizzard, heart, and muscles were then processed for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies.
Results: Varied macroscopic changes were noted in bursa, characterized as swollen, hemorrhages to atrophy in size. Nonetheless, hemorrhages over thigh muscles were rarely seen. Histologically, the bursa showed prominent fibrotic and atrophic changes. Rarefaction of bursal follicles with intermittent infiltration of lympho-mononuclear cells with chronic cystic changes was additional changes, considered to be paramount for IBD. Expression and localization of IBD specific viral antigens were noticed mainly intracellular to the rarefied areas of bursal follicle section(s), in conjunction to inner lining of the cystic cavities of affected follicles. In addition, the junction of proventriculus and gizzard, the heart muscle, respiratory ciliated epithelium, and proventriculus also revealed positive expression to IBD virus (IBDV) antigen. Advanced immunopathological techniques, i.e., immunofluorescence further testified the evidence of antigen as positive green signal within affected follicles. Further consideration to the reliability of various techniques employed, positive correlation (r=0.64623) was emerged out with conventional pathological scoring.
Conclusion: It is concluded that the bursa acts as an organ of choice for demonstrating IBDV antigen for specific diagnosis of disease using immunohistochemistry (IHC), and IHC staining is a precise, specific, rapid, and reliable method to demonstrate the IBDV antigen in the altered tissues due to IBDV infection.
Keywords: histopathology, immunohistochemical, infectious bursal disease.

Sunday, 22 November 2015

A retrospective study on findings of canine hip dysplasia screening in Kenya

Research (Published online: 22-11-2015)
10. A retrospective study on findings of canine hip dysplasia screening in Kenya - Peter Kimeli, Susan W. Mbugua, Roger M. Cap, Gilbert Kirui, Tequiero O. Abuom, Willy E. Mwangi, Ambrose N. Kipyegon and John D. Mande
Veterinary World, 8(11): 1326-1330

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1326-1330

Aim: The current study was undertaken to evaluate the findings of canine hip dysplasia screening in Kenya.
Materials and Methods: Records for 591 dogs were included in this study. The data was obtained from the national screening office, Kenya Veterinary Board, for the period between the years 1998 and 2014. Monthly screening records were assessed and information relating to year of evaluation, breed, sex, age, and hip score captured. Descriptive statistics of hip scores was computed based on year, sex, age, and breed.
Results: A total of 591 records from the year 1998 to 2014 were retrieved at the National Screening Centre, the Kenya Veterinary Board. Each record was examined and data pertaining to year of screening, the breed, sex, age of the dogs, and the total hip score were recorded. The highest number of dogs screened for hip dysplasia (HD) was in the year 2009 and the lowest in the year 1998. More females than males were screened for HD and the mean age of all the dogs was 22.9±12.7 months. The most common breeds of dogs screened during the study period were German Shepherd (67.0%), Rottweiler (15.6%), and Labrador Retriever (12.2%). The mean hip score for the 591 dogs was 15.1±10.9 and the median 12.0. The mean hip scores per breed were; German Shepherd (16.3±12.1); Golden Retriever (16.0); Hungarian Vizla (15.0); Labrador Retriever (3.0±6.7); Great Dane (13.3±3.2); Rottweiler (12.2±8.2); Doberman (10.3±4.2); Rhodesian Ridgeback (9.6±3.8); and Boxer (9.3±0.6). Based on the hip score, moderate to severe HD was diagnosed in 16.6% of the dogs, mild HD in 32.7%, Borderline HD in 37.7%, fair HD in 6.9%, and good HD in 6.1%.
Conclusion: Canine HD is a common occurrence in Kenya with most dogs suffering mild to border line HD. In addition, German Shepherd and Golden Retriever appear to be the most affected breeds. It is therefore recommended that stringent measures be imposed to dog breeding programs to avoid transmission of this undesirable trait and consequently improve the welfare and the quality of dog breeds in Kenya.
Keywords: dogs, hip dysplasia, hip score, Kenya.

Staining of Platyhelminthes by herbal dyes: An eco-friendly technique for the taxonomist

Research (Published online: 22-11-2015)
9. Staining of Platyhelminthes by herbal dyes: An eco-friendly technique for the taxonomist - Niranjan Kumar, Jadav Mehul, Bhupamani Das and J. B. Solanki
Veterinary World, 8(11): 1321-1325

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1321-1325

Aim: An environment compatible technique to stain Platyhelminthes, Fasciola giganticaGastrothylax crumeniferTaenia solium, andMoniezia expansa using aqueous and alcoholic extract of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris), China rose (Hibiscus rosasinensis), and red rose (Rosa hybrida) were described to minimized the deleterious effects of the synthetic dyes.
Materials and Methods: Aqueous/ethanolic extracts of roses were extracted from the flowers while red beet was extracted from the roots.
Results: Stained helminthes acquired a comparable level of pigmentation with the distinction of their internal structure in these natural dyes. The flukes (liver and rumen) internal structure, oral and ventral/posterior sucker, cirrus sac, gravid uterus, testes, ovary, and vitallaria were appeared pink color in aqueous and alcoholic extract of either China or red rose and yellow to brown color in sugar beet stain. The interior of the proglottid of T. solium and M. expansa took yellow to brown color with good contrast in sugar beet stain and of pink to pink-red in China and red rose stain.
Conclusion: The extract of roses (red rose followed by China rose) followed by red beet possess the potential to replace the conventional stains in the taxonomic study of Platyhelminthes parasites.
Keywords: herbal dyes, Platyhelminthes, rose, sugar beet.

Electrocardiogram pattern of some exotic breeds of trained dogs: A variation study

Research (Published online: 22-11-2015)
8. Electrocardiogram pattern of some exotic breeds of trained dogs: A variation study - Joydip Mukherjee, Pradip Kumar Das, Prabal Ranjan Ghosh, Dipak Banerjee, Tripti Sharma, Debananda Basak and Sagar Sanyal
Veterinary World, 8(11): 1317-1320

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1317-1320

Aim: The present study has been conducted to evaluate the variation in electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters among different trained breeds of dogs (viz. Labrador, German Shepherd, and Golden Retriever) used for security reasons.
Materials and Methods: The ECG was recorded by single channel ECG at a paper speed of 25 mm/s and calibration of 10 mm=1 mV. The recordings were taken from all the standard bipolar limb leads (Lead-I, II, and III) and unipolar augmented limb leads (Lead-aVR, aVL, and aVF).
Results: Heart rate was found to be highest in Labrador and lowest in German Shepherd. P-wave duration was maximum in Golden Retriever breed and lowest in Labrador. Maximum amplitude of P-wave was found in Labrador followed by German Shepherd and Golden Retriever. There was significantly (p<0.05) higher values of PR interval in German Shepherd compared to other breeds. The variation in QRS duration, ST segment duration, T-wave duration, and T-wave amplitude was found to be non-significant among breeds. Inverted T-waves were most common in Golden Retriever and German Shepherd, whereas positive T-waves were found in Labrador. There was significant (p<0.05) variation in mean electrical axis of QRS complex among different breeds and it ranges from +60° to +80°.
Conclusion: The present study provides the reference values for different ECG parameters to monitor the cardiac health status among Labrador, German Shepherd, and Golden Retriever breeds.
Keywords: dog, electrocardiogram, mean electrical axis.

Saturday, 21 November 2015

Comparative efficacy of different estrus synchronization protocols on estrus induction response, fertility and plasma progesterone and biochemical profile in crossbred anestrus cows

Research (Published online: 21-11-2015)
7. Comparative efficacy of different estrus synchronization protocols on estrus induction response, fertility and plasma progesterone and biochemical profile in crossbred anestrus cows - A. J. Dhami, B. B. Nakrani, K. K. Hadiya, J. A. Patel and R. G. Shah
Veterinary World, 8(11): 1310-1316

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1310-1316

Aim: To evaluate estrus induction response and fertility including plasma progesterone and biochemical profile following use of three standard hormonal protocols in anestrus crossbred cows.
Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 40 true anestrus and 10 normal cyclic cows. 10 anestrus cows each were treated with standard intravaginal controlled internal drug release (CIDR) device, Ovsynch (GPG) protocol, and Norgestomet ear implant with fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI). 10 anestrus cows were kept as untreated control while 10 cows exhibiting the first estrus within 90 days postpartum without any treatment served as normal cyclic control. Blood samples were obtained from treated cows on day 0, 7, 9 (AI) of treatment and day 21 post-AI, and from control groups on the day of AI and day 21 post-AI for estimation of plasma progesterone, protein, cholesterol, calcium, and inorganic phosphorus profile.
Results: The use of CIDR, Ovsynch, and Norgestomet ear implant protocols resulted in 100% estrus induction with conception rates at induced estrus of 60%, 50%, and 50%, and the overall of three cycles as 80%, 80%, and 70%. In untreated anestrus control (n=10), only three cows exhibited spontaneous estrus within 90 days of follow-up and conceived giving the first service and overall conception rates of 66.66% and 30.00%, respectively. In normal cyclic control (n=10), the conception rates at first and overall of three cycles were 50% and 80%. The overall mean plasma progesterone (P4) concentrations in anestrus cows studied on day 0 (initiation), 7 (prostaglandin injection and/or removal of implant), 9 (FTAI) of treatment and on day 21 post-AI revealed that the values on day 7 and 21 were significantly (p<0.01) higher than other two periods in all three groups. The concentrations were significantly (p<0.05) higher in conceived than non-conceived group on day 21 post-AI in CIDR (4.36±0.12 vs. 1.65±0.82 ng/ml) and Ovsynch (4.85±0.62 vs. 1.59±0.34 ng/ml), but not in Norgestomet ear implant (4.50±0.53 vs. 3.02±1.15 ng/ml) or normal cyclic group (5.39±0.67 vs. 3.13±0.37 ng/ml). The cholesterol and protein levels were significantly higher, but not the calcium and phosphorus, in normal cyclic control than in anestrus groups. The influence of treatment days and pregnancy status was not significant for any of the biochemical constituents in any of the groups.
Conclusion: Ovsynch and/or CIDR synchronization protocol can be effectively used to improve fertility up to 80% in anestrus cows, as compared to 30% in anestrus control, combined with plasma progesterone to delineate the reproductive status before and after treatment.
Keywords: anestrus, conception rate, cow, estrus induction, fertile estrus induction interval,treatment protocols.

Therapeutic management of botulism in dairy cattle

Research (Published online: 21-11-2015)
6. Therapeutic management of botulism in dairy cattle - S. Jegaveera Pandian, M. Subramanian, G. Vijayakumar, G. A. Balasubramaniam and K. Sukumar
Veterinary World, 8(11): 1305-1309

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1305-1309

Aim: To report the successful recovery of few dairy cattle from botulism in response to a modified therapeutic strategy.
Materials and Methods: Seventy four naturally-occurring clinical cases of bovine botulism encountered during the period of 2012-2014 which were confirmed by mouse lethality test became material for this study. Affected animals were made into three groups based on the treatment modifications made during the course of study.
Results and Discussion: With the modified therapeutic regimen, 17 animals recovered after 7-10 days of treatment. Clinical recovery took 2-30 days. Animals which were not given intravenous fluid and calcium recovered uneventfully. Cattle which were already treated with intravenous fluids, calcium borogluconate, and antibiotics did not recover. They were either died or slaughtered for salvage.
Conclusion: In cattle with botulism, administration of Vitamin AD3E and activated charcoal aid the clinical recovery. Besides, strictly avoiding anti-clostridial antibiotics, fluid therapy, and calcium therapy may facilitate the clinical recovery. Upon fluid administration, the pulmonary congestion existed in the ailing cattle might have worsened the anoxia. Administration of antibiotics like penicillin, aminoglycosides, and tetracyclines further worsen the neuronal paralysis by increasing the availability of botulinum neurotoxin. Cattle in early botulism have fair chances of recovery with the modified therapy.
Keywords: botulism, cattle, neurotoxin, paralysis, therapy.

Saturday, 14 November 2015

Prevalence and epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum from poultry in some parts of Haryana, India

Research (Published online: 14-11-2015)
5. Prevalence and epidemiology of Salmonella enterica serovar Gallinarum from poultry in some parts of Haryana, India - Devan Arora, Suresh Kumar, Naresh Jindal, Gulshan Narang, P. K. Kapoor and N. K. Mahajan
Veterinary World, 8(11): 1300-1304

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1300-1304

Aim: The present study was investigated to ascertain the epidemiological status of fowl typhoid (FT) in broilers in some parts of Haryana during January 2011 to December 2013.
Materials and Methods: To elucidate the epidemiological status of FT in broiler chickens for the 3 years (2011-2013) and to study the prevalence of various Salmonella serovars in poultry on the basis of culture characteristics, biochemical features, serotyping, and their antibiogram profile from some parts of Haryana (India).
Results: A total of 309 outbreaks of FT were recorded in chickens during this period. Overall percent morbidity, mortality, case-fatality rate (CFR) in broiler chicks due to FT during this period was 9.45, 6.77, and 71.55. The yearly observations were divided into quarters A (January-March), B (April-June), C (July-September) and D (October-December). Maximum number of outbreaks - 106 (34.3%) was recorded in quarter D followed by quarters B - 84 (27.3%), C - 64 (20.7%), and A - 55 (17.7%). Salmonella isolates (253) were recovered from disease outbreaks in broilers from different parts of Haryana. Typical morphology and colony characters on MacConkeys Lactose Agar and Brilliant Green agar, biochemical reactions, serotyping along with antibiogram profiles were able to group these isolates into 3 groups namely Salmonella Gallinarum (183), Salmonella Enteritidis (41) and Salmonella Typhimurium (29). The antibiogram pattern of 183 isolates of S. Gallinarum revealed that most of the isolates were sensitive to gentamicin (76%) followed by amikacin (72%), kanamycin (71%).
Conclusion: FT is prevalent in commercial broiler flocks in different parts of Haryana and is responsible for considerably high morbidity and mortality in affected flocks. Isolation of S. Gallinarum (9, 12:183) from FT cases suggest it to be the primary pathogen, however, isolation of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis from these cases is a major concern. The detection of S. Enteritidis and S. Typhimurium from FT cases assumes significance from public health point of view.
Keywords: antibiogram, salmonella gallinarum, serotyping.

Exploring the effects of inclusion of dietary fresh Azolla on the performance of White Pekin broiler ducks

Research (Published online: 14-11-2015)
4. Exploring the effects of inclusion of dietary fresh Azolla on the performance of White Pekin broiler ducks - Parag Acharya, G. P. Mohanty, C. R. Pradhan, S. K. Mishra, N. C. Beura and B. Moharana
Veterinary World, 8(11): 1293-1299

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1293-1299

Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the dietary advantages of inclusion of unconventional nutrient source, i.e., Azolla in the basal diet of White Pekin broilers.
Materials and Methods: All ducklings were randomly distributed into three treatment groups with three replicates each and each replicate having 12 ducklings and were reared in deep litter system. Groups were subjected to three dietary treatments such as G1: Basal diet, G2: Basal diet + 5% fresh Azolla of basal diet, G3: Basal diet + 10% fresh Azolla of basal diet. During experimental period, parameters, such as bodyweight, bodyweight gain, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio (FCR), and economic of production, were recorded.
Results: The result showed that body weights in every week, except the 5th week, did not differ significantly between groups. However, no significant difference was observed between the groups in any week in terms of absolute body weight gain and feed consumption. As regard to FCR, the 10% Azolla group (G3) showed the best feed efficiency followed by the 5% Azolla group (G2) and the control group (G1). On the basis of profit/bird or profit/kg live weight, each of the Azolla-fed group showed a higher economic efficiency than the control.
Conclusion: From the experiment, it was concluded that Azolla at 5 or 10% level can be included in the diet to economize the White Pekin broiler farming, and it can be great impetus to poultry farming to include unconventional nutrient source as a dietary supplement.
Keywords: Azolla, body weight gain, economic efficiency, feed conversion ratio, White Pekin broilers.