Thursday, 30 April 2015

One Health approach: A platform for intervention in emerging public health challenges of Kerala state

Review (Published online: 01-05-2015)
3. One Health approach: A platform for intervention in emerging public health challenges of Kerala state - A. Sukumaran and A. S. Pradeepkumar
International Journal of One Health, 1: 14-25


The authors, key functionaries in the Kerala state public health system, review the communicable disease scenario of the state for the past 4 years, and in the background of the One Health concept, opines that the re-emerged discipline is perfectly in tune with the current challenges of the state. The unique model of Kerala state is witnessing newer challenges in its public health arena: The rapidly increasing migrant workforce from relatively poorer states of India, rapid urbanization and its consequent stress on public health, unsolved issues of urban waste disposal, reemergence of many communicable diseases like malaria, more so, the falciparum type, emergence of many zoonotic diseases like Lyme disease, scrub typhus, and Kyasanur forest disease etc. Conventional zoonotic infections such as anthrax and brucellosis remain potential threat for human health as well. Rabies continued to cause major concern from mortality point of view, as well as major drainer of state’s budget every year. Leptospirosis has remained major burden among the communicable disease for the past 10 years, and the annual incidence ranged from 2 to 7 per 100,000 population. Having a large section of its people working in various agriculture and animal rearing occupations, the state has all risk factors for propagation of Leptospirosis, but lacks interdisciplinary collaboration in its control and prevention area, the author highlights major avenues for collaboration. Japanese encephalitis appeared as an epidemic in 2011 in two of the southern districts in Kerala, one of the districts being famous tourist spot for both humans, as well as migrant birds. There is ample scope for collaborative research on the source of the virus, and in the subsequent years, the disease had been detected in more districts. Lyme disease was reported for the first time in India, from one of the districts in Kerala, promptly investigated by a joint team from Human Public Health and Veterinary Public Health institutions in 2013, reiterating the role of interdisciplinary collaboration in outbreak investigations. Influenza had been evolving rapidly in the state from the seasonal type earlier, to H1N1 since past few years, now poised for an emergence of MERS Corona and still expected are the more fatal and highly pathogenic types. The migratory bird-pig-domestic birds-human interface being a well-knit network in the state is most suitable for all new variant s of influenza virus evolution. Outbreaks of these infectious diseases need investigations by combined teams from departments such as Human Health, Animal Health, and Wild Life. The One Health concept thus becomes appropriate to address such an eventuality. The authors have concluded by identifying the probable avenues for collaborative works in addressing the public health challenges of Kerala state, India.
Keywords: Emerging challenges, food borne infections, Kerala’s public heatlh, Lyme disease, one health concept, zoonoses.

Status of Taenia solium cysticercosis and predisposing factors in developing countries involved in pig farming

Review (Published online: 01-05-2015)
2Status of Taenia solium cysticercosis and predisposing factors in developing countries involved in pig farming - Joseph M. Kungu, Michel M. Dione, Michael Ocaido and Francis Ejobi
International Journal of One Health, 1: 6-13.


Taenia solium cysticercosis is a disease of pigs and humans populations considered endemic in many developing countries of Latin America, Africa, and South East Asia having serious impact on public health and agriculture. We conducted an in-depth comparative analysis of literature on the disease situation and predisposing factors in selected countries known to be at the interface of poverty-emerging livestock systems-zoonoses and with a growing small holder pig industry. Transmission, methods of diagnosis and employed control strategies of T. solium infection in pig and human populations in these countries are also discussed. Limited knowledge on porcine cysticercosis (PC) by various stakeholders expected to be key players in its control has undermined efforts for eliminating this potentially eradicable condition. Poor pig production practices, poor hygiene, and sanitation habits have also been important in the maintenance of theT. solium life-cycle. The major gaps identified in this review include scanty current information on PC prevalence in pigs with hardly any reports on the condition in humans in most developing countries. Factors affecting pattern of the infection and how they interact at the different levels of the pig value chain have not been exhaustively studied. Information on socioeconomic and public health impact is inadequate and not current.
Keywords: Cysticercosis, developing countries, eradication, risk factors, Taenia solium.

Wednesday, 29 April 2015

Evaluation of Yucca schidigera extract as feed additive on performance of broiler chicks in winter season

Research (Published online: 29-04-2015)
24. Evaluation of Yucca schidigera extract as feed additive on performance of broiler chicks in winter season - Sarada Prasanna Sahoo, Daljeet Kaur, A. P. S. Sethi, A. Sharma and M. Chandra
Veterinary World, 8(4): 556-560

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.556-560

Aim: Yucca schidigera extract has been successfully used as feed additives in the poultry industry. It enhances the growth and productivity in broiler production. Hence, the present study was designed to analyze the effect of Y. schidigera extract in growth, carcass quality and behavior along with its economical utility in broiler rearing.
Materials and Methods: Total, 120 numbers of day-old broiler chicks of equal sex ratio were randomly divided into Yucca supplemented treatment and control group, each having 60 birds in three replications of 20 numbers. The feeding management and rearing conditions were similar for all the groups as per the standard except the Yucca supplementation in the treatment group @ 125 mg/kg of feed. The parameters with respect to growth, carcass, behavior, and litter content were recorded as per standard procedures.
Results: The Yucca supplementation can effectively enhance growth of 173 g in 6th week by utilizing lesser feed intake than control group, which ultimately proves better feed conversion rate, protein efficiency ratio, and energy efficiency ratio in broiler production. Eviscerated weight of 58.50% for the treatment group was significantly higher (p<0.05) than 54.10% in the control group. The breast meat yield of Yucca group (32.23%) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than control (30.33%). More frequency of agonistic behavioral expressions was noticed in the control group than the treatment group. A profit of 43.68% was received by usage of Yucca supplementation in the diet on live weight basis. Numerically, lower percentage of moisture was present in Yucca treated group than the control.
Conclusion: From this study, it can be concluded that Yucca supplementation has an important role in augmenting broiler‘s growth performance, efficiency to utilize feed, protein and energy, and survivability. Hence, use of Yucca powder in broiler ration could be beneficial to maintain the litter quality, which directly enhances the productivity in broiler production without any adverse effect.
Keywords: broiler, feed additives, winter season, Yucca schidigera.

Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

Research (Published online: 29-04-2015)
23. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro - Mahima, Vinod Kumar, S. K. Tomar, Debashis Roy and Muneendra Kumar
Veterinary World, 8(4): 551-555

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.551-555

Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde.
Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05) effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP), TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g) was observed in almost all the treatments.
Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05) as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group.
Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.
Keywords: ammonia release, in vitro gas fermentation technique, mustard cake, ruminal fluid, ruminal fermentation, protected protein, protein fractions, volatile fatty acids.

Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India

Research (Published online: 29-04-2015)
22. Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India - Korrapati Kotinagu and Nelapati Krishnaiah
Veterinary World, 8(4): 545-550

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.545-550

Aim: The present study was conducted to find the organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and organophosphorus pesticide (OPP) residues in fodder and milk samples along Musi river belt, India.
Materials and Methods: Fodder and milk samples collected from the six zones of Musi river belt, Hyderabad India were analyzed by gas chromatography with electron capture detector for OCP residues and pulsated flame photometric detector for the presence of OPP residues.
Results: The gas chromatographic analysis of fodder samples of Zone 5 of Musi river showed the residues of dicofol at concentration of 0.07±0.0007 (0.071-0.077). Among organophosphorus compounds, dimetheoate was present in milk samples collected from Zone 6 at a level of 0.13±0.006 (0.111-0.167). The residues of OCPs, OPPs and cyclodies were below the detection limit in the remaining fodder and milk samples collected from Musi river belt in the present study.
Conclusion: The results indicate that the pesticide residues in fodder and milk samples were well below the maximum residue level (MRL) values, whereas dicofol in fodder and dimethoate in milk were slightly above the MRL values specified by EU and CODEX.
Keywords: fodder, gas chromatography, milk, Musi river, pesticide residues.

Prevalence of classical swine fever in Karnataka, India

Research (Published online: 29-04-2015)
21. Prevalence of classical swine fever in Karnataka, India - Prakash Choori, S. S. Patil, D. Rathnamma, R. Sharada, B. M. Chandranaik, S. Isloor, G. B. Manjunath Reddy, S. Geetha and H. Rahman
Veterinary World, 8(4): 541-544

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.541-544

Aim: The present study was conducted to know the current scenario of classical swine fever (CSF) in Bengaluru Urban, Bengaluru Rural, Chikkaballapur, Madikeri, Mandya, Bagalkot, Gadag, Yadgir, Koppal, and Bidar districts of Karnataka with the using of both antigen and antibody ELISA.
Materials and Methods: We collected 218 sera and 121 blood samples from pigs from 10 different districts of Karnataka. Screening of sera for CSF IgG antibody and whole blood for CSF virus antigen were carried out using the CSF virus (CSFV) antibody and antigen ELISA kits, respectively.
Results: The mean seroprevalence was 41% (89/218) and prevalence of CSFV antigen in blood samples was 32% (39/121) for the 10 districts of Karnataka. Seroprevalence of 61%, 29%, 20%, and 21%; and antigen prevalence of 40%, 50%, 13%, and 12% were recorded for Bangalore, Mysore, Belgaum, and Gulbarga divisions of Karnataka, respectively.
Conclusions: The study revealed an alarmingly high prevalence of CSF, both for the antigen (32%) and antibody (41%) in Karnataka. Southern Karnataka has the highest seroprevalence (61% in Bangalore and 29% in Mysore divisions), which confirms the endemicity of the disease in that region. This could be attributed to the intensive pig farming practices in the region as compared to Northern Karnataka (Seroprevalence of 20% in Belgaum and 21% in Gulbarga divisions), where the commercial pig farming is still in infantile stages.
Keywords: antigen, antibody, classical swine fever, ELISA and prevalence.

Friday, 24 April 2015

Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats

Research (Published online: 24-04-2015)
20. Hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium toxicity in rats Reetu Toppo, Birendra Kumar Roy, Ravuri Halley Gora, Sushma Lalita Baxla and Prabhat Kumar
Veterinary World, 8(4): 537-540

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.537-540

Aim: The present investigation has been conducted to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Moringa oleifera against cadmium-induced toxicity in rats.
Materials and Methods: For this study, 18 Wistar albino rats were taken. Control group, Group I rats were given cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg and Group II rats were treated with M. oleifera extract @ 500 mg/kg along with cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm per kg (daily oral for 28 days). On 29th day, animals were slaughtered and various parameters were determined. Serum biomarkers, oxidative stress parameters, histomorphological examination were carried out with estimation of cadmium concentration in liver tissues.
Results: Oral administration of cadmium chloride @ 200 ppm/kg for 28 days resulted in a significant increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), significant (p0.01) increase of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), and increase in cadmium accumulation in liver. Treatment with M. oleifera @ 500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.01) decreased the elevated ALP, AST, ALT, LPO levels and increase in SOD levels, and as compared to cadmium chloride treated group. However, there was no significant difference in cadmium concentration in liver when compared with cadmium chloride treated group.
Conclusion: The study conclude that supplementation of M. oleifera (500 mg/kg), daily oral for 28 days has shown protection against cadmium-induced hepatotoxicity.
Keywords: cadmium, Moringa oleifera, rats, serum bio-markers, toxicity.

Single nucleotide markers of D-loop for identification of Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus)

Research (Published online: 24-04-2015)
19. Single nucleotide markers of D-loop for identification of Indian wild pig (Sus scrofa cristatus) - Gaurav Kumar Srivastava, Nidhi Rajput, Kajal Kumar Jadav, Avadh Bihari Shrivastav and Himanshu R. Joshi
Veterinary World, 8(4): 532-536

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.532-536

Aim: Partial fragment of D-loop region extending from 35 to 770 were compared with corresponding sequences of 16 wild pigs and 9 domestic pig breeds from different parts of the world for detection of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the region. The paper also reappraises SNP markers from two fragments of cytochrome b gene and a fragment 12S rRNA gene distinguishing the Indian wild pig from other pig species of the world.
Materials and Methods: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) was isolated from 14 and 12 tissue samples of Indian wild and domestic pigs, respectively, collected from Central India for characterization of the D-loop DNA sequences using universal primers. The sequences obtained were aligned along with the retrieved sequences to analyze species-specific SNP marker.
Results: A total of 58 mitochondrial D-loop gene sequences of pig races were aligned to identify 1349 polymorphic sites in the fragment from nucleotide positions 35-770 bp and four SNP markers were identified to differentiate Indian wild pig from all the sequences investigated in this study. With the inclusion of cytochrome b gene and 12S rRNA gene fragments, the present study contributes to the total 15 SNP markers, which have been identified in the mitochondrial fragment of 1936 bp for identification of Indian wild pig.
Conclusion: SNP markers have advantages over other marker types and do not require subsequent standardization to compare data across studies or laboratories.
Keywords: D-loop, Indian wild pig, single nucleotide markers, species identification.

Wednesday, 22 April 2015

Genetic characterization of Gaddi goat breed of Western Himalayas using microsatellite markers

Research (Published online: 22-04-2015)
18. Genetic characterization of Gaddi goat breed of Western Himalayas using microsatellite markers - Gurdeep Singh, Yashpal Thakur, Amitoz Kour, Varun Sankhyan and Sanjeet Katoch
Veterinary World, 8(4): 527-531

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.527-531

Aim: In the present study, genetic characterization of Gaddi goat breed, a native to north temperate western Himalayan region of India, was carried out for the purpose of breed characterization and assessing existing intra-population genetic diversity.
Materials and Methods: Totally, 75 blood samples procured at random from genetically unrelated animals of two sexes and different age groups and true to breed type were collected from different locations in the breeding tract of these goats in Himachal Pradesh, of which only 51 samples with desired quantity and quality were subjected to further processing for DNA isolation. The multi-locus genotype data were generated on 51 Gaddi goats sampled across different regions of the breeding tract in Himachal Pradesh using 15 FAO recommended goat specific microsatellite markers, which gave amplification and observed and effective number of alleles, gene frequency, observed and expected heterozygosity were estimated through PopGene software (1.3.1).
Results: A total of 135 distinct alleles were observed with mean observed and effective number of alleles as 9.0000±0.82 and 6.5874±0.56 respectively across all 15 studied loci. The maximum (15) alleles were contributed by loci DRBP1 and P19/DYA and the least (5) by SRCRSP5. The mean heterozygosity was observed to be 0.8347±0.01 ranging from 0.7584 (SRCRSP5) to 0.9156 (P19-DYA) across all loci. The mean observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities across all loci were 0.7484±0.02 and 0.8431±0.01 respectively. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value ranged from 0.7148 (SRCPS5) to 0.909 (P19-DYA) with mean PIC of 0.8105±0.01 in the present study. The average heterozygosity was observed to be 0.8347±0.01 ranging from 0.7584 (SRCRSP5) to 0.9156 P19 (DYA) across all loci.
Conclusion: Microsatellite analysis revealed high level of polymorphism across studied microsatellite markers and informativeness of the markers for genetic diversity analysis studies in Gaddi goats. This high level of polymorphism can be utilized to plan future association studies to exploit the uniqueness and adaptability of indigenous Gaddi goat breed of Western Himalayas. Most studied microsatellite markers had desired neutrality, thus proving to be good candidates for genetic characterization and diversity analysis in Gaddi breed of goats also.
Keywords: characterization, Gaddi goat, microsatellite markers, Western Himalayas.

Utility of a rapid immunochromatographic strip test in detecting canine parvovirus infection compared with polymerase chain reaction

Research (Published online: 21-04-2015)
17. Utility of a rapid immunochromatographic strip test in detecting canine parvovirus infection compared with polymerase chain reactionSundaran S. Tinky, R. Ambily, Sreeja R. Nair and Mangattumuruppel Mini
Veterinary World, 8(4): 523-526

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.523-526

Aim: The present study was undertaken to detect the presence of canine parvovirus (CPV) in fecal samples of diarrheic dogs by conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and immunochromatographic (IC) strip test and to compare the diagnostic potential of these tests.
Materials and Methods: A total of 50 fecal samples collected from diarrheic dogs suspected for CPV infection were subjected to PCR using CPV-555 primer amplifying the gene coding for the VP1 protein. These samples were also tested by IC strip test using a commercial rapid Ag test kit. The results were statistically analyzed using McNemar test.
Results: A total of 22 samples (44%) were detected as positive by PCR, which yielded a specific amplicon of 583 bp. In IC strip test, 18 (36%) samples were found to be positive. The sensitivity of the test as compared to PCR was found to be 72.22% and specificity was 92.86%. Positive predictive value and negative predictive value of IC strip test was found to be 88.89% and 81.25%, respectively. Statistical analysis of the results of PCR and IC assay using McNemar test revealed no significant difference (p>0.05).
Conclusion: The IC strip test could be employed as a rapid field level diagnostic tool for the diagnosis of canine parvoviral diarrhea.
Keywords: canine parvoviral diarrhea, immunochromatographic strip test, polymerase chain reaction.

Optimizing age of bull at first use in relation to fertility of Murrah breeding bulls

Research (Published online: 21-04-2015)
16. Optimizing age of bull at first use in relation to fertility of Murrah breeding bulls M. A. Mir, A. K. Chakravarty, A. K. Gupta, B. C. Naha, V. Jamuna, C. S. Patil and A. P. Singh
Veterinary World, 8(4): 518-522

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.518-522

Aim: The aim of the present investigation was to optimize the age at first use (AAFU) of semen of Murrah breeding bulls, which will help in early selection of bulls under progeny testing program for improving the reproductive performance in the herd.
Materials and Methods: The data on AAFU, conception rate based on first A.I. (CRFAI), overall conception rate (OCR), and birth weight (B.WT) of 57 Murrah bulls during 1993-2014 at NDRI center pertaining to 14 sets of Network Project on Buffalo Improvement at ICAR-National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal, Haryana, India were adjusted for significant environmental influences and subsequently analyzed. Simple and multiple regression models were used for prediction of CRFAI and OCR of Murrah breeding bulls. Comparative evaluation of three developed models (I-III) showed that Model III, having AAFU and B.WT, fulfill the accuracy of model as revealed by high coefficient of determination, low mean sum of squares due to error, low conceptual predictive value, and low Bayesian information criterion.
Results: The results revealed that the average predicted CRFAI was highest (39.95%) at <3.5 years and lowest (34.87%) at >4.5 years of age at first A.I/use. Similarly, average predicted OCR was highest (41.05%) at <3.5 years and lowest (39.42%) at >4.5 years of age at first A.I/use of Murrah bulls.
Conclusion: In organized herd under progeny testing program, Murrah bulls should be used at young age, i.e. prior to 3.5 years, which is expected to result in 5.08% better CRFAI and 1.63% better OCR in comparison to Murrah bulls used after 4.5 years of age.
Keywords: age at first use, conception rate based on first A.I., Murrah bull, overall conception rate.

Sunday, 19 April 2015

Hemato-biochemical and hormonal profiles in post-partum water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)

Research (Published online: 19-04-2015)
15. Hemato-biochemical and hormonal profiles in post-partum water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) - Sunil Kumar, A. K. Balhara, Rajesh Kumar, Naresh Kumar, Lukumoni Buragohain, Daoharu Baro, R. K. Sharma, S. K. Phulia and Inderjeet Singh
Veterinary World, 8(4): 512-517

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.512-517

Aim: The objective of the present study was to compare serum as well as follicular fluid (FF) biochemical and hormonal profiles along with hematological parameters in postpartum estrus, anestrus, and cystic buffaloes.
Materials and Methods: Postpartum buffaloes were selected in three different groups (within 40-60 days of parturition at estrus-Group-I, postpartum >90 days at anestrum-Group-II, and postpartum cystic buffaloes in Group III). The animals selected were examined for follicular wave dynamics by routine trans-rectal ultrasonography and FF was collected by transvaginal ultrasound-guided ovum pick up technique. All hematological and biochemical parameters were analyzed by automatic analyzers while hormonal profiles analyzed by commercially available ELISA kits.
Results: In the present investigation, estrum and anestrum animal differ significantly in hemoglobin levels. Serum estradiol differs significantly in estrus and anestrus while no significant difference in progesterone concentration was noted among all three stages. The results of our study suggest that significant higher increase in total protein (TP), calcium and glucose values in estrum while urea, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase significantly higher in anestrum animals.
Conclusion: The conclusion of the present study is that TP and albumin, calcium, urea, glucose affects oocyte development and quality.
Keywords: biochemical, buffalo, follicular fluid, hematology, ovum pick up.

Pharmacokinetic interaction of curcumin and glibenclamide in diabetic rats

Research (Published online: 19-04-2015)
14. Pharmacokinetic interaction of curcumin and glibenclamide in diabetic rats P. R. Sakunthala Devi, A. Gopala Reddy, G. S. Rao, C. S. V. Satish Kumar and G. Boobalan
Veterinary World, 8(4): 508-511

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.508-511

Aim: The aim was to assess the pharmacokinetic (PK) interaction of curcumin and glibenclamide (GL) in diabetic rats.
Materials and Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats induced with diabetes were divided into 2 groups of six rats in each. Group I: GL (6 mg/kg po once daily) treatment in diabetic rats and group 2: Curcumin (50 mg/Kg po once daily) + GL (dose as above) in diabetic rats. Blood samples were collected at pre-determined time intervals for kinetic analysis after the first and last oral dosing of GL for single and multiple dose studies, respectively. Plasma samples were assayed for GL concentration by high-performance liquid chromatography and PK parameters were analyzed.
Results: The half-life (t1/2) and mean residence time (MRT) of GL were significantly increased in curcumin pre-treated rats as compared to GL alone in single and multiple dose studies. Similarly, the Vdss was significantly increased in curcumin pre-treated rats in single dose study as compared to GL alone treated group, but no significant difference was observed in multiple dose kinetics.
Conclusion: The study revealed higher values (t1/2, MRT and Vdss) of GL in curcumin pre-treated group due to the inhibitory effect of curcumin on intestinal CYP3A4.
Key words: curcumin, glibenclamide, pharmacokinetics, CYP3A4

Sunday, 12 April 2015

Clinico-hemato-biochemical profile of dogs with liver cirrhosis

Research (Published online: 12-04-2015)
10. Clinico-hemato-biochemical profile of dogs with liver cirrhosis - M. A. Elhiblu, K. Dua, J. Mohindroo, S. K. Mahajan, N. K. Sood and P. S. Dhaliwal
Veterinary World, 8(4): 487-491

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.487-491

Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the relevant tools in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis in dogs.
Material and Methods: A total of 140 dogs presented at Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Ludhiana, showing clinical signs of hepatic insufficiency were subjected to clinico-hemato biochemical, urological, ultrasonographic (USG), and USG guided fine-needle biopsy examinations by standard methods. On the basis of these results, 6 dogs out of 140 dogs were found to be suffering from liver cirrhosis. Six clinically healthy dogs constituted the control group.
Results: The dogs suffering from liver cirrhosis manifested inappetence, halitosis, abdominal distension, weight loss, melena, icterus, anemia, and neutrophilic leukocytosis with the left shift. Levels of hemoglobin, lymphocytes, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb (MCH), and platelet count were significantly lower in liver cirrhosis group than control group while total leukocyte count, neutrophils, and MCH concentration were significantly higher. Glucose, total protein, albumin, A/G ratio, and fibrinogen were significantly lower, and creatinine, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, prothrombin time, and APTT were significantly higher than the control values. Ultrasound revealed diffuse increase in echogenicity with rounded and irregular liver margins. Cytological examination of the ascitic fluid and fine-needle aspiration biopsy of liver was not fruitful in the diagnosis of liver cirrhosis.
Conclusions: Liver cirrhosis causes clinical and hemo-biochemical alterations, which require special consideration when treating diseased animals. USG, diffuse increase in echogenicity of liver, rounding and irregularity of liver margins and microhepatica were the consistent findings. It is suggested that USG along with hemo-biochemical alterations may be used as a diagnostic tool for liver cirrhosis in dogs.
Keywords: biochemistry, coagulation profile, dogs, hematology, liver cirrhosis, ultrasonography.

Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers fed with animal fat

Research (Published online: 12-04-2015)
9. Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers fed with animal fat -P. Murali, S. K. George, K. Ally and M. T. Dipu
Veterinary World, 8(4): 482-486

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.482-486

Aim: This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of L-carnitine supplementation on growth performance, nutrient utilization and nitrogen balance in broilers fed with animal fat.
Materials and Methods: 80 day-old Cobb commercial broiler chicks were randomly assigned into two dietary treatment groups with four replicates of ten chicks each. The diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. The birds in both the control (T1) and treatment group (T2) were fed with a diet having 5% animal fat, while the treatment group (T2) was supplemented with 900 mg of L-carnitine. The birds were fed with standard broiler starter ration up to 4 weeks of age and finisher ration up to 6 weeks of age.
Results: The average body weight (g), cumulative feed intake (g) and cumulative feed conversion ratio belonging to groups T1 and T2 at 6th week of age were 2091.25 and 2151.11, 3976.49 and 4171.68, 1.97 and 1.96 respectively. The percentage availability of the nutrients of two experimental rations Tand Twas 68.23 and 68.00 for dry matter, 58.72 and 55.98 for crude protein, 73.85 and 71.35 for ether extract, 34.19 and 33.86 for crude fiber, 79.18 and 79.59 for nitrogen free extract, 70.24 and 70.03 for energy efficiency and nitrogen balance (g/day) were 2.35 and 2.39, respectively.
Conclusion: This study suggests that the supplementation of 900 mg L-carnitine in diet with added animal fat had no effect on growth performance, nutrient utilization, and nitrogen balance of broilers.
Keywords: animal fat, broilers, performance and nutrient utilization, l-carnitine.

Prevalence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus from raw milk samples collected from the local vendors in the region of Tirupathi, India

Research (Published online: 12-04-2015)
8. Prevalence of antibiotic resistant Staphylococcus aureus from raw milk samples collected from the local vendors in the region of Tirupathi, India - Sudhanthirakodi Sudhanthiramani, Chinta Siva Swetha and Sukumar Bharathy
Veterinary World, 8(4): 478-481

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.478-481

Aim: The study was carried out with the aim to identify the suitability of the milk for consumer use with special reference toStaphylococcus aureus from milk samples collected from various local vendors and determine the antibiotic susceptibility pattern of those positive isolates.
Materials and Methods: A total of 110 milk samples were collected from the local milk vendors in and around Tirupathi region of India. All the samples were enriched with buffered peptone water in 9:1 ratio and the then inoculated on baird parker agar medium with added 2% egg yolk tellurite emulsion as selective medium for S.aureus and confirmed with mannitol salt agar, Gram’s staining and biochemical tests. The typical cultural characters with coagulase-positive samples were taken as positive samples the positive samples were tested for antibiotic susceptibility with 10 different antibiotics by employing disc diffusion method.
Results: Prevalence of coagulase-positive S. aureus was 39.09% (43/110) from the milk samples. The antibiotic susceptibility test of positive isolates showed high resistant toward penicillin G 37/43 (86.04%) and ampicillin 32/43 (74.42%), and also showed resistant to methicillin 6/43 (13.95%), cephalothin 6/43 (13.95%), tetracycline 6/43 (13.95%), ciprofloxacin 4/43 (9.30%), enrofloxacin 3/43 (6.97%), cefoxitin 2/43 (4.65%), gentamicin 2/43 (4.65%), and co-trimoxazole 2/43 (4.65%). Many individual isolates showed resistant against two or more antibiotics in our study.
Conclusion: The above study results show that the milk samples collected from local vendor having S. aureus, which can induce disease condition as well as antibiotic resistant to the humans particularly young children and old age peoples by means of consumption of raw milk and its products. This is the public health issue, which needs to be solved by educating the local vendors regarding health problems related to unhygienic milk supply and make the awareness among the consumers about this hazards and preventive measures.
Keywords: antibiotic resistant, local milk vendor, milk, Staphylococcus aureus.