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Aim: An in vivo experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of cinnamon oil (CO) and sodium butyrate on carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chicken compared with the antibiotic supplementation.
Materials and Methods: A biological experiment was carried out with 216-day-old Vencobb-400 broiler chicks randomly distributed to six experimental treatments with six replicates, each replicate containing six chicks with equal numbers of male and female chicks. The experimental diets were prepared with isocaloric and isonitrogenous basis. The experimental groups, namely control (T1), control with antibiotic (T2), control with CO at 250 mg/kg and coated sodium butyrate (CSB) either at 0.09 (T3) or 0.18% (T4), and control with CO at 500 mg/kg and CSB either at 0.09 (T5) or 0.18% (T6). The trial was carried out in deep litter pen for 35 days. The carcass characteristics such as ready to cooked yield, eviscerated weight, heart, liver, gizzard, giblet, and abdominal fat percent in slaughtered birds and meat quality properties such as pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), tyrosine, shear force, cooking loss, thiobarbituric acid, sensory characteristics, and muscle cholesterol in breast muscle samples were evaluated.
Results: The carcass characteristics such as ready-to-cook yield, eviscerated weight, and weight of heart, liver, gizzard, giblet, and abdominal fat as a percent of live body weight were not influenced by supplementation of CO and CSB at the levels attempted or by antibiotic supplementation in broilers. The pH, cooking loss, shear force and WHC of meat, appearance, flavor, texture, mouth coating, juiciness and overall acceptability of meat were not influenced by the supplementation of different levels of CO and CSB or by antibiotic supplementation but decreased meat cholesterol level in broilers.
Conclusion: The results indicated that the supplementation of CO and CSB in broiler diet did not alter the carcass characteristics and meat quality parameters except meat cholesterol content in broilers.
11. Efficacy of acetamiprid and fipronil fly baits against the housefly (Musca domestica L.) under laboratory conditions
Mikhail Alekseevich Levchenko, Elena Anatol'evna Silivanova, Ruzilya Khusanovna Bikinyaeva and Galina Fedorovna Balabanova
Veterinary World, 11(7): 953-958
Background: The housefly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is permanent pests in livestock facilities. High fly density in livestock and poultry farms can increase the risks of economic loss and public health. Treatment with toxic baits is one of the methods for housefly control. However, development of resistance to insecticides makes it difficult to manage of flies. Anti-resistance strategies include the use of multiple pesticides with different modes of action.
Aim: This study was conducted to estimate the efficacy of neonicotinoid acetamiprid and phenylpyrazole fipronil, applied alone or in the mixture, against adults of M. domestica and to evaluate the efficacy of fly bait formulations containing acetamiprid and fipronil under laboratory conditions.
Materials and Methods: The adult flies, M. domestica of laboratory strain, were used in laboratory bioassays. The efficacy of acetamiprid and fipronil as technical substances, when applied alone and in the mixture, against adult flies was tested by no-choice feeding bioassays. The insecticidal efficacy of bait formulations (wet powder) with acetamiprid or fipronil or their mixture was tested against flies by choice feeding bioassays. The probit analysis was used to calculate lethal concentrations of insecticides, and the χ2 test was used to analyze the interaction between fipronil and acetamiprid in the mixture.
Results: Fipronil was more toxic to adults of M. domestica than acetamiprid in laboratory tests. Lethal concentrations for 50% mortality (95% confidence interval) of flies were 0.0159% (0.0124-0.0205) of acetamiprid and 0.000119% (0.000039- 0.0002640) of fipronil. The mixture containing fipronil at concentration 0.005% and acetamiprid at concentration 0.05% had the additive effect on fly mortality.
Conclusion: The results of laboratory feeding bioassays indicate that the mixture of fipronil and acetamiprid might have a potential to use in toxic bait formulations against houseflies.
10. Effectiveness of platelet-rich fibrin matrix treated with silver nanoparticles in fracture healing in rabbit model
Serwa Ibrahim Salih, Nadia H. Al-Falahi, Ali H. Saliem and Ahmed N. Abedsalih
Veterinary World, 11(7): 944-952
Aim: The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) treated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on enhancing the healing of the experimentally induced bone gap in a rabbit model.
Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy male local rabbits aged between 6 and 8 months, their weights between 1.5 and 2 kg were used in this study and divided randomly into four equal groups, under general anesthesia (1 cm), bone gap was induced in the tibia bone to create a critical bone defect and leave it without any treatment in the first group (control group). While in the second group the bone gap was filled with PRFM; in the third group, the gap was filled with 0.3 ml AgNPs; and in the fourth group, the gap was filled with PRFM treated with AgNPs.
Results: There was no infection at the operation site in all experimental animals, and the radiograph images showed periosteal and endosteal reaction; the gaps were bridged faster in the fourth group as compared with the other groups. The histological examination showed lamellar bone with haversian canal completely filled the fracture gap and contact with old bone in the fourth group as compared to other groups.
Conclusion: Using a combination of PRFM and single nucleotide polymorphisms together gave better acceleration in the bone healing process than using each one of them separately.
Keywords: bone gap, healing, platelet-rich fibrin matrix, silver nanoparticles.
9. Angiogenesis activity of Jatropha curcas L. latex in cream formulation on wound healing in mice
Ummu Balqis, Darmawi, Cut Dahlia Iskandar and Muhammad Nur Salim
Veterinary World, 11(7): 939-943
Aim: The aim of this research was to determine the angiogenesis activity of Jatropha curcas latex in cream formulation on CD34 immune expression during wound healing phase in mice skin.
Materials and Methods: Amount of 36 2-month-old male mice were used between 30 and 40 g. To surgical procedures, wound skin incision was performed 2.0 cm in length until subcutaneous on the paravertebral of each animal. The treatment was carried under locally anesthetized with procaine cream. All mice were divided into four groups, namely the base cream as control group (A), sulfadiazine 0.1% cream (B), Jatropha curcaslatex cream 10% (C), and J. curcas latex cream 15% (D). All groups were treated entire surface of wound. All experiments were performed twice a day for 10 days. Experiments were terminated on days 3, 7, and 10, respectively. The wound healing was assayed in stained histological section in immunohistochemical of the wounds. The CD34 expression was investigated under a microscope.
Results: The results showed that the cream from 10% and 15% latex J. curcas revealed moderate immune reaction to CD34 on days 3 and 7 in wound healing of mice skin.
Conclusion: We concluded that the cream from 10% and 15% latex J. curcas has potential as angiogenesis activity in wound healing of mice skin.
8. Molecular characterization of full fusion protein (F) of Newcastle disease virus genotype VIId isolated from Egypt during 2012-2016
Karim M. Selim, Abdullah Selim, Abdelsatar Arafa, Hussein A. Hussein and Ahmed A. Elsanousi
Veterinary World, 11(7): 930-938
Aim: The aim of this work was to study the sequence F gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in regard to pathotyping and genotyping and to study the evolution of this NDV in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted using samples from seven suspected NDV flocks of vaccinated chickens during 2012-2016 from six governorates in Egypt. The NDV was successfully isolated from pathological specimens through inoculation in specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs.
Results: Pathogenicity of the NDV isolates has been estimated through intracerebral pathogenicity index and ranged from 1.66 to 1.73 which indicates the velogenic type of NDV isolates. Pathotyping and genotyping of these isolates were done through sequencing of full-length F gene. Results indicated that the seven NDV isolates showed characteristic cleavage site motif (112RRQKRF117) for the velogenic strains of NDV. Phylogenetic analysis of the F gene clustered these isolates within Group I of genotype VIId within Israeli strains NDV/IS/2015, NDV-Ch/SD883, and most of the Middle East strains. Six of seven sequenced isolates have six potential N-linked glycosylation sites. The neutralization epitope on the five antigenic sites of fusion is conserved in all Egyptian strains of this study except NDV-KFR-B7-2012 which has a substitution at D 170 N in epitope A4. In all our strains, 10 cysteine residues are recorded, except one loss of cysteine at residue 370 in both NDV-EG-35-2014 and NDV-GHB-328F-2016.
Conclusion: All viruses in this study have 52 amino acid substitutions within fusion gene in compared with Lasota strain that reveals importance for its antigenic and structural function. The present work highlights the important need to sequence F gene of NDV genotype VIId to investigate the evolution of this NDV in Egypt.
7. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in local Bali dog
I Made Dwinata, Ida Bagus Made Oka, Kadek Karang Agustina and I Made Damriyasa
Veterinary World, 11(7): 926-929
Aim: The aim of this research was to identify the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in local Bali dogs.
Materials and Methods: A total of 147 local Bali dog serum samples have been examined for antibodies of N. caninum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test.
Results: The results confirmed that 5 (3.4%) local Bali dogs have antibody for N. caninum. There were no significant differences in seroprevalence of Neospora infection in local Bali dogs between different genders, ages, and take care methods (p>0.05).
Conclusion: The results provided evidence for the presence of N. caninum infection in local Bali dogs and thus the risk to Bali cattle and dog health.
Keywords: local Bali dog, Neospora caninum, seroprevalence.
6. Morphology and morphometry of Haemonchus contortus exposed to Gigantochloa apus crude aqueous extract
Budi Purwo Widiarso, Kurniasih Kurniasih, Joko Prastowo and Wisnu Nurcahyo
Veterinary World, 11(7): 921-925
Aim:Haemonchus contortus is the most pathogenic nematode infesting the digestive tract of goats and sheep worldwide leading to a tremendous loss in a variety of routes. Economic losses due to haemonchosis in subtropic and tropic areas are usually caused by poor weight gain, minimized growth, loss of production, and mortality. The prevalence of haemonchosis in Indonesia is 89.4% in goat, and annual loss achieved 1 million US dollars. This study evaluated in vitro effects of Gigantochloa apus crude aqueous extract as an anthelmintic on H. contortus morphology and morphometry.
Materials and Methods: Bligon goats which are naturally infected were collected from slaughtered goat from local slaughterhouses, namely Besi Sleman. Bligon goat's abomasum part was carefully examined and transported to the Parasitology Laboratory, University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. H. contortus was obtained from 4 to 6-month-old female goat from slaughterhouses in Yogyakarta area. H. contortus was collected from abomasum and put into a Petri dish containing 0.62% water saline. The number of H. contortus used for each concentration is 25. H. contortus was soaked in each concentration for 4 h. The figure of the parasites or parts of parasites was captured using camera Lucida, and they were measured using both objective micrometer and objective ocular micrometer. All the capturing processes were done with the help of Olympus Digital Camera under Olympus CX21 microscopic. Parasite morphology was identified in morphological and morphometric characters.
Results: Morphology of H. contortus revealed the cervical papillae bulge appears unclear shape and anterior end is more tapered. Vulvar flab control is not tapered, but vulvar flab which gets aware of G. apus crude aqueous extract looks more pointed. The gubernaculum appears irregular compared to gubernaculum control which tends to be more compact, and the posterior end form appears irregular more than posterior end control. Morphometry study of H. contortus indicates that it has a significant difference for body length, body width, cervical papillae, and spicule length in the male.
Conclusion:G. apus crude aqueous extract activity revealed morphology change such as cervical papillae, vulvar flab, gubernaculum, posterior end, and reduced morphometry measurement of H. contortus adult worms, notably in body length, body width, cervical papillae width, gubernaculum, and spicule length in males and body length, body width, cervical papillae width, and vulva length in females.
6. Comparison of rose bengal plate test, serum agglutination test, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in brucellosis detection for human and goat samples
Ipola Patrick Albert, Charles Drago Kato, Kokas Ikwap, Steven Kakooza, Benson Ngolobe, Dickson Ndoboli and Gabriel Tumwine
International Journal of One Health, 4: 35-39
Background: In Uganda, detection of brucellosis in goats and humans is more frequently done using rose bengal plate test (RBPT) in comparison to other serological tests such as serum agglutination test (SAT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA).
Aim: This study aimed at estimating the degree of agreement, specificity and sensitivity of RBPT, SAT, and ELISA in brucellosis detection in human and goat samples.
Materials and Methods: An analytical study was conducted involving parallel testing of 425 goat samples and 177 human samples to compare RBPT, SAT, and i-ELISA tests of brucellosis detection.
Results: A seroprevalence of 14.82% in animals and 11.86% in humans was detected using RBPT, 7.06% in goats and 5.09% in humans using SAT, and 6.35% in humans and 4.52% in animals using i-ELISA. The degree of agreement between the three tests in humans and animals was compared using Fleiss' kappa statistics where a moderate agreement (MA) was obtained for both with kappa value 0.57 in animals and 0.51 in humans and p<0.001. Kappa values in animals were 0.52 (MA) for RBPT and i-ELISA, 0.61 (MA) for RBPT and SAT, and 0.82 substantial agreement (SA) for SAT and i-ELISA. The kappa values in humans were 0.52 (MA) for RBPT and i-ELISA, 0.57 (MA) for RBPT and SAT, and 0.82 (SA) for SAT and i-ELISA, respectively. The study revealed a significant agreement in the tests for all the three tests, but there was SA between SAT and i-ELISA in both animal and human samples. Sensitivity and specificity of RBT and SAT were estimated using i-ELISA as a gold standard as follows, in goats RBPT: 100 and 91% and SAT: 100 and 99%, respectively, and in humans RBPT: 100 and 92% and SAT: 88 and 99%, respectively.
Conclusion: It appears that RBPT is good as a screening test, whereas SAT and i-ELISA are good for diagnosis purposes or confirmatory test.
5. Molecular detection and immunopathological examination of Deltapapillomavirus 4 in skin and udder of Egyptian cattle
Emad Beshir Ata, Mohamed Abd El-Fatah Mahmoud and A. A. Madboli
Veterinary World, 11(7): 915-920
Aim: Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are the main cause of bovine papillomatosis resulting in cutaneous and/or mucosal benign tumors that could be transformed to malignant ones with marked economic importance, especially in the dairy farms. Molecular, pathological, and immunohistochemical (IHC) diagnosis of bovine papillomatosis cases was conducted to identify and characterize the circulating BPV genotype in some Egyptian governorates.
Materials and Methods: Wart-like lesions in skin, udder, and teats were collected from 123 infected cases in Giza, Beni Suef, and El Menoufia Governorates, Egypt, during 2016-2017. Pathological and IHC characterization, molecular identification, genotyping, and phylogenetic analysis based on the conserved late (L1) gene of the all samples were carried out.
Results: 89 of the 123 collected samples (72.3%) were positively detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequence analysis of the obtained PCR amplicons was identical revealing identification and genotyping of only one type (Deltapapillomavirus 4 isolate EGY 2017) with accession number (MG547343) which found to be closely related to the recently detected Deltapapillomavirus 4 isolate 04_asi_UK (accession no. MF384288.1) and isolate Deltapapillomavirus 4 isolate 25_equ_CH (accession no. MF384286.1) with 99% nucleotide sequence identity. Histopathological examination revealed severe hyperkeratosis in stratum corneum and acanthosis in most of the cases. These tissue changes were confirmed by the presence of golden brown stained proliferating cell nuclear antigen which was localized intranuclear and perinuclear in other cells using IHC Technique.
Conclusion: It is the first time to detect and genotype the BPVs in these areas with no record of previous genotyping in the whole country. The obtained results will highlight the importance of this disease.
4. Effects of various surgical procedures on biochemical parameters of Nigerian dogs and their clinical implications
Aboh Iku Kisani, Terzungwe Tughgba and Abdullahi Teleh Elsa
Veterinary World, 11(7): 909-914
Aim: The importance of physical and psychological stress caused by pain during surgery cannot be overemphasized. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ovariohysterectomy (OVH), gastrotomy (GST), and intestinal resection and anastomosis (IRA) on biochemical parameters of Nigerian dogs anesthetized with the xylazine-propofol combination.
Materials and Methods: A total of 12 dogs were randomly divided into three groups of four each. The animals were treated with xylazine and propofol anesthetics for OVH, GST, and IRA in Groups 1-3, respectively. Blood samples were collected at 0 h, 2, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h postsurgery for determination of cortisol (CORT), glucose (GLU), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GL), and ALB/GL ratio.
Results: There were significant increases (p<0.05) in mean CORT concentrations 2 h postsurgery in the three groups and at 24 h in Group 3 and 96 h in Groups 1 and 3, respectively. GLU concentrations increased significantly (p<0.05) in the three groups at 2 h postsurgery. The mean protein concentrations in Groups 2 and 3 decreased significantly (p<0.05) at 2h and 24 h and 72 h, 96 h, 120 h, and 144 h in Group 3, respectively. There was significant decrease (p<0.05) in the mean ALB concentrations at 2 h, 24 h, 72 h, 96 h, 120 h, and 144 h postsurgery. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the mean GL concentrations in Group 3 at 24 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 144 h. All other parameters were not significantly different (p>0.05) in comparison with the control.
Conclusion: Xylazine-propofol combination could decrease humoral immune status and increase serum GLU level invariably portending a high risk of diabetes in the vulnerable dogs.
3. Antimicrobial residue occurrence and its public health risk of beef meat in Debre Tabor and Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia
Birhan Agmas and Mulugojjam Adugna
Veterinary World, 11(7): 902-908
Background and Aim: Antimicrobial residues are the parent compounds, their metabolites, and associated impurities of veterinary drugs in any edible portion of an animal product. It can result in severe consequences in human if it is consumed concentration level higher than the standard residue limits. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and its public health risk of antimicrobial residue in fresh beef meat at Bahir Dar and Debre Tabor towns, Northwest Ethiopia.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted from June to November 2017. The data were collected through interview questionnaire survey and laboratory experiment using Premi® (R-Biopharm, Germany) test Kit. Data were entered; analyzed using SPSS version 20.0.
Results: The result of this study showed that almost all beef farms 42 (97.67%) were using tetracycline (oxytetracycline). In addition to β-lactams, (pinstripe) 21 (48.84%), and sulfonamides drugs including sulfadimidine and diminazene aceturate each 4 (9.30%). No one beef farm has respected drug withdrawal period and lack of awareness about antimicrobial side effects in 37 (86.05%) farms. Of 250 beef cattle slaughtered, antimicrobial residue positivity were 191 (76.4%) giving a 95% confidence interval of 71.10-81.70%. Origin of beef farm system was not significantly associated (p>0.05) with antimicrobial residue positivity.
Conclusion: Prevalence of antimicrobial residue in beef meat in Bahir Dar and Debre Tabor towns were high and also the drug residue detected was higher than the standard level. It implies that; it has the public health hazard.
Keywords: antimicrobial residue, beef, Ethiopia, with drawl time.
2. Production and characterization of Newcastle disease antibody as a reagent to develop a rapid immunodiagnostic test tool
Dwi Desmiyeni Putri, Ekowati Handharyani, Retno Damajanti Soejoedono, Agus Setiyono and Okti Nadia Poetri
Veterinary World, 11(7): 895-901
Aim: This research was conducted to produce and characterize ND antibody as reagent candidate to develop a rapid immunodiagnostic test tool.
Materials and Methods: Four New Zealand White rabbits were used in this study and divided into two groups. First group was injected by Sato ND antigen, and second group was injected by genotype VII ND antigen. This study is divided into three steps: (a) ND antibody production, (b) ND antibody purification, and (c) ND antibody characterization. First group was rabbit injected by Sato NDV (5x108.25 egg lethal doses (ELD)50/ml) and second group was injected by genotype VII NDV (5x106.5 ELD50/ml). Antigen induction was performed by subcutaneous administrated for first (day 1) and second (day 14) injection and intravenous administrated for third (day 30) injection. Blood was collected on day 8 after third injection.
Results: Antibody production increased on second antigen injection and reached a peak on day 9 after second antigen injection. Sato and genotype VII ND antibody can be produced without adjuvant within 38 days with the highest titer 210. Based on antibody titer data, both antigens induced antibody production in a similar trend. The characterization antibody by SDS-PAGE indicated that molecular weight of immunoglobulin G (IgG) is 154.93 kDa (whole IgG), heavy chain 54.39 kDa, and light chain 27.74 kDa. ND antibodies have specificity to homologous and heterologous NDVs in varying virulence.
Conclusion: Sato and genotype VII ND antibodies have been successfully produced within 38 days without adjuvant. Specificity of ND antibodies to NDVs in varying virulence and cross-reaction between Sato ND antibody and genotype VII ND antibody indicates that the characterized ND antibodies can be used as a reagent to develop rapid immunodiagnostic test tools.
Aim: The aim of the present study was to define the onset of puberty in Tazegzawt ram lambs, an Algerian sheep breed in endangered status with a small population in its local area.
Materials and Methods: Body growth (body weight and thoracic perimeter), scrotal circumference (SC), penis development stages, and seminal parameters (volume, concentration, and motility) were measured. Data were recorded at fortnightly intervals in 10 animals from 9 to 49 weeks of age.
Results: On the basis of seminal analyses, puberty occurred between 29 and 45 weeks of age. At 29 weeks of age, 30% of lambs reached puberty, and at 45 weeks of age, puberty was observed in 100% of the analyzed animals. Body weight appeared as the most determinant factor, and the onset of puberty was observed when animals reached 43.2±6.4 kg body weight with 25.8±3.7 cm of SC. Seminal analyses revealed that all parameters increased regularly from puberty onset except for sperm concentration. The mean semen volume during the study period was 0.48±0.33 mL with 0.84±0.6 mL at 37 weeks of age. Sperm concentration evolved similarly as semen volume; at 29 and 43 weeks of age, the sperm concentration was 942x106 and 1904x106 spermatozoa/mL, respectively. Kinematic parameters including the percentage of motility, the percentage of progressive motility, and gametes velocities as determined by Computer-Aided Sperm Analyzer showed the highest values at 49 weeks of age.
Conclusion: The current results revealed that, in Tazegzawt ram lambs, puberty occurs between 29 and 45 weeks when animals reach 43.2±4.6 kg body weight.