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21. Blood biochemical profiles of Brahman crossbred cattle supplemented with different protein and energy sources
Nguyen Hong Xuan, Huynh Tan Loc and Nguyen Trong Ngu
Veterinary World, 11(7): 1021-1024
Aim: The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of supplementing different levels of protein and energy sources on blood biochemical profiles of Brahman crossbred cattle.
Materials and Methods: The study consisted of two experiments in Brahman crossbred cattle in An Giang Province. In trial 1, 28 cattle of 178±12.5 kg were arranged in a completely randomized block design. In the second trial, another 24 cattle of 182±14.3 kg were allocated in a 2 × 3 factorial design. The experiments lasted for 90 days. Blood samples were taken at the end of the experiments, and plasma concentrations of metabolites and enzymes were analyzed by an automated biochemical analyzer (Humalyzer 3000, USA).
Results: The glucose concentration was highest at 1.83 mmol/L when supplemented with urea (60 g/head/d). Urea and creatinine content was not significantly different between treatments when cattle were supplemented with different protein and energy sources. In the treatment with 360 g/head/d soybean meal supplementation, cholesterol concentration was lowest (2.50 mmol/L), compared with the highest concentration (3.86 mmol/L) in the treatment with soybean meal at 720 g/head/ day. The total protein concentration showed the highest values at 94.5 g/L and 96.3 g/L when supplemented with soybean meal (720 g/head/day) and fish oil, respectively.
Conclusion: There were slightly altered blood biochemical profiles among cattle at different protein and energy source supplements.
20. The effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplementation on intake, nutrient digestibility, and rumen fluid pH in Awassi female lambs
Belal S. Obeidat, Kamel Z. Mahmoud, Mohammad D. Obeidat, Mysaa Ata, Rami T. Kridli, Serhan G. Haddad, Hosam H. Titi, Khaleel I. Jawasreh, Hosam J. Altamimi, Hadil S. Subih, Safaa M. Hatamleh, Majdi A. Abu Ishmais and Ruba Abu Affan
Veterinary World, 11(7): 1015-1020
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding low (LO)- or high (HI)-fiber diets supplemented with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) on nutrient intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance, rumen fluid pH, and serum concentrations of glucose and urea nitrogen in Awassi female lambs in a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments.
Materials and Methods: Experimental diets were as follows: (1) LO-fiber diet with no SC supplementation (-LO), (2) LO-fiber diet supplemented with SC (+LO), (3) HI-fiber diet with no SC supplementation (-HI), or (4) HI-fiber diet supplemented with SC (+HI). Eight female lambs were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 15-day experimental periods (10-day adaptation period and 5-day collection period).
Results: A fiber×SC interaction (p≤0.05) was detected for dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) intake among diets showing greater DM and CP intake for +LO diet compared to +HI group supplemented with SC, whereas -LO and -HI were intermediate. A fiber×SC interaction (p=0.05) was also detected for the neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake among diets. Intake of NDF was greater for the -HI diet compared with +LO and -LO diets. Similarly, NDF intake was greater for +HI diet than -LO diet. A tendency (p=0.07) for a fiber×SC interaction was detected for acid detergent fiber (ADF) intake among diets as well. ADF intake tended to be greater for HI-fiber diets. No difference was observed in the rumen fluid pH for lambs fed with the different diets. No fiber×SC interactions were detected for the digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, and ADF among dietary treatments. Digestibility of DM was greater (72.9 g/100 g vs. 67.1 g/100 g; p=0.0002) for LO versus HI fiber. However, NDF and ADF digestibilities were greater (60.8 and 61.9 g/100 g vs. 55.8 and 52.7 g/100 g for NDF and ADF digestibility, respectively; p≤0.01) for the HI-fiber than the LO-fiber diets.
Conclusion: Results obtained in the current study indicate that SC supplementation has a minimal effect on the performance of Awassi female lambs fed with varying fiber levels.
19. Use of molecular biology tools for rapid identification and characterization of Pasteurella spp.
Ashraf M. Abbas, Dalia A. M. Abd El-Moaty, Eman S. A. Zaki, Elham F. El-Sergany, Nadine A. El-Sebay, Hala A. Fadl, and Ayman A. Samy
Veterinary World, 11(7): 1006-1014
Aim: This study aimed to create rapid characterization and genotyping of Pasteurella multocida (PM) protocol using modern molecular biology techniques.
Materials and Methods: Thirty bacterial isolates were characterized by capsular and somatic identification using conventional procedure followed by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR), restriction endonucleases analysis (REA), and finally confirmed by sequence analysis. Two local vaccine strains and two field isolates were identified as PM Type A and B.
Results: A total of 30 isolates were found positive for PM either morphologically and biochemically; however, multiplex PCR technique identified only 22 isolates as Pasteurella species using universal primers while 8 isolates were found negative for PM. 12 of 22 isolates (54%) were characterized at the same reaction into PM Type A, five isolates (23%) were Type B and the rest five isolates (23%) of tested isolates were negative for Types A, B, and D. Hemorrhagic septicemia Type B: 2 or B: 5 could be identified somatically within PM capsular serogroup B using PCR technique. Somatic characterization of PM was done using REA that could identify all PM Type A into A:1 and all PM Type B into B: 2. These protocols were verified for its accuracy and reliability by sequence analysis of two vaccine strains of PM Type A and B that were characterized previously by biochemical and serological methods as well as two selected isolates from the 22 positive isolates representing PM Type A and B.
Conclusion: PCR and REA could confirm the identity of PM and provide a rapid and reliable characterization in comparison with biochemical analysis and conventional serotyping that may take up to 2 weeks. Hence, they can reduce the time needed for polyvalent vaccine production and when the reference antisera are unavailable. Moreover, the identity of Omp-H for vaccine and field strains may provide better data to control Pasteurellosis in Egypt.
18. Aflatoxicosis in African greater cane rats (Thryonomys swinderianus)
Henry O. Jegede, Ahmed O. Akeem, Oluwafemi B. Daodu and Afolabi A. Adegboye
Veterinary World, 11(7): 1001-1005
Aim: Aflatoxicosis is a widespread problem in captive animals fed on stored food and has been reported in various animals both domestic and wild. This report documents the clinicopathologic, microbial diagnostic findings and therapeutic regime for a study on the presentation, management, and outcome of aflatoxicosis in greater cane rats.
Materials and Methods: A total of 65 greater cane rats suspected to be exposed to the toxin were examined clinically along with their environment. Feed samples, recently deceased carcasses and some moribund carcasses were collected for the study. Carcasses were subjected to gross and histopathologic investigations while feed and organs were subjected to microbiological investigations.
Results: Gross lesions included hepatic lipidosis with ecchymotic hemorrhages, distended gallbladder, and renomegaly with ecchymosis among others. Histopathology revealed loss of hepatocellular architecture with massive centrilobular hepatocyte necrosis and diffuse steatotic damage characterized by macrovacuoles. Other histologic findings included pulmonary congestion, moderate renal tubular degeneration, and necrosis of epithelial tubular cells. Aspergillus flavus was isolated from the feed and ingesta. Total aflatoxin detected in feed sample was found to be over 400 ppm. Klebsiella species, Staphylococcus species, and Bacillus species were isolated from the liver and intestinal content. Management was attempted using Fungizal® (Avico, Jordan) (which contains Thymol, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, and kaolin) and Orego-Stim® (Saife, USA) (which contains carvacrol and thymol) which were instituted in feed and Superliv® (Ayurvet, India) (polyherbal) liquid was instituted in water for 5 days at manufacturers' dosage. All clinical signs disappeared, and no more deaths were recorded following management.
Conclusion: This report concludes that aflatoxicosis causes severe mortality in greater cane rats and can be prevented and managed successfully.
Keywords: aflatoxicosis, African greater cane rat, management, pathology, Thryonomys swinderianus.
17. Modifications and optimization of manual methods for polymerase chain reaction and 16S rRNA gene sequencing quality community DNA extraction from goat rumen digesta
Durgadevi Aphale and Aarohi Kulkarni
Veterinary World, 11(7): 990-1000
Background and Aim: A critical prerequisite for studying rumen microbial community by high throughput molecular biology methods is good quality community DNA. Current methods of extraction use kits designed for samples from the different origin for rumen. This puts stress on the development of a relevant manual method for DNA extraction. The objective of this study was to modify the existing methods of community DNA extraction and thereby systematic comparison of their efficiency based on DNA yield, purity, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and identification to determine the optimal DNA extraction methods whose DNA products reflect targeted bacterial communities special to rumen.
Materials and Methods: Enzymatic method, Chemical method, Enzymatic + Chemical method, and Enzymatic + Chemical + Physical method were modified toward evaluation of community DNA extraction from solid, squeezed, and liquid fractions of goat rumen digesta. Each method was assessed critically for nucleic acid yield and its quality. The methods resulting in high nucleic acid yield, optimal purity ratios with intact band on agarose gel electrophoresis were optimized further. Optimized methods were studied using standard polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with universal bacterial primers and 16S rRNA primers of targeted rumen bacteria. Methods denoting the presence of targeted rumen bacteria were assessed further with 16S rRNA gene sequencing and identification studies. It led toward methods efficacy estimation for molecular biology applications. Effect of rumen sample preservation on community DNA extraction was also studied. Their mean standard deviation values were calculated to understand sampling criticality.
Results: Modified Chemical method (Cetrimonium bromide) and Enzymatic+Chemical+Physical (ECP) method (Lysozyme- Cetrimonium bromide-Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate-freeze-thaw) could extract 835 ng/μl and 161 ng/μl community DNA from 1.5 g solid and 2 ml squeezed rumen digesta with purity ratios of 1.8 (A260nm/A280nm) and 2.3 (A260nm/A230nm) respectively. Comparative analysis showed the better efficiency of ECP method and chemical method toward freshly squeezed rumen digesta and solid rumen digesta. However, sample preservation at -80°C for 1.5 months drastically affected the yield and purity ratios of community DNA. New protocol revealed targeted microbial community having Gram-positive as well as Gram-negative bacteria such as Prevotella ruminicola, Streptococcus lutetiensis, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes, and Selenomonas ruminantium.
Conclusion: To date, this is the first report of modified methods wherein least chemicals and steps lead toward PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing quality community DNA extraction from goat rumen digesta. Detection of targeted rumen bacteria in solid and squeezed rumen digesta proves their strongest association with rumen fiber mat. It also marks the presence of distinct microbial communities in solid and squeezed rumen fractions that in turn differs the performance of each different method employed and yield of nucleic acid obtained. It also leaves a possibility of the presence of complex microbial consortia in squeezed rumen digesta whose DNA extraction methods need more attention. Finally, manual protocols of community DNA extraction may vary in different ruminant which suggests undertaking rigorous research in their establishment.
Keywords: 16S rRNA gene sequencing, community DNA extraction, goat, polymerase chain reaction, rumen digesta.
16. An investigation on the predominant diseases, its diagnosis, and commonly used drugs in the poultry farms in the North-Eastern regions of Algeria
Amine Berghiche, Tarek Khenenou, Ahmed Kouzi and Ibtissem Labiad
Veterinary World, 11(7): 986-989
Aim: An investigation was carried out to assess the occurrence of diseases, its method of diagnosis, and commonly used drugs in poultry farms in North-Eastern regions of Algeria.
Materials and Methods: A total of 265 veterinary doctors were surveyed to obtain information on the dominant diseases, its frequency of occurrence, method of diagnosis, and commonly used drugs in poultry farms.
Results: A study revealed that about 68% of bacterial diseases are due to colibacillosis, mycoplasmosis, and salmonellosis, 22% of viral diseases are due to Newcastle, Gumboro, and infectious bronchitis, and 10% others including coccidiosis and ascites syndrome. The study also showed that about 57% of cases were diagnosed by clinical signs, 36% by necropsy findings, and the remaining 7% through therapeutic and laboratory analysis. Antibiotics, a predominance of the anarchic veterinary drugs, were massively used to control the diseases. Hence, there is a need for strict regulations on the use of veterinary drugs to guarantee food safety.
Conclusion: These results remain non-exhaustive but contribute strongly to determine the status of health of the birds in the region.
15. Enhanced pathogenicity of low-pathogenic H9N2 avian influenza virus after vaccination with infectious bronchitis live attenuated vaccine
Zainab Mohamed Ismail, Ayman Hanea EL-Deeb, Mounir Mohamed EL-Safty and Hussein Aly Hussein
Veterinary World, 11(7): 977-985
Aim: In the present study, two experiments were carried out for studying the pathogenicity of H9N2 avian influenza virus (AIV) in broiler chickens after vaccination with different live respiratory viral vaccines.
Materials and Methods: One-day-old specific pathogen-free (SPF) chicks were divided into four groups in each experiment. In experiment 1, Groups 1 and 2 were inoculated with H9N2 AIV through nasal route in 1 day old, Groups 1 and 3 were vaccinated with live infectious bronchitis coronavirus (IBV) vaccine in 5 days old, and Group 4 was left as a negative control. In experiment 2, Groups 5 and 6 were inoculated with AIV subtype H9N2 through nasal route in 1 day old, Group 5 was vaccinated with live IBV vaccine and live Newcastle disease virus (NDV) vaccine in 5 and 18 days old, respectively, Groups 6 and 7 were vaccinated with live NDV vaccine in 18 days old, and Group 8 was left as a negative control. Chicks were kept in isolators for 18 days in the first experiment and 35 days in the second experiment. Tracheal and cloacal swabs were collected from 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, and 15 day's old chicks from all groups in experiment 1 and 21, 23, 25, and 28 days old from all groups in experiment 2. Quantitative real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) was applied on the collected tracheal swabs for detecting RNA copies of H9N2 AIV. Cloacal swabs and the positive rRT-PCR tracheal swabs were inoculated in 10-day-old SPF embryonated chicken eggs (ECE) to confirm rRT-PCR results. Internal organs (kidney, trachea, and spleen) from all chicken groups were collected weekly for histopathological examination to determine severity of the lesions. Serum samples were collected on a weekly basis for the detection of humoral immune response against H9N2, NDV, and IBV from all chicken groups.
Results: rRT-PCR results with virus titration in ECEs revealed a significant increase in H9N2 AIV titer with extension in the period of viral shedding in Groups 1 and 5. Severe lesion score was observed for Groups 1 and 5. The Humoral immune response against H9N2 AIV, NDV, and IBV revealed a significant increase in H9N2 AIV titer in Groups 1 and 5, NDV titer showed a significant increase in Group 7, and IBV titer increased in Groups 1, 3, and 5.
Conclusion: Results demonstrated the increase in pathogenicity of H9N2 AIV, especially when H9N2-infected chicks vaccinated with live IBV vaccine.
14. Concurrent occurrence of acute bovine pulmonary edema and emphysema and endocardial fibroelastosis in cattle: A case history and literature review
W. M. Hananeh and Z. B. Ismail
Veterinary World, 11(7): 971-976
Aim: The aim of this study was to describe the clinical and pathological findings of acute bovine pulmonary edema and emphysema (ABPEE) and left endocardial fibroelastosis in an adult dairy cow. In addition, a review of recent literature of these two conditions is provided.
Materials and Methods: Necropsy and histopathological examination were performed using conventional techniques. A review of the literature was carried out using internet search engines such as PubMed and Google Scholar. Only published papers in scientific and refereed journals were reviewed.
Results: Concurrent pathologies of ABPEE and left endocardial fibroelastosis were described in an adult Holstein Friesian cow. A review of recent literature concerning ABPEE and endocardial fibroelastosis revealed seven and two scientific reports of these conditions in cattle, respectively.
Conclusion: Although rare, combined pathologies involving multiple organs such as the lungs and heart can be diagnosed in animals on careful clinical and histopathological examinations.
13. Hypoxic preconditioning effect on stromal cells derived factor-1 and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 expression in Wistar rat's (Rattus norvegicus) bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (in vitro study)
Sri Wigati Mardi Mulyani, Diah Savitri Ernawati, Eha Renwi Astuti and Fedik Abdul Rantam
Veterinary World, 11(7): 965-970
Aim: To examine the effect of hypoxic preconditions on the ability of bone marrow stem cells culture mediated expression C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) and stromal cells derived factor-1 (SDF-1) in vitro.
Materials and Methods: Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) were derived from 12 femurs of 200 g Wistar male rats. The animals were euthanized before BMSCs isolation. BMSCs were divided into two groups, control group: Normoxic condition 21% O2 and treatment group: Hypoxic condition 1% O2. The characterization of BMSCs was analyzed using flow cytometry by cluster differentiation 34 and cluster differentiation 105. The expression of CXCR4 and SDF-1 measured using immunocytochemistry immunofluorescence label after 48-h incubation in a low-tension oxygen chamber with an internal atmosphere consisting of 95% N2, 5% CO2, and 1% O2. All data were subjected to a normality test and then analyzed using t-test statistic (p<0.05).
Results: The characterization of bone marrow stem cells showed positive cluster differentiation 34 and cluster differentiation 105. A hypoxic precondition (1% O2) in culture increases CXCR4 (p=0.000) and SDF-1 expression than normoxic conditions (p=0.000) (p<0.05).
Conclusion: Hypoxic preconditioning with 1% O2 increase CXCR4 and SDF1 expression.
Keywords: bone marrow stem cells, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4, hypoxic preconditioning, mesenchymal stem cells, stromal cells derived factor-1.
Aim: An in vivo experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of cinnamon oil (CO) and sodium butyrate on carcass characteristics and meat quality of broiler chicken compared with the antibiotic supplementation.
Materials and Methods: A biological experiment was carried out with 216-day-old Vencobb-400 broiler chicks randomly distributed to six experimental treatments with six replicates, each replicate containing six chicks with equal numbers of male and female chicks. The experimental diets were prepared with isocaloric and isonitrogenous basis. The experimental groups, namely control (T1), control with antibiotic (T2), control with CO at 250 mg/kg and coated sodium butyrate (CSB) either at 0.09 (T3) or 0.18% (T4), and control with CO at 500 mg/kg and CSB either at 0.09 (T5) or 0.18% (T6). The trial was carried out in deep litter pen for 35 days. The carcass characteristics such as ready to cooked yield, eviscerated weight, heart, liver, gizzard, giblet, and abdominal fat percent in slaughtered birds and meat quality properties such as pH, water-holding capacity (WHC), tyrosine, shear force, cooking loss, thiobarbituric acid, sensory characteristics, and muscle cholesterol in breast muscle samples were evaluated.
Results: The carcass characteristics such as ready-to-cook yield, eviscerated weight, and weight of heart, liver, gizzard, giblet, and abdominal fat as a percent of live body weight were not influenced by supplementation of CO and CSB at the levels attempted or by antibiotic supplementation in broilers. The pH, cooking loss, shear force and WHC of meat, appearance, flavor, texture, mouth coating, juiciness and overall acceptability of meat were not influenced by the supplementation of different levels of CO and CSB or by antibiotic supplementation but decreased meat cholesterol level in broilers.
Conclusion: The results indicated that the supplementation of CO and CSB in broiler diet did not alter the carcass characteristics and meat quality parameters except meat cholesterol content in broilers.
11. Efficacy of acetamiprid and fipronil fly baits against the housefly (Musca domestica L.) under laboratory conditions
Mikhail Alekseevich Levchenko, Elena Anatol'evna Silivanova, Ruzilya Khusanovna Bikinyaeva and Galina Fedorovna Balabanova
Veterinary World, 11(7): 953-958
Background: The housefly Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is permanent pests in livestock facilities. High fly density in livestock and poultry farms can increase the risks of economic loss and public health. Treatment with toxic baits is one of the methods for housefly control. However, development of resistance to insecticides makes it difficult to manage of flies. Anti-resistance strategies include the use of multiple pesticides with different modes of action.
Aim: This study was conducted to estimate the efficacy of neonicotinoid acetamiprid and phenylpyrazole fipronil, applied alone or in the mixture, against adults of M. domestica and to evaluate the efficacy of fly bait formulations containing acetamiprid and fipronil under laboratory conditions.
Materials and Methods: The adult flies, M. domestica of laboratory strain, were used in laboratory bioassays. The efficacy of acetamiprid and fipronil as technical substances, when applied alone and in the mixture, against adult flies was tested by no-choice feeding bioassays. The insecticidal efficacy of bait formulations (wet powder) with acetamiprid or fipronil or their mixture was tested against flies by choice feeding bioassays. The probit analysis was used to calculate lethal concentrations of insecticides, and the χ2 test was used to analyze the interaction between fipronil and acetamiprid in the mixture.
Results: Fipronil was more toxic to adults of M. domestica than acetamiprid in laboratory tests. Lethal concentrations for 50% mortality (95% confidence interval) of flies were 0.0159% (0.0124-0.0205) of acetamiprid and 0.000119% (0.000039- 0.0002640) of fipronil. The mixture containing fipronil at concentration 0.005% and acetamiprid at concentration 0.05% had the additive effect on fly mortality.
Conclusion: The results of laboratory feeding bioassays indicate that the mixture of fipronil and acetamiprid might have a potential to use in toxic bait formulations against houseflies.
10. Effectiveness of platelet-rich fibrin matrix treated with silver nanoparticles in fracture healing in rabbit model
Serwa Ibrahim Salih, Nadia H. Al-Falahi, Ali H. Saliem and Ahmed N. Abedsalih
Veterinary World, 11(7): 944-952
Aim: The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich fibrin matrix (PRFM) treated with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) on enhancing the healing of the experimentally induced bone gap in a rabbit model.
Materials and Methods: Twenty healthy male local rabbits aged between 6 and 8 months, their weights between 1.5 and 2 kg were used in this study and divided randomly into four equal groups, under general anesthesia (1 cm), bone gap was induced in the tibia bone to create a critical bone defect and leave it without any treatment in the first group (control group). While in the second group the bone gap was filled with PRFM; in the third group, the gap was filled with 0.3 ml AgNPs; and in the fourth group, the gap was filled with PRFM treated with AgNPs.
Results: There was no infection at the operation site in all experimental animals, and the radiograph images showed periosteal and endosteal reaction; the gaps were bridged faster in the fourth group as compared with the other groups. The histological examination showed lamellar bone with haversian canal completely filled the fracture gap and contact with old bone in the fourth group as compared to other groups.
Conclusion: Using a combination of PRFM and single nucleotide polymorphisms together gave better acceleration in the bone healing process than using each one of them separately.
Keywords: bone gap, healing, platelet-rich fibrin matrix, silver nanoparticles.
9. Angiogenesis activity of Jatropha curcas L. latex in cream formulation on wound healing in mice
Ummu Balqis, Darmawi, Cut Dahlia Iskandar and Muhammad Nur Salim
Veterinary World, 11(7): 939-943
Aim: The aim of this research was to determine the angiogenesis activity of Jatropha curcas latex in cream formulation on CD34 immune expression during wound healing phase in mice skin.
Materials and Methods: Amount of 36 2-month-old male mice were used between 30 and 40 g. To surgical procedures, wound skin incision was performed 2.0 cm in length until subcutaneous on the paravertebral of each animal. The treatment was carried under locally anesthetized with procaine cream. All mice were divided into four groups, namely the base cream as control group (A), sulfadiazine 0.1% cream (B), Jatropha curcaslatex cream 10% (C), and J. curcas latex cream 15% (D). All groups were treated entire surface of wound. All experiments were performed twice a day for 10 days. Experiments were terminated on days 3, 7, and 10, respectively. The wound healing was assayed in stained histological section in immunohistochemical of the wounds. The CD34 expression was investigated under a microscope.
Results: The results showed that the cream from 10% and 15% latex J. curcas revealed moderate immune reaction to CD34 on days 3 and 7 in wound healing of mice skin.
Conclusion: We concluded that the cream from 10% and 15% latex J. curcas has potential as angiogenesis activity in wound healing of mice skin.
8. Molecular characterization of full fusion protein (F) of Newcastle disease virus genotype VIId isolated from Egypt during 2012-2016
Karim M. Selim, Abdullah Selim, Abdelsatar Arafa, Hussein A. Hussein and Ahmed A. Elsanousi
Veterinary World, 11(7): 930-938
Aim: The aim of this work was to study the sequence F gene of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) in regard to pathotyping and genotyping and to study the evolution of this NDV in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted using samples from seven suspected NDV flocks of vaccinated chickens during 2012-2016 from six governorates in Egypt. The NDV was successfully isolated from pathological specimens through inoculation in specific pathogen-free embryonated chicken eggs.
Results: Pathogenicity of the NDV isolates has been estimated through intracerebral pathogenicity index and ranged from 1.66 to 1.73 which indicates the velogenic type of NDV isolates. Pathotyping and genotyping of these isolates were done through sequencing of full-length F gene. Results indicated that the seven NDV isolates showed characteristic cleavage site motif (112RRQKRF117) for the velogenic strains of NDV. Phylogenetic analysis of the F gene clustered these isolates within Group I of genotype VIId within Israeli strains NDV/IS/2015, NDV-Ch/SD883, and most of the Middle East strains. Six of seven sequenced isolates have six potential N-linked glycosylation sites. The neutralization epitope on the five antigenic sites of fusion is conserved in all Egyptian strains of this study except NDV-KFR-B7-2012 which has a substitution at D 170 N in epitope A4. In all our strains, 10 cysteine residues are recorded, except one loss of cysteine at residue 370 in both NDV-EG-35-2014 and NDV-GHB-328F-2016.
Conclusion: All viruses in this study have 52 amino acid substitutions within fusion gene in compared with Lasota strain that reveals importance for its antigenic and structural function. The present work highlights the important need to sequence F gene of NDV genotype VIId to investigate the evolution of this NDV in Egypt.
7. Seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in local Bali dog
I Made Dwinata, Ida Bagus Made Oka, Kadek Karang Agustina and I Made Damriyasa
Veterinary World, 11(7): 926-929
Aim: The aim of this research was to identify the seroprevalence of Neospora caninum in local Bali dogs.
Materials and Methods: A total of 147 local Bali dog serum samples have been examined for antibodies of N. caninum using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test.
Results: The results confirmed that 5 (3.4%) local Bali dogs have antibody for N. caninum. There were no significant differences in seroprevalence of Neospora infection in local Bali dogs between different genders, ages, and take care methods (p>0.05).
Conclusion: The results provided evidence for the presence of N. caninum infection in local Bali dogs and thus the risk to Bali cattle and dog health.
Keywords: local Bali dog, Neospora caninum, seroprevalence.
6. Morphology and morphometry of Haemonchus contortus exposed to Gigantochloa apus crude aqueous extract
Budi Purwo Widiarso, Kurniasih Kurniasih, Joko Prastowo and Wisnu Nurcahyo
Veterinary World, 11(7): 921-925
Aim:Haemonchus contortus is the most pathogenic nematode infesting the digestive tract of goats and sheep worldwide leading to a tremendous loss in a variety of routes. Economic losses due to haemonchosis in subtropic and tropic areas are usually caused by poor weight gain, minimized growth, loss of production, and mortality. The prevalence of haemonchosis in Indonesia is 89.4% in goat, and annual loss achieved 1 million US dollars. This study evaluated in vitro effects of Gigantochloa apus crude aqueous extract as an anthelmintic on H. contortus morphology and morphometry.
Materials and Methods: Bligon goats which are naturally infected were collected from slaughtered goat from local slaughterhouses, namely Besi Sleman. Bligon goat's abomasum part was carefully examined and transported to the Parasitology Laboratory, University of Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta. H. contortus was obtained from 4 to 6-month-old female goat from slaughterhouses in Yogyakarta area. H. contortus was collected from abomasum and put into a Petri dish containing 0.62% water saline. The number of H. contortus used for each concentration is 25. H. contortus was soaked in each concentration for 4 h. The figure of the parasites or parts of parasites was captured using camera Lucida, and they were measured using both objective micrometer and objective ocular micrometer. All the capturing processes were done with the help of Olympus Digital Camera under Olympus CX21 microscopic. Parasite morphology was identified in morphological and morphometric characters.
Results: Morphology of H. contortus revealed the cervical papillae bulge appears unclear shape and anterior end is more tapered. Vulvar flab control is not tapered, but vulvar flab which gets aware of G. apus crude aqueous extract looks more pointed. The gubernaculum appears irregular compared to gubernaculum control which tends to be more compact, and the posterior end form appears irregular more than posterior end control. Morphometry study of H. contortus indicates that it has a significant difference for body length, body width, cervical papillae, and spicule length in the male.
Conclusion:G. apus crude aqueous extract activity revealed morphology change such as cervical papillae, vulvar flab, gubernaculum, posterior end, and reduced morphometry measurement of H. contortus adult worms, notably in body length, body width, cervical papillae width, gubernaculum, and spicule length in males and body length, body width, cervical papillae width, and vulva length in females.
6. Comparison of rose bengal plate test, serum agglutination test, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in brucellosis detection for human and goat samples
Ipola Patrick Albert, Charles Drago Kato, Kokas Ikwap, Steven Kakooza, Benson Ngolobe, Dickson Ndoboli and Gabriel Tumwine
International Journal of One Health, 4: 35-39
Background: In Uganda, detection of brucellosis in goats and humans is more frequently done using rose bengal plate test (RBPT) in comparison to other serological tests such as serum agglutination test (SAT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (i-ELISA).
Aim: This study aimed at estimating the degree of agreement, specificity and sensitivity of RBPT, SAT, and ELISA in brucellosis detection in human and goat samples.
Materials and Methods: An analytical study was conducted involving parallel testing of 425 goat samples and 177 human samples to compare RBPT, SAT, and i-ELISA tests of brucellosis detection.
Results: A seroprevalence of 14.82% in animals and 11.86% in humans was detected using RBPT, 7.06% in goats and 5.09% in humans using SAT, and 6.35% in humans and 4.52% in animals using i-ELISA. The degree of agreement between the three tests in humans and animals was compared using Fleiss' kappa statistics where a moderate agreement (MA) was obtained for both with kappa value 0.57 in animals and 0.51 in humans and p<0.001. Kappa values in animals were 0.52 (MA) for RBPT and i-ELISA, 0.61 (MA) for RBPT and SAT, and 0.82 substantial agreement (SA) for SAT and i-ELISA. The kappa values in humans were 0.52 (MA) for RBPT and i-ELISA, 0.57 (MA) for RBPT and SAT, and 0.82 (SA) for SAT and i-ELISA, respectively. The study revealed a significant agreement in the tests for all the three tests, but there was SA between SAT and i-ELISA in both animal and human samples. Sensitivity and specificity of RBT and SAT were estimated using i-ELISA as a gold standard as follows, in goats RBPT: 100 and 91% and SAT: 100 and 99%, respectively, and in humans RBPT: 100 and 92% and SAT: 88 and 99%, respectively.
Conclusion: It appears that RBPT is good as a screening test, whereas SAT and i-ELISA are good for diagnosis purposes or confirmatory test.
5. Molecular detection and immunopathological examination of Deltapapillomavirus 4 in skin and udder of Egyptian cattle
Emad Beshir Ata, Mohamed Abd El-Fatah Mahmoud and A. A. Madboli
Veterinary World, 11(7): 915-920
Aim: Bovine papillomaviruses (BPVs) are the main cause of bovine papillomatosis resulting in cutaneous and/or mucosal benign tumors that could be transformed to malignant ones with marked economic importance, especially in the dairy farms. Molecular, pathological, and immunohistochemical (IHC) diagnosis of bovine papillomatosis cases was conducted to identify and characterize the circulating BPV genotype in some Egyptian governorates.
Materials and Methods: Wart-like lesions in skin, udder, and teats were collected from 123 infected cases in Giza, Beni Suef, and El Menoufia Governorates, Egypt, during 2016-2017. Pathological and IHC characterization, molecular identification, genotyping, and phylogenetic analysis based on the conserved late (L1) gene of the all samples were carried out.
Results: 89 of the 123 collected samples (72.3%) were positively detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The sequence analysis of the obtained PCR amplicons was identical revealing identification and genotyping of only one type (Deltapapillomavirus 4 isolate EGY 2017) with accession number (MG547343) which found to be closely related to the recently detected Deltapapillomavirus 4 isolate 04_asi_UK (accession no. MF384288.1) and isolate Deltapapillomavirus 4 isolate 25_equ_CH (accession no. MF384286.1) with 99% nucleotide sequence identity. Histopathological examination revealed severe hyperkeratosis in stratum corneum and acanthosis in most of the cases. These tissue changes were confirmed by the presence of golden brown stained proliferating cell nuclear antigen which was localized intranuclear and perinuclear in other cells using IHC Technique.
Conclusion: It is the first time to detect and genotype the BPVs in these areas with no record of previous genotyping in the whole country. The obtained results will highlight the importance of this disease.
4. Effects of various surgical procedures on biochemical parameters of Nigerian dogs and their clinical implications
Aboh Iku Kisani, Terzungwe Tughgba and Abdullahi Teleh Elsa
Veterinary World, 11(7): 909-914
Aim: The importance of physical and psychological stress caused by pain during surgery cannot be overemphasized. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of ovariohysterectomy (OVH), gastrotomy (GST), and intestinal resection and anastomosis (IRA) on biochemical parameters of Nigerian dogs anesthetized with the xylazine-propofol combination.
Materials and Methods: A total of 12 dogs were randomly divided into three groups of four each. The animals were treated with xylazine and propofol anesthetics for OVH, GST, and IRA in Groups 1-3, respectively. Blood samples were collected at 0 h, 2, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h postsurgery for determination of cortisol (CORT), glucose (GLU), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), globulin (GL), and ALB/GL ratio.
Results: There were significant increases (p<0.05) in mean CORT concentrations 2 h postsurgery in the three groups and at 24 h in Group 3 and 96 h in Groups 1 and 3, respectively. GLU concentrations increased significantly (p<0.05) in the three groups at 2 h postsurgery. The mean protein concentrations in Groups 2 and 3 decreased significantly (p<0.05) at 2h and 24 h and 72 h, 96 h, 120 h, and 144 h in Group 3, respectively. There was significant decrease (p<0.05) in the mean ALB concentrations at 2 h, 24 h, 72 h, 96 h, 120 h, and 144 h postsurgery. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in the mean GL concentrations in Group 3 at 24 h, 72 h, 96 h, and 144 h. All other parameters were not significantly different (p>0.05) in comparison with the control.
Conclusion: Xylazine-propofol combination could decrease humoral immune status and increase serum GLU level invariably portending a high risk of diabetes in the vulnerable dogs.