Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
Background and Aim: During the last decades, reproduction performances declined dramatically worldwide, but little is known concerning the involvement of oxidative stress as a causative factor. Oxidative stress may act at different levels, with negative impacts on cell membrane integrity and other active molecules with potential subsequent effects on reproduction. The aim of the current study was to investigate the oxidative stress status in cows according to their reproductive performances.
Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood concentration of two oxidative stress biomarkers, glutathione S-transferase (GST) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and other biochemical parameters (glucose, total lipids, cholesterol, triglycerides, albumin, total proteins, calcium, urea, creatinine, direct bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alkaline phosphatase) were determined in 40 healthy cows. Body condition score (BCS), calving to first service interval (FSI), calving to conception interval (CCI), and the number of service per conception (SPC) were simultaneously recorded for each cow.
Results: Concerning FSI, three groups were established: Group 1 (from 44 to 60 days), Group 2 (from 60 to 70 days), and Group 3 (from 70 to 80 days). For CCI, two groups were considered: Group 1 (<110 days) and Group 2 (>110 days). MDA showed significant high values only in cows with the lowest BCS (1.5) compared to cows with BCS note of 2.5 and 3.5. No significant difference was observed in cows oxidative stress status (MDA and GST) according to reproductive performances (FSI, CCI, and SPC) in all studied groups.
Conclusion: The results revealed relatively altered oxidative stress status in cows with abnormal reproductive performances; however, no significant difference was recorded whatever the considered reproductive parameter.
22. Hematological parameters and selected intestinal microbiota populations in the Indonesian indigenous crossbred chickens fed basal diet supplemented with multi-strain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals
Sugiharto Sugiharto, Turrini Yudiarti, Isroli Isroli, Endang Widiastuti and Hanny I. Wahyuni
Veterinary World, 11(6): 874-882
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with multi-strain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals on the hematological parameters and selected intestinal microbiota populations in the Indonesian indigenous crossbred chickens.
Materials and Methods: A total of 240 one-day-old Indonesian indigenous crossbred chicks were raised for 10 weeks. The chicks were distributed to one of four groups, i.e., chicks receiving basal diet without any additive (CONT), chicks receiving basal diet with 0.04% of zinc bacitracin (AGP), chicks receiving basal diet with 0.01% of commercial probiotic Bacillus subtilis preparation (PROB1), and chicks receiving basal diet with 0.5% of multi-strain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals (PROB2). Blood was collected on the week 8, while the internal organs and eviscerated carcasses were collected on the week 10.
Results: PROB2 tended (p=0.09) to have a lower body weight (BW) compared to CONT chicks. Feed conversion ratio was higher (p<0.05) in PROB1 and PROB2 compared to CONT birds. The number of thrombocytes tended (p=0.09) to be higher in CONT than in other groups. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus vaccine was higher (p<0.05) in PROB1 and PROB2 than in CONT group. Serum triglyceride concentration was lower (p<0.05) in PROB2 than in other birds. AGP chicks had lower (p<0.05) serum total protein and globulin concentrations than CONT and PROB1 chicks. Serum albumin level was lower (p<0.05) in PROB2 than in CONT and PROB1 birds. Albumin to globulin ratio tended (p=0.06) to be higher in AGP than in other birds. Lactose-negative Enterobacteriaceae tended (p=0.07) to be lower in PROB1 and PROB2 than in CONT group. PROB1 and PROB2 tended (p=0.06) to have greater lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population than in CONT and AGP birds.
Conclusion: Multi-strain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals was able to improve immune response and control the potentially pathogenic bacteria. However, the additive could not improve the growth performance of the Indonesian indigenous crossbred chickens.
21. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing multidrug resistance Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Klebsiella pneumoniae in pig population of Assam and Meghalaya, India
A. Lalruatdiki, T. K. Dutta, P. Roychoudhury and P. K. Subudhi
Veterinary World, 11(6): 868-873
Aim: The present study was conducted to record the prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae from pig population of Assam and Meghalaya and to record the ability of the resistant bacteria to transfer the resistance genes horizontally.
Materials and Methods: Fecal samples (n=228), collected from pigs of Assam (n=99) and Meghalaya (n=129), were processed for isolation and identification of E. coli and Salmonella spp. All the isolates were tested for ESBLs production by double disc synergy test (DDST) followed by screening for ESBLs producing genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, and blaCMY) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Possible transfer of resistance encoding genes between enteric bacterial species was carried out by in vitro and in vivo horizontal gene transfer (HGT) method.
Results: A total of 897 enteric bacteria (867 E. coli and 30 Salmonella) were isolated and identified. Altogether 25.41% isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers by DDST method. Majority of the isolates were E. colifollowed by Salmonella. By PCR, 9.03% isolates were found positive for at least one of the target resistance genes. blaSHV was absent in all the isolates. blaCMY was the most prevalent gene. All the E. coli isolates from Assam were negative for blaTEM. A total of 2.76% isolates were positive for blaTEM + blaCMY. On the other hand, 0.67% isolates were positive for blaCTX-M + blaCMY genes. Only 0.33% isolates carried all the three genes. Altogether, 4.68% bacteria carried the resistance encoding genes in their plasmids. blaTEM gene could be successfully transferred from Salmonella (donor) to E. coli (recipient) by in vitro (5.5-5.7x10-5) and in vivo (6.5x10-5to 8.8x10-4) methods. In vivo method was more effective than in vitro in the transfer of resistance genes.
Conclusion: The pig population of Assam and Meghalaya are carrying multidrug resistance and ESBLs producing E. coli and Salmonella. The isolates are also capable to transfer their resistance trait to other bacterial species by HGT. The present finding could be considered as a serious public health concern as similar trait can also be transmitted to the human commensal bacteria as well as pathogens.
Keywords:Enterobacteriaceae, multidrug resistance, North East India, pigs.
20. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance patterns of avian fecal Escherichia coli from turkeys, geese, and ducks
Nokukhanya Dube and Joshua Mbanga
Veterinary World, 11(6): 859-867
Background and Aim: Avian fecal Escherichia coli (AFEC) are considered to be the natural reservoir of pathogenic strains in extraintestinal infections as such characterization of AFEC gives insight into the spread of the potential pathogenic lineage. The aim of the study was to investigate the reservoirs of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) from fecal samples of healthy ducks, geese, and turkeys by determining the antibiotic resistance patterns of AFEC isolates from turkeys, geese and ducks and characterization of the isolates using virulence genes, plasmid profiles, and phylogenetic grouping.
Materials and Methods: The disc diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic resistance of 100 AFEC isolates from turkeys (9), geese (29), and ducks (62) to 8 antibiotics. Molecular characterization of the isolates was done by multiplex polymerase chain reaction to investigate the presence of 12 virulence genes, plasmid profiling, and phylogenetic grouping based on the 16S rRNA sequences.
Results: Antibiogram profiles indicated maximum resistance to cloxacillin (100%) and bacitracin (100%) for all AFEC isolates and high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin; however, all isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance. The AFEC isolates from turkeys (6) and geese (12) did not contain virulence genes. The frz (3.7%), sitD (29.6%), and fimH (92.5%) were detected in the duck isolates. None of the isolates had the KpsM, iutA, vat, sitA, hlyF, pstB, ompT, uvrY, and sopB genes. Plasmid profiling gave four plasmid profiles with the plasmids ranging from 1.5 to 55 kb. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed similarities between AFEC isolates from the different poultry species, as the isolates did not cluster according to avian species.
Conclusion: AFEC isolates are potential reservoirs of APEC as they contain some of the virulence genes associated with APEC. Multidrug resistance is high in AFEC isolated from healthy birds. This is a public health concern.
Regulation of pH in spermatozoa is a complex and dynamic process as sperm cells encounter different pH gradients during their journey from testes to the site of fertilization in female genital tract. The precise regulations of pH in sperm cells regulate the sperm functions such as motility, hyperactivity, capacitation, and acrosome reaction. Electrophysiological, pharmacological, and molecular studies have revealed the presence of different ion channels and exchanger systems which regulate intracellular pH in sperm cells as well as regulate sperm functions. Recent studies also have shown the potential involvement of pH in the regulation of fertility competence of sperm cells, and alterations in pH have shown to impede sperm functions. This mini-review discusses the probable mechanisms involved in pH regulation in sperm cells and how pH is involved in regulation of various sperm functions.
18. Preliminary study on the tick population of Benin wildlife at the moment of its invasion by the Rhipicephalus microplus tick (Canestrini, 1888)
Kossi Justin Adinci, Yao Akpo, Camus Adoligbe, Safiou Bienvenu Adehan, Roland Eric Yessinou, Akoeugnigan Idelphonse Sode, Guy Appolinaire Mensah, Abdou Karim Issaka Youssao, Brice Sinsin and Souaibou Farougou
Veterinary World, 11(6): 845-851
Background and Aim:Rhipicephalus microplus (Rm) is one of the most problematic livestock tick species in the world. Its rapid propagation and resistance to acaricides make it control difficult in the sub-region and Benin particularly. The aim of this work was to check its presence in wildlife and to confirm the possible role of reservoir wildlife may play in the propagation of the parasite. This will help to design more efficient control strategy.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from February to March 2017 in the National Parks of Benin (Pendjari and W Park) and wildfowl's assembly and selling point in Benin. Ticks were manually picked with forceps from each animal after slaughtering by hunters then stored in 70° ethanol. Collected ticks were counted and identified in the laboratory using the identification key as described by Walker.
Results: Overall, seven species of ticks (Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Rm, Boophilus spp., Hyalomma spp., Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus spp.) were identified on nine wild animal species sampled (Cane rat, wildcat, Hare, Doe, Cricetoma, Buffalo, Buffon Cobe, and Bushbuck and Warthog). The average number of ticks varies from 3 to 6 between animal species, 3 to 7 between localities visited, and 2 to 5 between tick species. However, these differences are statistically significant only for localities. Considering tick species and animal species, the parasite load of Rm and Rhipicephalus spp. is higher; the buffalo being more infested. The analysis of deviance reveals that the abundance of ticks observed depends only on the observed localities (p>0.05). However, the interactions between animal species and localities on the one hand and between animal and tick species on the other hand, although not significant, have influenced the abundance of ticks as they reduce the residual deviance after their inclusion in the model.
Conclusion: This study reported the presence of Rm in wildlife of Benin and confirmed its role in the maintenance and spread of the parasites. It is, therefore, an important risk factor that we must not neglect in the epidemiological surveillance and ticks control strategies in the West African sub-region and particularly in Benin.
5. Brucella seropositivity in chicken and risk factors for Brucella infection at the animal-human interface in Anambra State, Nigeria
Joseph Ikechukwu Onunkwo, Emmanuel Okechukwu Njoga, Ugochinyere Juliet Njoga, Emmanuel Ezeokafor and Samuel Okezie Ekere
International Journal of One Health, 4: 28-34
Aim: Brucellosis is an important bacterial zoonosis devastating both animal and human populations in many parts of the world. A seroepidemiological study of avian Brucella infection was conducted to determine the disease prevalence, risk factors, and hence the role of chicken in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Anambra State, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: Rose Bengal plate test was used to test for Brucella antibody in sera samples collected from 410 chickens surveyed. The interview schedule was used to elicit information on the socioeconomic status, awareness of brucellosis and predisposing practices of poultry farmers, live bird sellers, and poultry carcass processors in the study area.
Results: An overall seroprevalence of 3% was recorded. Sex (female), free-range management system, breed (indigenous breed), and mix farming were the determinants of avian brucellosis in the state. Risk factors that may enhance human Brucella infection at the animal-human interface are non-use of personal protective clothing; poor awareness on brucellosis and methods of the disease spread or control, cohabitation with animals, and eating while on duty.
Conclusion: Chicken may be among the reservoirs of Brucella infection in Anambra State. There is an urgent need for an effective control program against brucellosis in the study area, using a coordinated One Health approach bearing in mind the public health and economic consequences of brucellosis.
17. Leptospirosis seropositivity and its serovars among cattle in Northeastern Malaysia
Aziah Daud, Nik Mohd Hafiz Mohd Fuzi, Mohd Mokhtar Arshad, Suratan Kamarudin, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad, Fairuz Amran and Nabilah Ismail
Veterinary World, 11(6): 840-844
Background: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that infects human and livestock which causes economic losses to the farmers. It has been reported as one of the causes of reproductive failure in cattle and other ruminants, determining abortions, stillbirth, weak newborns, and decrease in their growth rate and milk production.
Aim: The objectives of this study were to determine the leptospirosis seroprevalence and to identify the predominant infecting serovars among cattle.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 420 cattle from six randomly selected districts in Kelantan was conducted. A serological test using the microscopic agglutination test was conducted in the Institute of Medical Research with a cutoff titer for seropositivity of ≥1:100.
Results: The overall prevalence of leptospirosis seropositivity among cattle in this study was 81.7% (95% confidence interval: 63.5, 80.1). The most common reaction obtained with the sera tested was from the serovar Sarawak with 78.8%.
Conclusion: A high seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies was found among cattle in Northeastern Malaysia. These findings urge that more studies are required to determine the reasons for the high seroprevalence among the cattle along with its transmission and pathogenicity of the local serovar Sarawak.
16. Effects of meniran (Phyllanthus niruri L.) administration on leukocyte profile of broiler chickens infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum
Sri Hidanah, Emy Koestanti Sabdoningrum, Retno Sri Wahjuni and Sri Chusniati
Veterinary World, 11(6): 834-839
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the effects of Meniran extract (Phyllanthus niruri L.) administration on leukocyte profile of broiler chickens infected with Mycoplasma gallisepticum.
Materials and Methods: Thirty broiler chickens, 21 days old were divided into five treatment groups. P0 (-): Chickens without any treatment; P0 (+), P1, P2, and P3: Chickens were infected with M. gallisepticum 108cells/ml/animal orally, then given no treatment, Meniran extract 60%, 62.5%, and 65% orally at a dose of 1 ml/kg body weight, respectively. The treatment of Meniran extract was given for 7 days.
Results: Leukocyte count with the lowest number showed in Group P0 (-) and Group P3 (p>0.05). Increased number of basophils was found in Group P0 (+), Group P1, and Group P2. The highest number of heterophils was found in Group P0 (+) and was significantly different from Group P0 to P3 (p<0.05). The same pattern was also seen in the number of lymphocytes in all treatment groups. The number of monocytes showed no significant difference between all treatment groups (p>0.05).
Discussion: Increased the number of leukocytes is often observed in inflammation due to general infections, trauma, or toxicity. Shifting in the number of heterophile or lymphocytes, an increase in the number of monocytes, basophils, and eosinophils may also be associated with various infectious or inflammatory conditions. Heterophils play a role as an antibacterial defense through several effective mechanisms. When infections and inflammation occur, the heterophils will increase to phagocytosis microbe.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that Meniran extract (P. niruri L.) at a dose of 65% can decrease the total number of leukocytes in broilers infected with M. gallisepticum.
Keywords: chicken, leukocyte, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Phyllanthus niruri L.
15. Species adulteration in raw milk samples using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism
Rania M. Ewida and Doaa Safwat M. Abd El-Magiud
Veterinary World, 11(6): 830-833
Background and Aim: Milk adulteration is pivotal because it leads to worse effects in public health as human adverse reactions with clinical signs ranged from gastrointestinal signs to anaphylactic shock. This study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of adulteration in buffalo's milk sold in Assiut City, Egypt.
Materials and Methods: A total of 50 raw buffalo's milk samples were collected and examined for adulteration by addition of cow's milk. The examination carried out by applying polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique using cytochrome b (cyt b) gene primers and Hinf I enzymes. The size of target gene was 360 bp in both animal species and amplicon can be digested using Hinf I enzyme, this restriction enzyme divided the essential band to clear three bands at 360, 210, and 150 bp in cows' milk, while, the enzyme could not be cleaved the amplicon in buffalo's samples.
Results: The obtained results cleared that the incidence of adulteration of buffalo's milk very high percentage reaches 90%.
Conclusion: It could be concluded that the raw buffalo's milk sold in Assiut City subject to fraudulent practice and thus can lead to public health hazards.
Keywords: buffalo's milk, cyt b gene, Hinf I enzyme, medicolegal, milk adulteration, polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism.
Aim: Investigation of antiviral activity of Acanthaster planci phospholipase A2 (AP-PLA2) from moluccas to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV).
Materials and Methods: Crude venom (CV) and F20 (PLA2 with 20% fractioned by ammonium sulfate) as a sample of PLA 2 obtained from A. planci's extract were used. Enzymatic activity of PLA2 was determined using the degradation of phosphatidylcholine (PC). Activity test was performed using in vitro method using coculture of phytohemagglutinin-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) from a blood donor and PBMC from HIV patient. Toxicity test of AP-PLA2 was done using lethal concentration required to kill 50% of the population (LC50).
Results: AP-PLA2 F20 had activity and purity by 15.66 times bigger than CV. The test showed that the LC50 of AP-PLA2 is 1.638 mg/ml. Antiviral analysis of AP-PLA2 in vitro showed the inhibition of HIV infection to PBMC. HIV culture with AP-PLA2 and without AP-PLA2 has shown the number of infected PBMC (0.299±0.212% and 9.718±0.802%). Subsequently, RNA amplification of HIV using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction resulted in the decrease of band intensity in gag gene of HIV.
Conclusion: This research suggests that AP-PLA2 has the potential to develop as an antiviral agent because in vitro experiment showed its ability to decrease HIV infection in PBMC and the number of HIV ribonucleic acid in culture.
Keywords:Acanthaster planci, antiviral activity, human immunodeficiency virus, Indonesia, phospholipase.
13. Humoral and cellular immune response induced by antigenic protein of Sarcoptes scabiei var. caprae
Nunuk Dyah Retno Lastuti, Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti, Poedji Hastutiek, Lucia Tri Suwanti and Dony Chrismanto
Veterinary World, 11(6): 819-823
Aim: Scabies is one of the most important diseases in goats and caused by a complex hypersensitivity process that involves both humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. This phenomenon shows that the variety of Sarcoptes scabiei has different characteristics of specific antigenic protein or different immune-dominant. This research aims to detect the humoral and cellular immune response of rabbits which were immunized with the protein of S. scabiei var. caprae.
Materials and Methods: This research was done as follows, identification and collection of Sarcoptes scabiei var caprae from goat infected with scabies, separation of protein antigen from S. scabiei mites with ultrasonic sonicator, measurement of protein content with spectrophotometry, rabbit injection with 500 μg dose of antigen protein which was repeated 5 times (5x booster) every 2 weeks. Measurement of IgG titer using indirect ELISA, whereas to detect the expression of cellular immune response (TLR-9, CD4, and CD8) using Direct Immunofluorescence assay.
Results: Based on the statistical analysis, it showed that there was a significant enhancement (p<0.05) for optical density value or antibody titer and cellular immune response was shown by TLR-9, CD4, and CD8 expression in rabbit T lymphocytes which appear yellow to green fluorescent color using fluorescence microscope. The amount of fluorescence T lymphocytes showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between the control and various boosters.
Conclusion: Antigenic protein of S. scabiei var. caprae contains ligands, which are involved in the pathogen-associated molecular pattern that has an ability to induce humoral and cellular immune response in rabbit. Specifically, that TLR-9 is not only involved in innate immunity but also in adaptive immunity and can be used as alternative adjuvant development research.
12. Methane mitigation potential of phyto-sources from Northeast India and their effect on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa in vitro
Luna Baruah, Pradeep Kumar Malik, Atul P. Kolte, Arindam Dhali and Raghavendra Bhatta
Veterinary World, 11(6): 809-818
Aim: The aim of the study was to explore the anti-methanogenic potential of phyto-sources from Northeast region of the country and assess the effect on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoa for their likely inclusion in animal diet to reduce methane emission.
Materials and Methods: Twenty phyto-sources were collected from Northeast state, Assam, during March to April 2014. Phyto-sources were analyzed for their tannin content followed by screening for methane mitigation potential using in vitro system. The effect of tannin on methane production and other fermentation parameters was confirmed by attenuating the effect of tannin with polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 addition. About 200 mg dried phyto-source samples were incubated for 24 h in vitro, and volume of gas produced was recorded. The gas sample was analyzed on gas chromatograph for the proportion of methane in the sample. The effect of phyto-sources on rumen fermentation characteristics and protozoal population was determined using standard methodologies.
Results: Results from studies demonstrated that Litchi chinensis, Melastoma malabathricum, Lagerstroemia speciosa, Terminalia chebula, and Syzygium cumini produced comparatively less methane, while Christella parasitica, Leucas linifolia, Citrus grandis, and Aquilaria malaccensis produced relatively more methane during in vitro incubation. An increase (p<0.05) in gas and methane production from the phyto-sources was observed when incubated with PEG-6000. Entodinimorphs were prominent ciliates irrespective of the phyto-sources, while holotrichs represented only small fraction of protozoa. An increase (p<0.05) in total protozoa, entodinimorphs, and holotrichs was noted when PEG-6000 added to the basal substrate. Our study confirmed variable impact of phyto-sources on total volatile fatty acid production and ammonia-N.
Conclusion: It may be concluded that L. chinensis, M. malabathricum, L. speciosa, S. cumini, and T. chebula are having potent methane suppressing properties as observed in vitro in 24 h. These leaves could be supplemented in the animal diet for reducing methane emission; however, in vivo trials are warranted to confirm the methane inhibitory action and optimize the level of supplementation.
11. The effectiveness of platelet-rich plasma on the skin wound healing process: A comparative experimental study in sheep
Daikh Badis and Bennoune Omar
Veterinary World, 11(6): 800-808
Aim: The therapeutic evaluation of the biological effect of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) used as a surgical adjunct to maintain the inflammatory process and to potentiate tissue healing, make the subject of recent research in regenerative medicine. This study was designed to evaluate the healing activity of PRP by its topical application on the skin experimentally injured in a sheep model.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 9 adult and clinically healthy males sheep. PRP was obtained by a protocol of double centrifugation of whole blood from each animal. After sterile skin preparation, full-thickness excisional wounds (20 mm x 20 mm) were created on the back of each animal. The animals were randomly divided into three equal groups of three sheep for each. In Group I, the wounds were treated with PRP, in Group II; wounds were treated with Asiaticoside; in Group III, wounds were treated with saline solution. The different treatments were administered topically every 3 days. Morphometric measurements of the contraction surface of the wounds and histopathological biopsies were carried out at the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th days of healing.
Results: The results of the morphometric data obtained revealed that it was significant differences recorded at the 7th and 14th day of healing in favor for animals of Group I. Semi-quantitative histopathological evaluation showed that PRP reduces inflammation during 3 first days post-surgical and promotes epithelialization in 3 weeks of healing.
Conclusion: We concluded that topical administration of PRP obtained by double centrifugation protocol could potentially improve the skin healing process in sheep.
10. Protective role of Brucella abortus specific murine antibodies in inhibiting systemic proliferation of virulent strain 544 in mice and guinea pig
Suman Verma, Mayank Rawat, Sanjay Kumawat, Salauddin Qureshi, Gulam Mohd and Ashok Kumar Tiwari
Veterinary World, 11(6): 794-799
Aim: The major objective of the investigation was to evaluate the hitherto uncharacterized potential of Brucella-specific antibodies to win the battle against virulent Brucella abortus infection.
Materials and Methods:Brucella-specific immune serum was raised in mice. The antibody titer of serum was determined by standard tube agglutination test and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (iELISA). Groups of mice and guinea pigs were passively immunized with serum containing specific agglutinin titers. 24 h after immunization, all animals along with unimmunized controls were challenged with B. abortus S544. Total B. abortus S544 counts in the spleen of each animal collected on the 7th day of challenge was determined to evaluate the protective index (PI) of anti-Brucella serum by statistical analysis.
Results: A dose-dependent protective response to immune mice serum was observed in both experimental models though the values of PI of mice were higher than those obtained for guinea pigs. The PI values in mice passively immunized with 50 IU or 25 IU antibodies were 1.38 and 0.69, respectively. In guinea pigs, however, animals passively immunized with 50 IU or 25 IU antibodies showed PI values equivalent to 0.79 and 0.41, respectively.
Conclusion: The observations support our hypothesis that the presence of antibodies inhibits the initial multiplication and eventual colonization of systemic organs by B. abortus. Therefore, a predominant antibody-mediated response induced by a vaccine is expected to protect the animal against the most severe clinical outcome of infection.
9. Threshold somatic cell count for delineation of subclinical mastitis cases
P. V. Jadhav, D. N. Das, K. P. Suresh and B. R. Shome
Veterinary World, 11(6): 789-793
Aim: Somatic cell count (SCC) is the most widely used single reliable indicator of udder health. The present study was carried out with an objective to find the exact threshold of SCC.
Materials and Methods: Milk samples collected from a total of 214 Holstein Friesian crossbred dairy animals were subjected to bacterial DNA extraction and SCC estimation by digital PortaCheck. California Mastitis Test and polymerase chain reaction based on amplification of organism using reported primers were performed to diagnose subclinical mastitis. Receiver's operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and discriminate function analyses were performed using SPSS 18 software.
Results: ROC curve analysis represented that the area under the curve was 0.930 with the standard error of 0.02. Results indicated that 93% of the case could be correctly predicted as mastitis infected using SCC as a marker (p<0.001). At cut score level of 282 000 cells/ml, 285,000 cells/ml and 288,000 cells/ml, sensitivity remained 92.6% and specificity augmented as 86.3%, 87.2%, and 88%, respectively. At SCC value of 310,000 cells/ml of milk, sensitivity and specificity were optimal, namely, 92.6% and 91.5%, respectively. The function fitted demonstrated 89.2% accuracy with p<0.001. The functions at group centroids were -0.982 and 1.209, respectively, for normal and mastitis-infected animals and log_SCC value was the most important factor contributing 38.30% of the total distance measured.
Conclusion: Our study supports that the threshold value to delineate subclinical mastitis case from the normal is 310,000 somatic cells/ml of milk and a model so fitted using the variable SCC can be successfully used in field for the diagnosis of subclinical cases of mastitis which otherwise would be difficult to differentiate based on clinical signs.
8. Astaxanthin inhibits cytokines production and inflammatory gene expression by suppressing IκB kinase-dependent nuclear factor κB activation in pre and postpartum Murrah buffaloes during different seasons
Lakshmi Priyadarshini and Anjali Aggarwal
Veterinary World, 11(6): 782-788
Aim: We examined regulatory function of astaxanthin on mRNA expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) p65, interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and interferon gamma (IFN-γ) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in pre and postpartum Murrah buffaloes during summer (temperature-humidity index [THI]=86; relative humidity [RH]=24) and winter (THI=58.74; RH=73) seasons.
Materials and Methods: A total of 32 Murrah buffaloes apparently healthy and in their one to four parity were selected from National Dairy Research Institute herd and equally distributed randomly into four groups (control and supplemented groups of buffaloes during summer and winter season, respectively). All groups were fed according to the nutrient requirement of buffaloes (ICAR, 2013). The treatment group was supplemented with astaxanthin at 0.25 mg/kg body weight/animal/day during the period 30 days before expected date of calving and up to 30 days postpartum.
Results: There was downregulation of NF-κB p65 gene in all the groups. NF-κB p65 mRNA expression was lower (p<0.05) in treatment than control group from prepartum to postpartum during summer, while mRNA expression was low only on day 21 after calving during winter season. The mRNA expression of IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ was lower (p<0.05) in treatment than a control group of buffaloes during summer and winter seasons. The mRNA expression of NF-κB p65, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ was higher (p<0.05) in summer than in winter seasons.
Conclusion: The xanthophyll carotenoid astaxanthin a reddish-colored C-40 compound is a powerful broad-ranging antioxidant that naturally occurs in a wide variety of living organisms, such as microalgae, fungi, crustaceans, and complex plants. Astaxanthin blocked nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 subunit and IκBa degradation, which correlated with its inhibitory effect on IκB kinase (IKK) activity. These results suggest that astaxanthin, probably due to its antioxidant activity, inhibits the production of inflammatory mediators by blocking NF-κB activation and as a consequent suppression of IKK activity and IκB-degradation.
7. Genetic diversity and population structure of local and exotic sheep breeds in Jordan using microsatellites markers
Khaleel I. Jawasreh, Mustafa M. Ababneh, Zuhair Bani Ismail, Abdel Mon'em Bani Younes and Ibrahem Al Sukhni
Veterinary World, 11(6): 778-781
Aim: This study was conducted to study the genetic and population structure of local (Awassi) and exotic (Romanov, Charollais, Assaf, Awassi, and Suffolk) sheep breeds in Jordan using eight microsatellite markers.
Materials and Methods: A total of 125 sheep were used (25 from each breed) in the study. The number of alleles (A), the mean values of observed (Ho) and expected (He) heterozygosity, polymorphism information content (PIC), fixation index as a measure of heterozygote deficiency or excess, and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) were analyzed using PopGen and CERVUS softwares. Nei's standard genetic distances among breeds and dendrogram of unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) were calculated and constructed using PopGen software.
Results: A total of 40 alleles were detected with an average number of alleles of 5. The mean Ho value was higher than the mean He value for all breeds. Awassi breed showed the highest average PIC value while Romanov had the lowest. There was a significant (p<0.05) deviation from HWE at each locus within and between breeds. Deviations from HWE were found to be highly significant for all markers except OARFCP304 locus. The genetic distance estimates revealed a close relationship between Romanov and Charollais and between Awassi and Charollais. In the UPGMA dendrogram, Charollais, Romanov, and Awassi breeds were placed together in one main cluster while Assaf was in a different subcluster. Awassi was placed alone in a second main cluster.
Conclusion: Results of this study offer insight toward the genetic conservation of the studied breeds and a base on which breeding plans can be made.