Wednesday, 30 September 2015

Replacement of inorganic zinc with lower levels of organic zinc (zinc nicotinate) on performance, hematological and serum biochemical constituents, antioxidants status, and immune responses in rats

Research (Published online: 30-09-2015)
20. Replacement of inorganic zinc with lower levels of organic zinc (zinc nicotinate) on performance, hematological and serum biochemical constituents, antioxidants status, and immune responses in rats - D. Nagalakshmi, K. Sridhar and S. Parashuramulu
Veterinary World, 8(9): 1156-1162

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1156-1162

Aim: A study was undertaken to investigate the effect of organic zinc (zinc nicotinate, Zn-nic) supplementation (6, 9, and 12 ppm) compared to inorganic zinc (12 ppm) on growth performance, hematology, serum biochemical constituents oxidative stress, and immunity in weaned female Sprague–Dawley rats.
Material and Methods: A 48 weaned rats (285.20±1.95 g) were randomly distributed to 4 dietary treatments with 6 replicates in each and reared in polypropylene cages for 10 weeks. Basal diet (BD) was formulated with purified ingredients without zinc (Zn). Four dietary treatments were prepared by adding 12 ppm Zn from ZnCO3 (control) and 6, 9, and 12 ppm Zn from Zn-nic to the BD. On 42nd day, blood was collected by retro-orbital puncture for analyzing hematological constituents, glucose, cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, total protein, albumin, and globulin and antioxidant enzyme activities. At 43rd day, rats were antigenically challenged with sheep red blood cell (RBC) to assess humoral immune response and on 70th day cell-mediated immune response.
Results: Weekly body weight gains, daily feed intake, blood hematological constituents (white blood cell, RBC, hemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, lymphocyte, monocyte, and granulocyte concentration) and serum glucose, total protein levels were comparable among the rats feed Zn from ZnCO3 and Zn-nic (6, 9, and 12 ppm). Serum cholesterol reduced with organic Zn supplementation at either concentration (6-12 ppm). Serum globulin concentration reduced (p<0.05) with 6 ppm Zn-nic supplementation compared to other dietary treatments. Lipid peroxidation lowered (p<0.05) reduced with 12 ppm organic Zn; thiobarbituric acid reacting substances and protein carbonyls concentrations in liver reduced (p<0.05) with 9 and 12 ppm levels of organic Zn supplementation compared to 12 ppm Zn supplementation from inorganic source. RBC catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes activities were highest (p<0.05) in rats supplemented with 12 ppm Zn-nic, followed by 9 ppm. Comparable immune response (humoral and cell-mediated) was observed between 12 ppm inorganic Zn and 9 ppm organic Zn and higher (p<0.05) immune response was noticed at 12 ppm Zn-nic supplementation.
Conclusion: Based on the results, it is concluded that dietary Zn concentration can be reduced by 50% (6 ppm) as Zn nicotinate without affecting growth performance, hemato-biochemical constituents, antioxidant status, and immunity. In addition, replacement of 12 ppm inorganic Zn with 12 ppm organic Zn significantly improved antioxidant status and immune response.
Keywords: antioxidants status, hematological and serum biochemical constituents, immune responses, performance, rats, zinc nicotinate.

Effect of selenium supplementation on performance, cost economics, and biochemical profile of Nellore ram lambs

Research (Published online: 30-09-2015)
19. Effect of selenium supplementation on performance, cost economics, and biochemical profile of Nellore ram lambs - K. Sushma, Y. Ramana Reddy, N. Nalini Kumari, P. Baswa Reddy, T. Raghunandan and K. Sridhar
Veterinary World, 8(9): 1150-1155

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1150-1155

Aim: Present experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of selenium (Se) supplementation on performance, carcass characteristics, meat composition, shelflife of meat and biochemical profile in Nellore ram lambs.
Materials and Methods: 24 male Nellore ram lambs (15.75±0.47 kg) were randomly divided into four dietary groups with six lambs in each and reared under uniform management conditions for 120 days. Basal diet was not supplemented with Se and consisted of green fodder (Se 0.09 mg/kg dry matter [DM]), dry roughage (Se 0.11 mg/kg DM) and concentrate mixture (Se 0.019 mg/kg DM) and fed individually. Dietary treatments were prepared by adding graded levels Se (0, 0.45, 0.9, and 1.8 ppm) to concentrate mixture (1% body weight [BW]) from sodium selenite. Feed offered and refusal measured daily; and BWs were measured at fortnight interval to find out average daily gain (g), feed conversion ratio (FCR), cost economics and plane of nutrition. Serum biochemical profile (concentration of glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, cholesterol, and hemoglobin) was assessed on 0, 60th, and 120th day. At the end of experiment, the carcass characteristics (dressing percentage, cut-up parts, meat to bone ratio) and meat chemical composition were evaluated. Meat keeping (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) quality from different groups was evaluated on day 0, 3, and 6 post-slaughter.
Results: Dietary Se supplementation did not show any effect on weight gain, FCR, cost economics, plane of nutrition, and serum biochemical profile in Nellore ram lambs. However, Se supplemented lambs had numerically higher weight gain than the unsupplemented lambs. Similarly, carcass characteristics and keeping quality were comparable among the four treatments. However, numerical increase in post-slaughter keeping quality with increasing Se supplementation was observed.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that supplementation of Se in the form of sodium selenite (inorganic source) at different levels did not influence animal performance in growing Nellore ram lambs had no effect on lamb performance, cost economics, carcass characteristics, and serum biochemical profile.
Keywords: biochemical profile, carcass characteristics, Nellore ram lambs, performance, selenium supplementation.

Epidemiological surveillance of capybaras and ticks on warning area for Brazilian spotted fever

Research (Published online: 30-09-2015)
18. Epidemiological surveillance of capybaras and ticks on warning area for Brazilian spotted fever - José Brites-Neto, Jardel Brasil and Keila Maria Roncato Duarte
Veterinary World, 8(9): 1143-1149

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1143-1149

Aim: The vulnerability of tropical developing countries to the emerging disease constitutes a critical phenomenon in which the invasion of wild niches by human hosts, contributes to expansion of zoonotic diseases, such as the Brazilian spotted fever (BSF). This study performed a diagnosis of species occurrence of their hosts (Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris) and vectors (Amblyomma sculptum andAmblyomma dubitatum) on the warning area for this reemerging disease in Brazil.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in a warning area for BSF in the city of Americana, São Paulo state. The occurrence of capybaras was registered by use of binoculars and GPS equipment and 24 acarological researches were performed through 180 CO2 traps. Samples of adult ticks were dissected for salivary glands removal, DNA extraction, and evaluation by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) being tested by initial gltA-PCR, ompA-PCR, and Rickettsia bellii-specific PCR, with the positive samples subjected to sequencing.
Results: Eleven clusters of capybaras (total of 71 individuals), were observed along the riparian of Ribeirão Quilombo and 7,114 specimens of A. sculptum and 7,198 specimens of A. dubitatum were collected in this same area. About 568 samples of adult ticks were dissected for salivary glands removal, DNA extraction and evaluation by gltA-PCR, with results of 1.94% (11/568) of positive samples. Results for the initial gltA-PCR indicated none positive sample to Rickettsia species into A. sculptum and 11 positive samples to A. dubitatum. These samples were negative to the ompA-PCR and positive to the Rickettsia bellii-specific PCR protocol and subjected to DNA sequencing, whose result indicated 100% similarity to Rickettsia bellii. The distribution of tick species A. sculptum and A. dubitatum was configured regarding to the biotic potential of the riparian areas, measuring the risks for BSF in peri-urban areas of Americana.
Conclusion: These results confirmed a status of epidemiological warning with a strong association of the amplifiers hosts of Rickettsiaand tick vectors for the transmission of BSF to humans in this region.
Keywords: acarological research, Amblyomma dubitatumAmblyomma sculptumHydrochoerus hydrochaeris, riparian forests, Rickettsia spp.

Effect of temperature variation on hormonal concentration at various gestation stages in black Bengal goat

Research (Published online: 30-09-2015)
17. Effect of temperature variation on hormonal concentration at various gestation stages in black Bengal goat - Binod Kumar, Ajay Kumar Ishwar, Pankaj Kumar Choudhary and Tanveer Akhatar
Veterinary World, 8(9): 1137-1142

Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of risingtemperature on the metabolic as well as the reproductive performance of the black Bengal goat.
Materials and Methods: A total 27 numbers of non-pregnant black Bengal goats of the same parity comprised the experimental animals. The selected goats were randomly assigned to 3 groups of 9 each, maintaining uniformity in body weight (average 14-18 kg). Goats in Group-I were kept between the temperature ranges of 35-40°C, in Group-II between 20°Cand 27°C, and Group-III were kept under loose housing system and serve as a control. Goats in all the groups were bred naturally. Blood was collected prior to feeding in the morning on the day 1 (estrus), 20, 45, 90, and 135, expected day of parturition and also 2 days after parturition from goats of all the three groups.
Results: It was observed that the level of plasma estrogen decreased (p˂0.05) up to day 45 of gestation, then after increased up to 135 days of gestation and was maximum on expected day of parturition which was significantly (p˂0.05) higher than all the values. Plasma progesterone level increased from day 20 and was the highest on day 90 and then decreased significantly (p˂0.05) on expected date of parturition. The luteinizing hormone value decreased significantly (p˂0.05) on expected day of parturition and day 2 after parturition in all the groups. Follicle stimulating hormone concentration showed a significant (p˂0.05) decrease from day 1 to 2 days after parturition in all the groups. The plasma triiodothyronine (T3) level did not vary between and within the treatment groups at any stage of the experiment. The plasma thyroxine (T4) level varied significantly (p˂0.01) within and (p˂0.05) between groups at all stages of reproduction. A significant (p<0.05) variation in plasma cortisol concentration in all the groups increased significantly until the day of parturition and dropped significantly (p<0.01) in 2 days after parturition in all the groups.
Conclusion: The present experiment revealed that rise in temperature has no any deleterious effect on the metabolic as well as the reproductive hormonal concentrationat variousstages of gestation inblack Bengal goat.

Keywords: black Bengal goat, estrus, hormonal profile, parturition, temperature variation.

Monday, 28 September 2015

Detection and molecular characterization of rabies virus in Mongolia during 2008-2010

Research (Published online: 29-09-2015)
4. Detection and molecular characterization of rabies virus in Mongolia during 2008-2010 - Bumduuren Tuvshintulga, Enkhbaatar Batmagnai, Enkhbold Bazarragchaa, Purevtseren Dulam, Sengee Sugar and Badgar Battsetseg
International Journal of One Health, 1: 26-31


Aim: We aimed to investigate the prevalence and molecular characterization of rabies virus (RABV) from wild and domestic animals in Mongolia during 2008-2010.
Materials and Methods: Brain tissue samples were collected from 24 rabid animals in Zavkhan, Omnogovi, Tov, Dundgovi, Govi-Altai, Selenge, Ovorkhangai, and Khentii provinces in Mongolia. Herein, samples were included from 13 domestic animals (dogs, cattle, camels, sheep, and goat) and 11 wild animals (wolves and foxes) in this study. Direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) were performed for detection of RABV, and positive samples were further processed for molecular characterization of the virus using nucleoprotein gene. Subsequently, the molecular characterization was determined based on the nucleoprotein gene.
Results: Out of 24 samples, 22 samples were detected positive for RABV by DFA test, and its nucleoprotein gene was amplified in all of the 24 samples by RT-PCR. These Mongolian RABVs were classified within steppe-type virus clade by phylogenetic analysis of nucleoprotein gene sequences. This steppe-type virus clade was clearly divided by two Sub-clades (A and B). The most of Mongolian RABVs belongs to the Sub-clade A in the phylogenetic tree.
Conclusion: These findings have clearly confirmed RABV in domestic and wild animals of Mongolia. Further molecular characterization indicated that this Mongolian strain is steppe-type virus clade consisting of two sub-clades; the Subclade A might be prevalent in Altai, Khangai, Khentii Mountains as a major genotype, whereas the Subclade B seems to be cosmopolitan in the steppe-type virus clade, is spread in northern central Eurasia.
Keywords: detection, molecular characterization, Mongolia, rabies virus, sub-clade A, subclade B.

Wednesday, 23 September 2015

Immunological, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological studies on cows naturally infected with lumpy skin disease

Research (Published online: 23-09-2015)
16. Immunological, hematological, biochemical, and histopathological studies on cows naturally infected with lumpy skin disease - Ahmed N. F. Neamat-Allah
Veterinary World, 8(9): 1131-1136

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1131-1136

Aim: Lumpy skin disease (LSD) is an infectious viral disease of cattle caused by an LSD virus (LSDV) of the family Poxviridaecharacterized by skin nodules covering all parts of the body. There are many aspects of LSD remaining unknown, thus immunological, hematological, and biochemical parameters were estimated.
Materials and Methods: During an outbreak of LSD in Sharkia governorate from Egypt, 211 cows aging (2-4 years) were examined clinically for the presence of LSD lesions during the period from July to November 2014. A total of 134 cows from those showed lesions suspected to be LSD.
Results: Recorded clinical signs were pyrexia with the development of skin nodules of varying sizes which ranged from a few to several hundred sometimes coalesced together enlargements of the peripheral lymph nodes. Intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies were noticed in the histopathological examination. Immunological studies revealed a significant decrease of lymphocyte transformation rate, phagocytic % and killing % which was marked within 2 weeks postinfection. LSD resulted in non-significant in hemogram in 1st-2nd day post-infection while a macrocytic hypochromic anemia within 10-14th days post-infection. Leucopenia and lymphopenia were recorded 1st-2ndday post-infection while at 10-14th showed granulocytic leukocytosis. Biochemical analysis revealed hypoproteinemia, hypoalbuminemia, and hyperglobulinemia especially gamma globulins. The significant increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase activities, creatinine level, blood urea nitrogen and creatine phosphokinase
Conclusion: LSDV infected cows in early stages revealed leucopenia. Immunosuppressive effect was pronounced later. In late stage revealed hemolytic anemia, leukocytosis and increase of serum CK, which could aid in diagnosis. Disturbance in liver and kidney function tests have been occurred.
Keywords: biochemistry, cows, hematology, histopathology, lumpy skin disease, virus.

Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers

Research (Published online: 23-09-2015)
15. Effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity and antioxidant status of commercial broilers - Biswal Chichilichi, G. P. Mohanty, S. K. Mishra, C. R. Pradhan, N. C. Behura, A. Das and K. Behera
Veterinary World, 8(9): 1126-1130

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1126-1130

Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of partial supplementation of sun-dried Azolla as a protein source on the immunity of commercial broilers in coastal Odisha.
Materials and Methods: A 180 day-old broiler chicks were distributed in six dietary treatments viz. C1: Basal diet, C2: Basal diet + enzyme, T1: Basal diet +5% protein from Azolla, T2: Basal diet + 5% protein from Azolla + enzyme, T3: Basal diet +10% protein fromAzolla, and T4: Basal diet + 10% protein from Azolla + enzyme. Cutaneous basophilc hypersensitivity (CBH) and humoral immunity response were determined at the 38th day of age. At 42nd day, the weight of lymphoid organs, an antioxidant enzyme, and lipid peroxidation activity were determined.
Results: The CBH response did not differ significantly among the treated groups, but the sheep red blood cells response was significantly higher in T4. The weight of lymphoid organs or immune organs of all the treated groups did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The erythrocyte catalase level of T4 group was found to be significantly higher than rest of the treated groups except T3.
Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of Azolla at 10% of dietary protein requirement along with enzyme supplementation in an isonitrogenous diet showed a better immune response in broilers.
Keywords: antioxidant, Azolla, broiler, immune response.

Monday, 21 September 2015

Prevalence of Cryptosporidia, Eimeria, Giardia, and Strongyloides in pre-weaned calves on smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini district, Kenya

Research (Published online: 22-09-2015)
14. Prevalence of Cryptosporidia, EimeriaGiardiaand Strongyloides in pre-weaned calves on smallholder dairy farms in Mukurwe-ini district, Kenya - Getrude Shepelo Peter, George Karuoya Gitau, Charles Matiku Mulei, John Vanleeuwen, Shauna Richards, Jeff Wichtel, Fabienne Uehlinger and Omwando Mainga
Veterinary World, 8(9): 1118-1125

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1118-1125

Aim: Gastrointestinal diseases are among the leading causes of calf morbidity and mortality in Kenya and elsewhere. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of Cryptosporidia, EimeriaGiardia, and Strongyloides in calves on smallholder dairy farms (SDF) in Mukurwe-ini District, Nyeri County, Kenya. These infections have been associated with economic losses by decreased growth rates, decreased productivity, and increased susceptibility to other diseases.
Materials and Methods: An observational study was conducted on 109 farms in Mukurwe-ini District, Nyeri County, Kenya, where 220 calf fecal samples (each calf at 4 and 6 weeks of age) from 110 calves (1 set of twins) were collected and analyzed for Cryptosporidia,EimeriaGiardia, and helminth parasites.
Results: Eimeria oocysts, Cryptosporidia oocysts, and Strongyloides eggs were detected in the fecal samples examined, but no Giardiacysts were found. The overall period prevalence of Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides was 42.7% (47/110), 13.6% (15/110), and 5.4% (6/110), respectively. The prevalence at 4 weeks of age for Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides was 30.0% (33/110), 8.2% (9/110), and 3.7% (4/109), respectively, while the prevalence at 6 weeks of age was 20.2% (22/109), 6.5% (7/107), and 2.7% (3/110), respectively. There was, however, no significant difference in the prevalence at 4 and 6 weeks (p>0.05).
Conclusion: Findings from this study show that Eimeria, Cryptosporidia, and Strongyloides, are prevalent in the study area and indicate the need to adopt optimal management practices to control infections in calves.
Keywords: Cryptosporidia, EimeriaGiardia, pre-weaned calves, smallholder dairy farms, Strongyloides.

Assessment of blood changes post-challenge with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and its exotoxin (phospholipase D): A comprehensive study in goat

Research (Published online: 22-09-2015)
13. Assessment of blood changes post-challenge with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and its exotoxin (phospholipase D): A comprehensive study in goat - Z. K. H. Mahmood, F. F. Jesse, A. A. Saharee, S. Jasni, R. Yusoff and H. Wahid
Veterinary World, 8(9): 1105-1117

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1105-1117

Aim: There is very little information regarding blood changes during the challenge of phospholipase D (PLD) in goats. Therefore, this experiment was conducted to study the changes in blood after the challenge with Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis and its exotoxin, PLD to fill in the gap of caseous lymphadenitis (CLA) research.
Materials and Methods: Twenty-six crossbred Boer goats aged 12-14 months were divided into 3 groups; the first group n=6 was inoculated with 1 ml phosphate buffered solution s.c. as the control. The second group n=10 was inoculated with C. pseudotuberculosis 1 × 109 cfu s.c. The third group n=10 was intravenous injected with PLD 1 ml/20 kg body weight. Serial blood collections were done at 1 h, 3 h, 5 h, 8 h, and 12 h then every 24 h post-inoculation for the first 30 days of the experiment. Subsequently, the blood collection continued twice a week till the end of the experiment (90 days post-challenge).
Results: Both C. pseudotuberculosis and PLD treated groups showed significant changes (p<0.05) in red blood cell count, hemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular Hb concentration, white blood cell count, neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils, globulin, and total plasma proteins. Similarly, both treated groups showed significant changes (p<0.05) in alanine transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate transaminase, total bilirubin, calcium concentration, creatine phosphokinase, creatinine, gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, urea concentration, lactate dehydrogenase, prothrombin time, and activated partial thromboplastin time.
Conclusion: It concluded that C. pseudotuberculosis and PLD have a negative impact on the goat’s health in general reflected by all those changes recorded in the hemogram, leukogram, and the blood chemistry.
Keywords: blood biochemistry, blood changes, caseous lymphadenitis, goat, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, hemogram, leukogram, phospholipase D.

Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Assam, India

Research (Published online: 22-09-2015)
12. Emergence of oriental theileriosis in cattle and its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus in Assam, India -Parikshit Kakati, Prabhat Chandra Sarmah, Debdatta Ray, Kanta Bhattacharjee, Rajeev Kumar Sharma, Luit Moni Barkalita, Dipak Kumar Sarma, Bhaben Chandra Baishya, Pranjal Borah and Bobitha Stanley
Veterinary World, 8(9): 1099-1104

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1099-1104

Aim: The aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of Theileria in blood samples of crossbred and indigenous adult cows raised under unorganized small scale farming system in a Babesia and Anaplasma endemic geographical area from Assam, India and to see its transmission through Rhipicephalus (Boophilusmicroplus ticks.
Materials and Methods: For the present study, 57 clinical cases of cattle suspected to be of hemoparasitic infections were taken into consideration. The parasites were identified based on morphology in giemsa stained blood smear followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sera samples were tested for T. annulata antibodies in plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR was also conducted in eggs of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus tick collected from a Theileria orientalis positive animal.
Results: PCR amplified 1124, 776, and 160 bp DNA fragments of Bbigemina (64.91%),T. orientalis(21.05%) and A. marginale(14.03%), respectively. This assay further conducted in 12 T. orientalis positive blood samples with primers of Buffeli, Chitose, and Ikeda variants of T. orientalis showed 3 samples positive to Ikeda type and none for Buffeli and Chitose. Babesia bovis and Theileria annulata specific primers also did not amplify any fragment during the PCR assay of the blood samples. Further, all sera samples tested negative to T. annulata antibodies in Plate and Dot-ELISA. PCR conducted in eggs of R (B).microplus tick collected from a T. orientalispositive animal revealed presence of the parasite DNA. Gradual improvement in physical condition leading to complete recovery in 10 out of 12 T. orientalis infected clinical cases treated with buparvaquone(at 2.5mg/kg.b.wt I/M) was the feedback obtained from field veterinarians and the cattle owners.
Conclusion: The present investigation represents the first report of occurrence of T. orientalis in cattle of Assam with involvement of pathogenic Ikeda strain in clinical outbreaks and its possible natural transmission by R (B). microplus through the transovarian mode.
Keywords: Anaplasma marginale, Assam (India), Babesia bigemina, Ikeda type, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Theileria orientalis.

Saturday, 19 September 2015

Validation of γ-radiation and ultraviolet as a new inactivators for foot and mouth disease virus in comparison with the traditional methods

Research (Published online: 19-09-2015)
11. Validation of γ-radiation and ultraviolet as a new inactivators for foot and mouth disease virus in comparison with the traditional methods - Safy El din Mahdy, Amr Ismail Hassanin, Wael Mossad Gamal El-Din, Ehab El-Sayed Ibrahim, and Hiam Mohamed Fakhry
Veterinary World, 8(9): 1088-1098

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1088-1098

Aim: The present work deals with different methods for foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) inactivation for serotypes O/pan Asia, A/Iran05, and SAT-2/2012 by heat, gamma radiation, and ultraviolet (UV) in comparison with the traditional methods and their effects on the antigenicity of viruses for production of inactivated vaccines.
Materials and Methods: FMDV types O/pan Asia, A/Iran05, and SAT-2/2012 were propagated in baby hamster kidney 21 (BHK21) and titrated then divided into five parts; the first part inactivated with heat, the second part inactivated with gamma radiation, the third part inactivated with UV light, the fourth part inactivated with binary ethylamine, and the last part inactivated with combination of binary ethylamine and formaldehyde (BEI+FA). Evaluate the method of inactivation via inoculation in BHK21, inoculation in suckling baby mice and complement fixation test then formulate vaccine using different methods of inactivation then applying the quality control tests to evaluate each formulated vaccine.
Results: The effect of heat, gamma radiation, and UV on the ability of replication of FMDV "O/pan Asia, A/Iran05, and SAT-2/2012" was determined through BHK cell line passage. Each of the 9 virus aliquots titer 10TCID50 (3 for each strain) were exposed to 37, 57, and 77°C for 15, 30, and 45 min. Similarly, another 15 aliquots (5 for each strain) contain 1 mm depth of the exposed samples in petri-dish was exposed to UV light (252.7 nm wavelength: One foot distance) for 15, 30, 45, 60, and 65 min. Different doses of gamma radiation (10, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, and 60 KGy) were applied in a dose rate 0.551 Gy/s for each strain and repeated 6 times for each dose. FMDV (O/pan Asia, A/Iran05, and SAT-2/2012) were inactivated when exposed to heat ≥57°C for 15 min. The UV inactivation of FMDV (O/pan Asia and SAT-2) was obtained within 60 min and 65 min for type A/Iran05. The ideal dose for inactivation of FMDV (O/pan Asia, A/Iran05, and SAT-2/2012) with gamma radiation were 55-60 and 45 kGy, respectively. Inactivation of FMDV with binary was 20, 24 and 16 hr for O/pan Asia, A/Iran05, and SAT-2/2012, respectively while inactivation by (BEI+FA) was determined after 18, 19 and 11 hr for O/pan-Asia, A/Iran 05, and SAT-2/2012, respectively. The antigenicity of control virus before inactivation was 1/32, it was not changed after inactivation in case of gamma radiation and (BEI+FA) and slightly decrease to 1/16 in case of binary and declined to 1/2, 1/4 in case of heat and UV inactivation, respectively. The immune response induced by inactivated FMD vaccines by gamma radiation and (BEI+FA) lasted to 9 months post-vaccination, while the binary only still up to 8 months post-vaccination but heat and UV-inactivated vaccines were not effective.
Conclusion: Gamma radiation could be considered a good new inactivator inducing the same results of inactivated vaccine by binary with formaldehyde (BEI+FA).
Keywords: A/Iran05 and SAT-2/2012, binary, combination (BEI+FA), enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), foot and mouth disease virus, gamma radiation, heat, inactivation, ISA201, O/pan Asia, ultraviolet light, vaccine formulation, serum neutralization test.

Incidence and clinical vital parameters in primary ketosis of Murrah buffaloes

Research (Published online: 19-09-2015)
10. Incidence and clinical vital parameters in primary ketosis of Murrah buffaloes - Ankit Kumar, Neelesh Sindhu, Parmod Kumar, Tarun Kumar, Gaurav Charaya, Surbhi, V. K. Jain and Sridhar
Veterinary World, 8(9): 1083-1087

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1083-1087

Aim: The present study was undertaken to ascertain the incidence and clinical vital parameters in cases of primary ketosis in Murrah buffaloes brought to teaching veterinary clinical complex, Lala Lajpat Rai University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Hisar and from adjoining villages of the district Hisar, Haryana, India.
Materials and Methods: The investigation was conducted on 24 clinical cases (out of total 145 screened) of primary ketosis. The diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of clinical signs and significantly positive two tests for ketone bodies in urine (Rothera’s and Keto-Diastix strip test). Data collected were statistically analyzed using independent Student’s t-test.
Results: Overall incidence of disease in these areas was found to be 16.55% and all the animals were recently parturited (mean: 1.42±0.14 month), on an average in their third lactation (mean: 2.38±0.30) and exhibited clinical signs such as selective anorexia (refusal to feed on concentrate diet), drastic reduction in milk yield (mean: 64.4±5.35%), ketotic odor from urine, breath, and milk and rapid loss of body condition. All the clinical vital parameters in ketotic buffaloes (body temperature, heart rate, respiration rate, and rumen movements) were within normal range.
Conclusion: Primary ketosis in Murrah buffaloes was the most common seen in the third lactation, within the first 2 months after parturition with characteristics clinical signs and no variability in vital parameters. The disease has severe effect on the production status of affected animal.
Keywords: buffaloes, incidence, Keto-Diastix strip test, primary ketosis, Rothera’s test.

Detection and characterization of zoonotic dermatophytes from dogs and cats in and around Kolkata

Research (Published online: 19-09-2015)
9.  Detection and characterization of zoonotic dermatophytes from dogs and cats in and around Kolkata - S. Murmu, C. Debnath, A. K. Pramanik, T. Mitra, S. Jana, S. Dey, S. Banerjee and K. Batabyal
Veterinary World, 8(9): 1078-1082

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1078-1082

Aim: The ringworms of pet dogs, cats, and stray animals (dogs, cats, and other animals) could be a potential source of zoonotic infections causing a serious public health problem in the busy city Kolkata. The pet owners are more susceptible to get this infection from their pets, because of the close contact with them as dermatophytosis is very much prevalent in those pets. So, this study was aimed to check the prevalence of dermatophytosis in dogs, cats, and in pet owners.
Materials and Methods: A total of 362 clinically suspected cases of dermatophytosis from dogs (123 in number), cats (202 in number), and human beings (37 in number) were collected and studied from in and around Kolkata to detect the presence of significant dermatophytes. Direct microscopy and cultural examination of the isolates were performed following standard methodology. Identification and characterization of the isolates were done by different biochemical tests.
Results: Samples (n=285) having significant dermatophytic fungal infections were found to be of highest number in cats (158, 55.5%) than in dogs (108, 37.8%) and humans (19, 6.7%), respectively. The incidence of Microsporum canis (60.0%) was the highest from affecting dogs, cats, and human beings in comparison to Microsporum gypseum (22.5%), Trichophyton mentagrophytes (15.8%) andTrichophyton rubrum (1.7%). Detection of T. rubrum was only from human cases in this study, whereas the presence of rest three were slightly higher in cats than that of the dogs and humans in this present study. The incidences were higher in young animals and in humans of the age group of 21-30 years, during the rainy season (from April to August) and also in in-contact human beings.
Conclusion: M. canis was the most commonly pathogen among all causing dermatophytosis in animals and also in the pet owners. M. gypseum and T. mentagrophytes were other pathogens associated with these infections. These infections were more prevalent in the rainy seasons and in in-contact human patients or pet owners.
Keywords: cats, dermatophytes, dogs, humans, zoonotic infections.

Wednesday, 16 September 2015

Rapid detection of Mannheimia haemolytica in lung tissues of sheep and from bacterial culture

Research (Published online: 15-09-2015)
8.  Rapid detection of Mannheimia haemolytica in lung tissues of sheep and from bacterial culture - Jyoti Kumar, Shivendra Kumar Dixit and Rajiv Kumar
Veterinary World, 8(9): 1073-1077

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1073-1077

Aim: This study was aimed to detect Mannheimia haemolytica in lung tissues of sheep and from a bacterial culture.
Introduction: M. haemolytica is one of the most important and well-established etiological agents of pneumonia in sheep and other ruminants throughout the world. Accurate diagnosis of M. haemolytica primarily relies on bacteriological examination, biochemical characteristics and, biotyping and serotyping of the isolates. In an effort to facilitate rapid M. haemolytica detection, polymerase chain reaction assay targeting Pasteurella haemolytica serotype-1 specific antigens (PHSSA), Rpt2 and 12S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes were used to detect M. haemolytica directly from lung tissues and from bacterial culture.
Materials and Methods: A total of 12 archived lung tissues from sheep that died of pneumonia on an organized farm were used. A multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) based on two-amplicons targeted PHSSA and Rpt2 genes of M. haemolytica were used for identification of M. haemolytica isolates in culture from the lung samples. All the 12 lung tissue samples were tested for the presence M. haemolytica by PHSSA and Rpt2 genes based PCR and its confirmation by sequencing of the amplicons.
Results: All the 12 lung tissue samples tested for the presence of PHSSA and Rpt2 genes of M. haemolytica by mPCR were found to be positive. Amplification of 12S rRNA gene fragment as internal amplification control was obtained with each mPCR reaction performed from DNA extracted directly from lung tissue samples. All the M. haemolytica were also positive for mPCR. No amplified DNA bands were observed for negative control reactions. All the three nucleotide sequences were deposited in NCBI GenBank (Accession No. KJ534629, KJ534630 and KJ534631). Sequencing of the amplified products revealed the identity of 99-100%, with published sequence of PHSSA and Rpt2 genes of M. haemolytica available in the NCBI database. Sheep specific mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene sequence also revealed the identity of 98% with published sequences in the NCBI database.
Conclusion: The present study emphasized the PCR as a valuable tool for rapid detection of M. haemolytica in clinical samples from animals. In addition, it offers the opportunity to perform large-scale epidemiological studies regarding the role of M. haemolytica in clinical cases of pneumonia and other disease manifestations in sheep and other ruminants, thereby providing the basis for effective preventive strategies.
Keywords: lung tissues, Mannheimia haemolytica, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, Pasteurella haemolytica serotype-1 specific antigens, Rpt2, 12S ribosomal RNA, sheep.