Monday, 31 August 2015

Histology and scanning electron microscopy of the tubal tonsil of goats

Research (Published online: 25-08-2015)
11.  Histology and scanning electron microscopy of the tubal tonsil of goats - V. R. Indu, K. M. Lucy, J. J. Chungath, N. Ashok and S. Maya
Veterinary World, 8(8): 1011-1014

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2015.1011-1014

Aim: To observe the light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the caprine tubal tonsil.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on six crossbred male goats of 6 months of age. From the median sections of the head, tissue pieces from the nasopharynx around the auditory tube were collected and fixed for histology and SEM.
Results: Tonsillar lymphoid tissue was located in the nasopharynx ventral to the auditory tube opening in the lateral wall of the pharynx. The height of the surface epithelium of the tubal tonsil measured 80.17±1.08 μm and was a pseudostratified ciliated columnar type with basal, supporting, and goblet cells. Above the dome of lymphoid nodules, the epithelium was modified into a follicle associated epithelium (FAE), also called lympho-epithelium or reticular epithelium and was characterized by the absence of goblet cells and cilia, reduced number of cell layers, and a large number of lymphoid cells due to interrupted basement membrane. The height of FAE was smaller than that of the surface epithelium and measured 34.33±0.92 μm. The surface of tubal tonsil showed folds and invaginations, which formed crypts. The lamina propria-submucosa underneath the epithelium was formed by the meshwork of reticular and, thin and loose collagen fibers with dome-like accumulation of lymphoid nodules. In the secondary lymphoid nodules, a corona, parafollicular area, and interfnodular area were observed. The average number of lymphoid nodules counted per field under low power magnification of microscope was 1.17±0.17, and the internodular distance was 34.00±4.37 μm. The mean diameter of lymphoid nodules was 566.67±11.45 μm and the lymphocyte count per nodule was 14741.67±174.36. The number of plasma cells counted per field under low power was 44.38±2.90 below the surface epithelium. The tubal tonsil was not encapsulated. In SEM, the surface epithelium of the tubal tonsils presented ciliated cells, microvillus (MV) cells, and goblet cells. The region of FAE possessed Type-I and Type-II MV cells and microfold (M) cells in between.
Conclusion: It was concluded that the tubal tonsils were well developed in goats, which might serve as a means of protection against the spread of infection to the middle ear cavity.
Keywords: goats, histology, tubal tonsil.

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