Sunday, 12 August 2018

Molecular and immunological characterization of Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma excavatum(Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of Q fever in camels

Research (Published online: 12-08-2018)
14. Molecular and immunological characterization of Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma excavatum(Acari: Ixodidae) vectors of Q fever in camels
Hend H. A. M. Abdullah, Eman E. El-Shanawany, Sobhy Abdel-Shafy, Hala A. A. Abou-Zeina and Eman H. Abdel-Rahman
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1109-1119
Background and Aim: Q fever Coxiella burnetii is a worldwide zoonotic disease, and C. burnetii was detected in mammals and ticks. Ticks play an important role in the spread of C. burnetii in the environment. Therefore, the aims of this study were to detect Q fever C. burnetii in camels and ixodid ticks by molecular tools and identification of Hyalomma dromedarii and Hyalomma excavatum using molecular and immunological assays.
Materials and Methods: A total of 113 blood samples from camels and 190 adult ticks were investigated for the infection with C. burnetii by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and sequencing the targeting IS30A spacer. The two tick species H. dromedarii and H. excavatum were characterized molecularly by PCR and sequencing of 16S ribosomal RNA (16S rRNA) and cytochrome oxidase subunit-1 (CO1) genes and immunologically by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and western blot.
Results: A total of 52 camels (46%) were positive for Q fever infection. Only 10 adult ticks of H. dromedarii were infected with C. burnetii. The IS30A sequence was around 200 bp in length for C. burnetii in H. dromedariiticks with a similarity of 99% when compared with reference data in GenBank records. The length of 16S rDNA and CO1 was 440 and 850 bp, respectively, for both H. dromedarii and H. excavatum. The phylogenetic status of H. dromedarii was distant from that of H. excavatum. SDS-PAGE revealed seven different bands in the adult antigens of either H. dromedarii or H. excavatum with molecular weights ranged from 132.9 to 17.7 KDa. In western blot analyses, the sera obtained from either infested camel by H. dromedarii or infested cattle by H. excavatum recognized four immunogenic bands (100.7, 49.7, 43.9, and 39.6 kDa) in H. dromedariiantigen. However, the infested camel sera identified two immunogenic bands (117 and 61.4 kDa) in H. excavatum antigen. Furthermore, the sera collected from cattle infested by H. excavatum recognized three immunogenic bands (61.4, 47.3, and 35 kDa) in H. excavatum antigen.
Conclusion: Molecular analyses indicated that both camels and ticks could be sources for infection of animals and humans with Q fever. Furthermore, the molecular analyses are more accurate tools for discriminating H. dromedarii and H. excavatum than immunological tools.
Keywords: 16S ribosomal DNA, Coxiella burnetii, cytochrome oxidase subunit-1, hard ticks, phylogeny, polymerase chain reaction, sequence, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, western blot.

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