Friday, 9 November 2018

Epizootiological observations on canine microfilaremia in Gujarat state, India

Research (Published online: 09-11-2018)
6. Epizootiological observations on canine microfilaremia in Gujarat state, India
J. R. Patel, S. Devi, J. P. Varshney and K. M. Jadhav
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1564-1568
Aim: The present investigation was conducted to study the prevalence of microfilaremia in dogs in Gujarat.
Materials and Methods: A total of 418 adult dogs aged between 2 and 14 years with signs of weakness and non-specified complaints, presented at TVCC, Deesa (North Gujarat), Nandini Veterinary Hospital, Surat (South Gujarat), and Private Clinics, Ahmedabad (Central Gujarat), were included in the present investigation for studying the prevalence of microfilaremia from July 2016 to May 2017.
Results: A total of 418 dogs were screened, of which 33 were found positive for circulating microfilariae with the prevalence rate of 7.89% in the population. Among microfilaremic dogs, the finding of microfilariae of Dipetalonema (Acanthocheilonema) reconditum was more common (23 cases; 69.69%) than Dirofilaria immitis (10 cases; 30.30%) making their prevalence in the population of 418 dogs as 5.50% and 2.39%, respectively. Breed-wise distribution of microfilaremic dogs revealed that 12 (36.36%), 8 (24.24%), 5 (15.15%), 4 (12.12%), 2 (6.06%), 1 (3.03%), and 1 (3.03%) cases were observed in Pomeranian, non-descript, German Shepherd, Labrador, Great Dane, Lhasa Apso, and Pug dogs, respectively. Of 10 cases of D. immitis, 5, 2, 2, and 1 were observed in Pomeranian, Labrador, non-descript, and Great Dane dogs, respectively. Cases of Dipetalonema reconditum were highest in Pomeranian (7), followed by non-descript (6), German Shepherd (5), Labrador (2), Great Dane (1), Lhasa Apso (1), and Pug (1). Age-wise distribution recorded significantly (p≤0.01) higher number of cases in adult dogs (4-14 years) for D. immitis (30.30%) and D. reconditum (39.39%). Sex-wise distribution of microfilaremic dogs showed that male (22/33, 66.66%) was more predisposed to microfilaremia rather than females (11/33, 33.34%). It is apparent from the study that the number of dogs with microfilaremia due to D. reconditum was significantly (p≤0.01) higher than that of D. immitis.
Conclusion: The present study revealed that microfilaremia due to D. immitis and D. reconditum is prevalent in the state of Gujarat. The infection with D. immitis was associated with severe lung and cardiac pathological manifestations.
Keywords: Dipetalonema reconditumDirofilaria immitis, dogs, microfilariae, modified Knott's technique, prevalence.

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