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Friday, 9 November 2018
Risk factors of a viral nervous necrosis disease in grouper (Epinephelus spp.) cultured in Bintan district, Indonesia
Research (Published online: 09-11-2018)
5. Risk factors of a viral nervous necrosis disease in grouper (Epinephelus spp.) cultured in Bintan district, Indonesia
Eka Juniar, Kurniasih Kurniasih and Bambang Sumiarto
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1558-1563
Aim: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of viral nervous necrosis (VNN) disease in tiger grouper cultured in the floating net cage in Bintan district, Indonesia.
Materials and Methods: Sampling used multiple stages with ponds as interest units. The selection conducted by systematic random sampling from the entire net cage in Bintan district. The fish samples were selected based on the appearance of clinical signs of infected fish. The risk factors investigated in this study included net cage, technical, and sample fish information, culture, water quality, and feed management. A total of 195 fishes pooled to the 39 net cages and tested using the nested polymerase chain reaction technique to determine the VNN status. The brain and eye processed for histopathology.
Results: The prevalence rate of VNN on the net cage was 38% (15/39). The risk factors affecting VNN using bivariate analysis was cleaning the net (χ2=9.80; p=0.002), replacement of net cage (χ2=5.20; p=0.0226), and floating net cage technicians knowledge (χ2=4.13; p=0.042). The variables of positive risk factors affecting VNN by multivariate analysis were the juvenile source and the level of mid-weather changes (technician experience and dissolved oxygen [DO]). Seven variables associated to the VNN outbreak have detected. The positive multiplier factors were the source of juveniles, mid weather changes, technician experience, and the DO, while the negative factors were salinity, mixed feed, and the low weather changes. Histopathologically, the grouper fish showed the brain, eye, and muscle vacuolization and kidney necrosis.
Conclusion: It proves that the Bintan waters contaminated by VNN had a prevalence rate of 38% from the total sample based on bivariate method, net cleaning, net replacement, and knowledge on the VNN outbreak. Natural infection of VNN in grouper leads to vacuolization of the brain, the eye, and muscles nearby the eye as well the kidney necrosis.