Tuesday, 6 November 2018

Yields, chemical composition, and antimicrobial activity of two Algerian essential oils against 40 avian multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains

Research (Published online: 06-11-2018)
3. Yields, chemical composition, and antimicrobial activity of two Algerian essential oils against 40 avian multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli strains
Narimene Mansouri, Leila Aoun, Nabila Dalichaouche and Douniazed Hadri
Veterinary World, 11(11): 1539-1550
Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate, in vitro, a possible antibacterial activity of Algerian essential oils (EOs) of Thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) and that of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) against multidrug-resistant avian Escherichia coli strains and this in a perspective of their future use as a substitute for antibiotics (ATBs).
Materials and Methods: In addition to the reference strain of E. coli ATCC 25922, 40 strains of avian E. coli have been isolated (24 strains of broilers and 16 of turkeys), their antimicrobial resistance profile was determined by antibiogram tests against 21 ATBs whereupon they were subjected to the action of two Algerian EOs; the EO of Thyme (T. vulgaris L.) and that of Coriander (C. sativum L.), which oils were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and this for the determination of their chemical composition. The antibacterial activity, resulting in zones of inhibition, was evaluated by carrying out, in triplicate, aromatograms for both pure EO and that which has been diluted to 15% in Dimethyl Sulfoxide (DMSO), while the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the two EOs were highlighted by the method of liquid macrodilution.
Results: Antibiogram performance demonstrated an alarming state of antimicrobial resistance, the multidrug resistance rate was estimated at 100% for the broilers chicken strains and at 81.25% for strains isolated from turkeys, hydrodistillation allowed to obtained EOs with yields estimated at 1.22±0.26% for Thyme EO and 0.23±0.15% for the essence of Coriander, the GC-MS analysis identified 19 main compounds and showed that the majority chemical components were Carvacrol (73.03%) for Thyme volatile oil and Linalool (60.91%) for Coriander EO, aromatograms and the determination of MIC concluded that the EO of Thyme showed a greater antibacterial activity with an average of the zones of inhibition estimated at 26.75±0.426 mm and MIC ranging from 0.07 to 0.93 mg/ml against an average of the inhibition zones evaluated at 17.05±0.383 mm and MICs evaluated between 0.6 and 10 mg/ml for the EO of Coriander.
Conclusion: In aviculture, these results seem to be very promising in the case where we think about the replacement of ATBs by EOs, in vivo studies would be very interesting to confirm or invalidate this hypothesis.
Keywords: Avian Escherichia coli, antimicrobial resistance, essential oils, antibacterial activity, Thymus vulgaris L., Coriandrum sativum L.

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