Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
3. The antioxidant components of milk and their role in processing, ripening, and storage: Functional food
Imran Taj Khan, Mohammed Bule, Rahman Ullah, Muhammad Nadeem, Shafaq Asif and Kamal Niaz
Veterinary World, 12(1): 12-33
The current rate of population growth is so fast that, to feed this massive population, a 2-fold increase in land is required for the production of quality food. Improved dietary products such as milk and its products with antioxidant properties and functional foods of animal origin have been utilized to prevent chronic diseases. The designer milk contains low fat and less lactose, more protein, modified level of fatty acids, and desired amino acid profiles. The importance of milk and its products is due to the presence of protein, bioactive peptides, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acid, Vitamin D, selenium, and calcium. These constituents are present in milk product, play a key role in the physiological activities in human bodies, and act as anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, antioxidant, hypocholesterolemic, immune boosting, and antimicrobial activities. Consumer awareness regarding benefits of designer foods such as milk and its products is almost non-existent worldwide and needs to be established to reach the benefits of designer food technologies in the near future. The main objective of this review was to collect data on the antioxidant properties of milk and its constituents which keep milk-derived products safe and preserved.
Aim: This study aimed to evaluate mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), and lead (Pb) levels in 70 samples of sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and 30 samples of swordfish (Xiphias gladius) fished in the Algerian coasts.
Materials and Methods: After the mineralization of the fish samples through the pressure digestion, the analyses were carried out by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.
Results: Mean concentrations of Hg, Cd, and Pb in sardine were 0.62, 0.55, and 2.13 mg/kg wet weight, respectively, while in swordfish, the concentrations were 0.56, 0.57, and 3.9 mg/kg wet weight, respectively. These results exceeded the Algerian and European legislation threshold values, whereas Hg's concentration in swordfish remained close to and did not exceed the recommended thresholds (0.56 mg/kg wet weight).
Conclusion: This fish may represent a hazard for consumers in Algeria. Systematic and periodic controls of heavy metals in fish are recommended, and risk assessment is needed to protect the consumer.
Keywords: atomic emission spectroscopy, fish, hazard, heavy metal, sardine, swordfish.
1. Stability and virucidal efficacies using powder and liquid forms of fresh charcoal ash and slaked lime against Newcastle disease virus and Avian influenza virus
Sakchai Ruenphet, Darsaniya Punyadarsaniya, Tippawan Jantafong and Kazuaki Takehara
Veterinary World, 12(1): 1-6
Aim: The present study was examined the virucidal activity comparison between fresh charcoal ash (FCA) and slaked lime (SL) against avian influenza virus (AIV) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), using powder and liquid forms, either in the absence or presence of organic materials. In addition, both FCA and SL were evaluated for the persistence of virucidal activity in wet and dry conditions and stability of the solution.
Materials and Methods: Two hundred milligrams of FCA or SL powders were mixed with 100 μl of AIV or NDV in the absence of organic material or 33% of organic materials. In the same time, 400 μl of 1%, 5%, or 10% solution samples were mixed with 100 μl of each virus and then incubated at room temperature for an indicated time. After that, the mixed solution was stop activity of sample using 500 μl of 1M Tris-HCl pH 7.2. Each treatment was titrated onto Madin-Darby canine kidney cells or chicken embryo fibroblasts for AIV or NDV, respectively, for determining the efficacy of viral inactivation. In addition, the stability of powder under the wet-dry condition and solution stability under room temperature was examined.
Results: The results demonstrated that the FCA and SL in powder form could inactivate AIV and NDV even in the absence or presence of organic materials. In the liquid form, 5% and 10% of FCA could inactivate AIV and NDV either in the absence or presence of organic materials. Alongside, 1%, 5%, and 10% of SL could inactivate both viruses. 10% of FCA solution could inactivate virus at a shortest time when compared with other concentrations. In addition, the efficacy of wet-dry conditions of FCA was limited when compared with SL. On the other hand, it is demonstrated that the FCA solution was more stable and kept at room temperature longer than SL.
Conclusion: The FCA may, hence, be used as an alternative virucide, while applying it to prevent spreading of poultry disease on commercial chicken farms and also backyard chickens, especially in developing countries, including in rural areas of Thailand.
14. Effect of insulin or insulin-like growth factor-I administration at mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle during superovulation on hormonal profile of Sahiwal cows
S. K. Sheetal, Shiv Prasad and H. P. Gupta
Veterinary World, 11(12): 1736-1741
Aim: The present study was designed to study the effect of insulin and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-I) administration during luteal phase of the estrous cycle on the hormonal profile of Sahiwal embryo donor cows during superovulation.
Materials and Methods: Cows (n=18) were selected and divided into three groups; control (n=6, untreated), T-I (n=6, insulin-treated), and T-II (n=6, IGF-I treated). Insulin and IGF-I were given S/C on 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th days of estrous cycle. Superovulatory treatment was started on day 9th of the estrous cycle. With the sixth dose of follicle-stimulating hormone, prostaglandin was injected to induce superovulatory heat. The superovulated cows were bred, and superovulatory response of each animal was recorded. The embryos were collected non-surgically on the 7th day of superovulatory estrus. About 15 ml blood without anticoagulant was collected on days 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, and 21 or day of embryo recovery where day 0 of estrous cycle was taken as day of estrus. Serum was separated, centrifuged, and transferred into sterilized serum vials. All samples were stored at -20°C till analysis. Progesterone, insulin, and IGF-I were estimated in blood serum by radioimmunoassay using radioimmunoassay kits.
Results and discussion: The mean concentration of progesterone on days 7 and 11, insulin on days 7 and 9, and IGF-I on days 5, 7, 9, 11, and 15 was significantly higher in insulin-treated T-I groups as compared to untreated control.
Conclusions: It may be concluded that exogenous insulin administration during mid-luteal phase may be helpful in follicular and embryonic development through modulation of progesterone, insulin, and IGF-I in indigenous (Bos indicus) Sahiwal embryo donor cows.
13. A systematic review of analgesia practices in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy
Willy E. Mwangi, Eddy M. Mogoa, James N. Mwangi, Paul G. Mbuthia and Susan W. Mbugua
Veterinary World, 11(12): 1725-1735
Aim: This was a systematic review conducted to evaluate the analgesic drugs and techniques used in the management of pain in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.
Materials and Methods: Systematic searches in PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect were conducted for peer-reviewed articles written in English and published from 1995 to 2015. The key search words were dogs, ovariohysterectomy, pain, and analgesics. This was followed by a manual search of the references within the primary data sources. Inclusion and exclusion of studies and data extraction were performed independently by two reviewers. All randomized studies evaluating the effects of analgesics during ovariohysterectomy in dogs were included.
Results: A total of 31 trials met the criteria and were, therefore, included in the study. Data on the type of analgesic drugs used, the technique of administration, and the need for rescue analgesia were extracted from the papers. Individual analgesic protocols were used in 83.9% of the studies compared to multimodal drug therapy, which was used in 16.1% of the studies. Opioids were used in 39.0% of studies, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in 19.4%, a combination of NSAIDs and opioids in 19.4%, local analgesics in 6.5%, and acupuncture in 3.2% of the studies. Drug administration was done using three approaches that included pre-operative (64.5%), post-operative (22.6%) as well as combined pre- and post-operative approach (12.9%). In 77.4% of the studies, administration of analgesics was done once, while in 12.9%, it was done as a 72-h post-operative course. 24-h and 48-h courses of post-operative pain therapy were done in 6.5% and 3.2% of the studies, respectively. About 57% of the dogs in the control groups required rescue analgesia as compared to 21.6% in the single and 11.3% in multimodal drug therapy groups. The requirement for rescue analgesics was highest in dogs treated using acupuncture (43.8%) and lowest in dogs treated using NSAID-opioid combination (8.6%). Fewer dogs among those that received pain medication preoperatively and postoperatively required rescue analgesia compared to those in groups given drugs before and after surgery only. More dogs (26.4%) among those given analgesics only once postoperatively required rescue analgesia as compared to those that received analgesics daily for 72 h (4.4%).
Conclusions: This study provides evidence that opioids are the mainstream analgesic drugs used in managing acute post-operative pain in dogs' post-ovariohysterectomy. In addition, multimodal drug therapy, particularly, NSAID-opioids combination is more effective for pain management than single drug administration. Administering analgesics both before and after surgery is associated with better outcomes and so is a protracted course of post-operative pain therapy. Although these practices should be encouraged, controlled studies should be conducted to conclusively determine the best practices for pain management in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.
12. Prevalence and molecular detection of fluoroquinolone-resistant genes (qnrA and qnrS) in Escherichia coli isolated from healthy broiler chickens
Shahin Mahmud, K. H. M. Nazmul Hussain Nazir and Md. Tanvir Rahman
Veterinary World, 11(12): 1720-1724
Aim: The present study was carried out to determine the prevalence and molecular detection of fluoroquinolone-resistant Escherichia coli carrying qnrA and qnrS genes in healthy broiler chickens in Mymensingh, Bangladesh, and also to identify the genes responsible for such resistance.
Materials and Methods: A total of 65 cloacal swabs were collected from apparently healthy chickens of 0-14 days (n=23) and 15-35 days (n=42) old. The samples were cultured onto Eosin Methylene Blue Agar, and the isolation and identification of the E. coli were performed based on morphology, cultural, staining, and biochemical properties followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting E. coli 16S rRNA genes. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility test against five commonly used antibiotics under fluoroquinolone (quinolone) group, namely gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, ofloxacin, and pefloxacin by disk diffusion method. Detection of qnrA and qnrS genes was performed by PCR.
Results: Among the 65 cloacal samples, 54 (83.08%) were found to be positive for E. coli. Antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that, of these 54 isolates, 18 (33.33%) were found to be resistant to at least one fluoroquinolone antibiotic. The highest resistance was observed against pefloxacin (61.11%). By PCR, of 18 E. coli resistant to fluoroquinolone, 13 (72.22%) were found to be positive for the presence of qnrS. None of the isolates were found positive for qnrA.
Conclusion: Fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli harboring qnrS genes is highly prevalent in apparently healthy broiler chickens and possesses a potential threat to human health.
Aim: An experiment was conducted to evaluate the nutritional, physicochemical, microbiological, and sensory attributes of pork sausages treated with conventional smoking (CS) and liquid smoke (LS).
Materials and Methods: Pork sausages were prepared by employing CS (T1) and by addition of LS at 3% (T2A), 5% (T2B), and 7% (T2C) while smoking was not done in control (C) sausages. The ready-to-eat pork sausages were evaluated in terms of proximate composition, emulsion stability (ES), cooking loss (CL), pH, water activity (aw), texture profile analysis (TPA), and shear force on the day of preparation and the shelf life of the sausages was evaluated on the basis of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) value, organoleptic qualities, total viable plate count, total psychrophilic count, and yeast and mold counts at 5-day interval up to 15 days under refrigerated storage (6±1°C).
Results: The mean percentage moisture and percentage ether extract contents of the conventionally smoked sausages (T1) exhibited significant difference (p≤0.01) with the rest of the formulations. However, in terms of mean percentage crude protein and percentage total solids, no significant difference (p≥0.05) was recorded between the treatment groups. The mean ES (ml of oil/100 g emulsion) of the different sausage emulsions ranged from 1.88 to 3.20, while the mean aw values among the sausage formulations were found to be non-significant. In terms of mean percentage, CL and pH values, significantly lowest (p≤0.01) values were recorded by the T1 sausages. The mean TBARS values recorded at different periods of time in respect of all the treatment groups ranged from 0.10 to 0.33 mg malanoldehyde [MDA]/kg of sausages which are well within the permissible limit. The highest shear force values (KgF) were recorded by the sausages of T1 formulation (p≤0.01), while TPA of the sausages did not record any significant difference (p≥0.05) among the treatments. Organoleptic studies revealed acceptability of the sausages up to 10 days of refrigerated storage irrespective of treatments employed; however, the sausages of T1 formulation scored significantly (p≤0.01) higher panel ratings. Microbiologically, sausages with different formulations were found to be within the acceptable limit up to the 15th day of refrigerated storage.
Conclusion: The study revealed that traditional hot smoking has slightly higher edges over the LS-treated sausages in terms of lipid oxidation, microbiological safety, and sensory panel ratings. However, if not superior, the same was found to be well within the acceptable limit in case of LS-treated sausages proving the potentiality of the use of LS as a suitable replacement for the traditional hazardous hot smoking process.