Tuesday, 26 December 2017

Isolation and identification of a cellulolytic Enterobacter from rumen of Aceh cattle

Research (Published online: 26-12-2017)
16. Isolation and identification of a cellulolytic Enterobacter from rumen of Aceh cattle
Wenny Novita Sari, Safika, Darmawi and Yudha Fahrimal
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1515-1520
Aim: The aim of this study was to isolate and identify a cellulolytic bacterium from the rumen fluid of Aceh's cattle. Biodegradation by cellulolytic rumen bacteria can be used as a source of cellulolytic bacteria that act to degrade feed fibrous material so as to improve the quality of nutrients and digestibility of feed ingredients at a cheaper price than the use of commercial cellulase enzymes.
Materials and Methods: Samples were collected from rumen fluid of Aceh's cattle in Abattoirs (RPH) of Banda Aceh city, Indonesia, isolation, and screening of cellulolytic bacteria were done in Microbiology Laboratory, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Syiah Kuala University, Banda Aceh, Indonesia.
Results: The S1 isolates showed ±2.5 cm of clear zone diameter. Microscopically, this strain was found to be a Gram-negative, Bacillus. Homology and phylogenetic tree analysis of 16S rRNA showed that S1 isolate has 91% of sequence similarity with that of Enterobacter cloacae. 91% sequence homology shown in this study proved that the S1 isolate is probably either a new species or another genus of Enterobacteriaceae.
Conclusion: Current study suggests that cellulose hydrolytic bacteria isolated from rumen fluid of Aceh cattle on Bushnell Haas medium-carboxymethylcellulose agar, and some potent cellulose degrading bacteria have been identified.
Keywords: Aceh cattle, cellulose, cellulolytic bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, rumen.

Monday, 25 December 2017

Level of knowledge of small-scale milk producers on bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in selected parts of Chongwe district

Research (Published online: 25-12-2017)
13. Level of knowledge of small-scale milk producers on bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in selected parts of Chongwe district - Emmanuel Chileshe
International Journal of One Health, 3: 83-86


Aim: This study was intended to establish the level of knowledge of small-scale milk producers on bovine tuberculosis (BTB), one of the neglected zoonotic diseases.

Materials and Methods: In this study, a descriptive cross-sectional survey design was used. A total of 369 small-scale milk producers were interviewed using a pretested interviewer questionnaire. Using a computer, data obtained from the operator-administered questionnaires were entered in Epidata® and exported to Stata 10.0® for analysis with which descriptive statistics were generated for analysis. The level of knowledge on BTB for both male and female small-scale milk producers was analyzed in relation to membership to cooperative, frequency of TB tests in cattle, availability of extension services, and milk handling and utilization practices. The relationships between the different hypothesized confounders and the binary outcome (BTB testing) were investigated with Pearson’s Chi-squared test for association. Logistic regression model describing the BTB cattle testing among the farmers controlling for hypothesized confounders was finalized using likelihood ratio testing to screen the significance of posited confounders in the model. To ensure validity and eliminate bias of data, the interviews were limited to three interviewers. The questionnaires were pre-tested for clarity as well as to avoid confounding questions.

Results: Majority (95%) of the small-scale milk producers across the study had heard about BTB. The proportion of those who knew that it is transmittable to humans was low (43.8%). The proportion of those who knew its mode of transmission to humans was also low (32.4%). However, it was high in milk producers belonging to dairy cooperatives followed by producers in livestock cooperatives. It was noted that a small proportion of small-scale milk producers ensured that their cattle were tested for BTB. Logistic regression showed that there was 73 times likelihood that small-scale milk producers belonging to dairy cooperatives will have their cattle tested for BTB.

Conclusion: The study established a low level of knowledge on BTB transmission and prevention. It also concluded that few cattle in the small-scale milk production sector get tested for BTB and that the level of knowledge of the milk producers on BTB, in this sector, is associated with this.

Keywords: bovine tuberculosis, Mycobacterium bovis, veterinary extension.

Effect of probiotic supplementation on organic feed to alternative antibiotic growth promoter on production performance and economics analysis of quail

Research (Published online: 25-12-2017)
15. Effect of probiotic supplementation on organic feed to alternative antibiotic growth promoter on production performance and economics analysis of quail
W. P. Lokapirnasari, A. R. Dewi, A. Fathinah, S. Hidanah, N. Harijani, Soeharsono, B. Karimah and A. D. Andriani
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1508-1514
Aim: The purpose of this study was to know the production performance and economic analysis in quail which use probiotic supplementation to alternate antibiotic growth promoter (AGP) to feed consumption, water consumption, egg production, egg mass, feed conversion, and feed efficiency.
Materials and Methods: About 240 quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) at 14 weeks of age were completely randomized into four treatments, each treatment consisted of six replications and each replication consisted by 10 heads. The treatment was T0 (organic feed without AGP and without probiotic), T1 (organic feed + 0.001% AGP), T2 (organic feed + 0.005% probiotic in feed), and T3 (organic feed + 0.005% probiotic in drinking water). The probiotic consist of 1.2x105 CFU/g of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus.
Results: The results showed that the probiotic supplementation both in feed and water give a significant impact to feed consumption, water intake, feed conversion, feed efficiency, and quail day production, but no statistical difference of egg mass. The T3 also show the most profitable business analysis, which has the best result in income, profit, break-even point, return cost ratio, benefit-cost ratio, and return on investment.
Conclusion: It can be concluded that giving 0.005% probiotic in drinking water to get the best egg production and profit.
Keywords: antibiotic growth promoter, economic analysis, probiotic, production performance, quail.

Friday, 22 December 2017

Isolation, molecular characterization and prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in sheep and goats of Kashmir Himalayas, India

Research (Published online: 22-12-2017)
14. Isolation, molecular characterization and prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in sheep and goats of Kashmir Himalayas, India
Salik Nazki, Shakil A. Wani, Rafia Parveen, Showkat A. Ahangar, Zahid A. Kashoo, Syed Hamid, Zahoor A. Dar, Tanveer A. Dar and Pervaiz A. Dar
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1501-1507
Aim: The study was conducted to report the occurrence of the Clostridium perfringens in sheep and goats of the Kashmir valley for the 1st time and to characterize them molecularly with respect to toxin genes to determine the prevalence of the various toxinotypes.
Materials and Methods: A total of 177 samples (152 from sheep and 25 from goats) collected from healthy, diarrheic animals, and morbid material of animals suspected to have died of enterotoxaemia were screened for C. perfringens toxinotypes. The presumptive positive isolates were confirmed using 16S rRNA gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR). All the confirmed isolates were screened for six toxin genes, namely; cpa, cpb, etx, cpi, cpb2, and cpe using a multiplex PCR.
Results: The PCR amplification of 16S rRNA gene revealed that out of 177 samples collected, 125 (70.62%) were found positive for C. perfringens, of which 110 (72.36%) were from sheep and 15 (60%) were from goats. The highest prevalence of C. perfringens toxinotype D was observed in lambs (56.16%) and kids (46.16%) followed by 3.84% in adult sheep while it was absent in samples obtained from adult goats. The multiplex PCR revealed that 67 (60.90%) isolates from sheep and 8 (53.33%) isolates from goats belonged to toxinotype A, while 43 (39.09%) isolates from sheep and 7 (46.66%) isolates from goats were detected as toxinotype D. None of the isolates was found to be toxinotype B, C, or E. All the C. perfringens toxinotype A isolates from sheep were negative for both cpb2 and cpe genes, however, 27.90% toxinotype D isolates from sheep carried cpb2 gene, and 6.97% possessed cpe gene. In contrast, 12.50% C. perfringens toxinotype A isolates from goats harbored cpb2 and cpe genes while 14.28% isolates belonging to toxinotype D carried cpb2 and cpe genes, respectively.
Conclusion: The high prevalence of C. perfringens was observed, even in day-old lambs. The toxinotypes A and D are prevalent in both sheep and goats. The severity of disease and mortality may be associated with the presence of minor toxins in both the detected toxinotypes.
Keywords: Clostridium perfringens, enterotoxemia, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, toxinotype, 16S rRNA.

Thursday, 21 December 2017

Partial purification and characterization of glutathione S-transferase from the somatic tissue of Gastrothylax crumenifer (Trematoda: Digenea)

Research (Published online: 21-12-2017)
13. Partial purification and characterization of glutathione S-transferase from the somatic tissue of Gastrothylax crumenifer (Trematoda: Digenea)
Sakil Ahmed, Aamir Sohail, Sabiha Khatoon, Shabnam Khan and Mohammad Khalid Saifullah
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1493-1500
Aim: Aim of the present study was to carry out the partial purification and biochemical characterization of glutathione S-transferase (GST) from the somatic tissue of ruminal amphistome parasite, Gastrothylax crumenifer (Gc) infecting Indian water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).
Materials and Methods: The crude somatic homogenate of Gc was subjected to progressive ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by size exclusion chromatography in a Sephacryl S 100-HR column. The partially purified GST was assayed spectrophotometrically, and the corresponding enzyme activity was also recorded in polyacrylamide gel. GST isolated from the amphistome parasite was also exposed to variable changes in temperature and the pH gradient of the assay mixture.
Results: The precipitated amphistome GST molecules showed maximum activity in the sixth elution fraction. The GST subunit appeared as a single band in the reducing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with an apparent molecular weight of 26 kDa. The GST proteins were found to be fairly stable up to 37°C, beyond this the activity got heavily impaired. Further, the GST obtained showed a pH optima of 7.5.
Conclusion: Present findings showed that GST from Gc could be conveniently purified using gel filtration chromatography. The purified enzyme showed maximum stability and activity at 4°C.
Keywords: Bubalus bubalisGastrothylax crumenifer, glutathione S-transferase, purification, somatic tissue.

Seasonal influence on sperm parameters, scrotal measurements, and serum testosterone in Ouled Djellal breed rams in Algeria

Research (Published online: 21-12-2017)
12. Seasonal influence on sperm parameters, scrotal measurements, and serum testosterone in Ouled Djellal breed rams in Algeria
S. Belkadi, B. Safsaf, N. Heleili, M. Tlidjane, L. Belkacem and Y. Oucheriah
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1486-1492


Aim: This study was conducted to determine the effect of seasonal variations on testosterone serum concentration, body weight, scrotal circumference, and some sperm parameters in rams living in a semi-arid region of eastern part of Algeria.

Materials and Methods: Blood samples were taken monthly from eight Ouled Djellal rams, aged between 3 and 4 years, in the Technical Institute of Breeding "ITELV" located at Ain M'lila City. Sperm were collected by an electro-ejaculator once a month for 1 year (spring, summer, autumn, and winter: 3 times/season).

Results: Mean values of volume, mass motility, live sperm, and scrotal circumference were higher during spring (p<0.05) with 1.23±0.26 mL, 3.39±1.07, 79.16±15.82%, and 36.29±1.91 cm, respectively; whereas, the sperm concentration was higher during autumn with 1.19±0.56x109 spz/ml compared to 0.46±0.13x109 spz/mL to spring. The season influenced significantly the percentage of abnormal sperm (p<0.05), especially during winter (6.47±2.12%), but had no influence on the weight of rams. Seasonal hormonal activity was high with 4.89±2.06 ng/mL and 3.09±1.35 ng/mL of testosterone in mating seasons (spring and autumn, respectively), knowing that the sexual season is not marked too much in these latitude.

Conclusion: We can conclude that testosterone concentration is strongly correlated with the scrotal circumference and that the season has a significant influence on spermatic parameters, and that despite the large variations in sperm production, the rams can be used throughout the year.

Keywords: scrotal circumference, season, semi-arid area, spermatozoon, testosterone, weight.

Friday, 15 December 2017

The role of staphylococci in subclinical mastitis of cows and lytic phage isolation against to Staphylococcus aureus

Research (Published online: 16-12-2017)
11. The role of staphylococci in subclinical mastitis of cows and lytic phage isolation against to Staphylococcus aureus
Aliye Gulmez Saglam, Mitat Sahin, Elif Celik, Ozgur Celebi, Dogan Akca and Salih Otlu
Veterinary World, 10(12): 1481-1485
Aim: This study was conducted to determine the role of Staphylococcus in the formation of subclinical mastitis in cows and to isolate the phage against isolated Staphylococcus aureus strains.
Materials and Methods: In this study, 400 milk cows were screened by California Mastitis Test (CMT) for subclinical mastitis and 235 udders of 96 cows, which were determined to be positive, were evaluated for Staphylococcus. Milk samples were evaluated using conventional and molecular methods. In addition, phage isolation studies were performed against S. aureus strains causing mastitis.
Results: At the result of cultural examination, of 235 milk samples that were found as positive for mastitis by CMT, a total of 117 (49.7%) Staphylococcus spp. were isolated as a distribution of 74 (63.24%) coagulase-positive staphylococci and 43 (36.75%) coagulase-negative staphylococci. Of these isolates, 76 (64.95%) were characterized as S. aureus both conventional and molecular techniques. Lytic bacteriophages against two S. aureus strains which were isolated from mastitic milk samples were obtained from wastewater samples.
Conclusion: The results of this study show that a significant portion of subclinical mastitis was formed by staphylococci. In addition, phage isolation against S. aureus strains isolated can be considered as one of the steps to be applied in the prophylaxis and treatment of such infections.
Keywords: bacteriophage, dairy cow, Staphylococcus aureus, subclinical mastitis.