Monday, 4 September 2017

Zoo agent's measure in applying the five freedoms principles for animal welfare

Research (Published online: 05-09-2017)
3. Zoo agent's measure in applying the five freedoms principles for animal welfare
Argyo Demartoto, Robertus Bellarminus Soemanto and Siti Zunariyah
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1026-1034
Background: Animal welfare should be prioritized not only for the animal's life sustainability but also for supporting the sustainability of living organism's life on the earth. However, Indonesian people have not understood it yet, thereby still treating animals arbitrarily and not appreciating either domesticated or wild animals.
Aim: This research aimed to analyze the zoo agent's action in applying the five freedoms principle for animal welfare in Taman Satwa Taru Jurug (thereafter called TSTJ) or Surakarta Zoo and Gembira Loka Zoo (GLZ) of Yogyakarta Indonesia using Giddens structuration theory.
Materials and Methods: The informants in this comparative study with explorative were organizers, visitors, and stakeholders of zoos selected using purposive sampling technique. The informants consisted of 19 persons: 8 from TSTJ (Code T) and 10 from GLZ (Code G) and representatives from Natural Resource Conservation Center of Central Java (Code B). Data were collected through observation, in-depth interview, and Focus Group Discussion and Documentation. Data were analyzed using an interactive model of analysis consisting of three components: Data reduction, data display, and conclusion drawing. Data validation was carried out using method and data source triangulations.
Results: Food, nutrition, and nutrition level have been given consistent with the animals' habit and natural behavior. Animal keepers always maintain their self-cleanliness. GLZ has provided cages according to the technical instruction of constructing ideal cages, but the cages in TSTJ are worrying as they are not consistent with standard, rusty, and damaged, and animals have no partner. Some animals in GLZ are often sick, whereas some animals in TSTJ are dead due to poor maintenance. The iron pillars of cages restrict animal behavior in TSTJ so that they have not had freedom to behave normally yet, whereas, in GLZ, they can move freely in original habitat. The animals in the two zoos have not been free from disruption, stress, and pressure due to the passing over vehicles.
Conclusion: There should be strategic communication, information, and education, community development, and law enforcement for the animal welfare.
Keywords: agent, animal welfare, structure, the five freedoms, zoo.

Friday, 1 September 2017

Electrocardiographic reference values and configuration of electrocardiogram waves recorded in Black Bengal goats of different age groups

Research (Published online: 01-09-2017)
2. Electrocardiographic reference values and configuration of electrocardiogram waves recorded in Black Bengal goats of different age groups
Ranjeeta Rashmee Pradhan, Ambika Prasad Khadanga Mahapatra, Swagat Mohapatra, Tushar Jyotiranjan and Akshaya Kumar Kundu
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1020-1025


Aim: A study on age-related electrocardiographic (ECG) changes was conducted on 20 apparently healthy Black Bengal goats with no history of cardiac disorders during 2015-2016.

Materials and Methods: The goats selected for the study belonged to four different age groups; Group 1: Goats up to 6 months of age, Group 2: Above 6 months and below 1 year of age, Group 3: Above 1 year and below 2 years of age, and Group 4: Above 2 years of age. The ECG was recorded with the animals in standing position using a 12-lead standard ECG recorder (Model-Cardiart-108 MK VII, manufactured by BPL, India). The paper speed was set to 25 mm/s with the sensitivity of the machine was adjusted at 1 (1 cm=mV).

Results: The ECG parameters were compared within different age groups, and the data were analyzed statistically using SPSS 16.0 taking a significant level of 95% (p<0.05) in all cases. The lead-I ECG revealed a significant difference in amplitude of QRS complex, PR interval, QT interval, RR interval, PQ segment, ST segment, TP segment, and heart rate among some age groups. In bipolar limb lead-II, the amplitude of T-wave, RR interval, ST segment, TP segment, and heart rate was a significant difference among some age groups. Lead-III presented significant difference among age groups in different parameters such as QRS complex duration, T-wave duration, RR interval, ST segment, TP segment, and heart rate.

Conclusion: The study concluded that there is a significant variation in the ECG parameters both in terms of values and configuration of ECG waves when age is taken into consideration. The results of the study might be used as a reference value for field veterinarians.

Keywords: age, Black Bengal goats, electrocardiogram.

Acute toxicity of commercial atrazine in Piaractus mesopotamicus: Histopathological, ultrastructural, molecular, and genotoxic evaluation

Research (Published online: 01-09-2017)
1. Acute toxicity of commercial atrazine in Piaractus mesopotamicus: Histopathological, ultrastructural, molecular, and genotoxic evaluation
Paula Pereira de Paiva, Mariana Cruz Delcorso, Valquiria Aparecida Matheus, Sonia Claudia do Nascimento de Queiroz, Carla Beatriz Collares-Buzato and Sarah Arana
Veterinary World, 10(9): 1008-1019
Aim: The aim of this work was to evaluate the sensitivity of Pacu fingerlings (Piaractus mesopotamicus) by measuring the effects of median lethal concentration (LC50) of atrazine (ATZ - 28.58 mg/L) after acute exposure (up to 96 h).
Materials and Methods: The fish were exposed to the LC50 of ATZ for 96 h (28.58 mg/L) in a static system. During the experiment, the fingerlings were randomly distributed in four glass tanks (50 L) containing dechlorinated water. Four glass tanks were for the control group, and four were for the ATZ-exposed group (n=4 per glass tank), given a total number of 16 animals tested per group. The genotoxicity was evaluated by micronucleus (MN) test in erythrocytes from peripheral blood. Qualitative and semi-quantitative histopathological analyses, and also ultrastructural study, were applied in liver and kidney samples. Finally, the content of heat shock protein (Hsp70) in the liver was evaluated by the western blotting method.
Results: The morphological alterations in the liver, which was associated with increased expression of Hsp70, included nuclear and cytoplasmic vacuolization, cytoplasmic hyaline inclusions, and necrosis. The kidney presented edema and tubular cell degeneration with cytoplasmic hyaline inclusion. The semi-quantitative histopathological analyses indicated that the liver was more sensitive than kidney to ATZ-induced damage. Ultrastructural analysis showed that ATZ caused membrane alterations in several organelles and increased the number of lysosomes in hepatocytes and kidney proximal tubular cells. Nevertheless, no significant difference was observed in MN frequency in erythrocytes comparing treated and control groups.
Conclusion: These results indicated that ATZ-induced damage to the kidney and liver function, ATZ at the concentration tested did not induce a significant difference in MN frequency in Pacu erythrocytes comparing treated and control groups, and also that Pacu fingerlings may be a good bioindicator for testing freshwater contamination.
Keywords: Brazilian ichthyofauna, kidney lesions, liver lesions, micronucleus test, oxidative stress.

Monday, 28 August 2017

16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and molecular serotyping of Avibacterium paragallinarum isolated from Indian field conditions

Research (Published online: 29-08-2017)
28. 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and molecular serotyping of Avibacterium paragallinarum isolated from Indian field conditions
Vihang Vithalrao Patil, Debendranath Mishra and Dilip Vithalrao Mane
Veterinary World, 10(8): 1004-1007
Aim: This study was aimed at identifying Indian field isolates of Avibacterium paragallinarum on both molecular as well as serological levels that cause infectious coryza in chickens.
Materials and Methods: Species-specific polymerase chain reaction (HPG-2 PCR), and 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) sequencing were employed for molecular identification. Whereas, multiplex PCR technique was used for serological identification of Indian field isolates of A. paragallinarum.
Results: All three field isolates were identified as A. paragallinarum using HPG-2 PCR. The species-specific PCR results were validated using 16S rRNA sequencing. The partial 16S rRNA sequences obtained from all three isolates showed 96-99% homology with the NCBI database reference strains of A. paragallinarum. The aligned partial sequences of 16S rRNA were submitted to GenBank, and accession numbers were obtained. Multiplex PCR-based molecular serotyping showed that there are three serotypes of field isolates of A. paragallinarum, namely, strain IND101 is serovar A, strain IND102 is serovar B, and strain IND103 is serovar C.
Conclusion: HPG-2 PCR, 16S rRNA sequencing, and multiplex PCR are proved to be more accurate, sensitive, and reliable diagnostic tools for molecular and serological identification of A. paragallinarum field isolates. These diagnostic methods can substitute conventional cultural characterization and would be much valuable to formulate quick and correct prevention and control measures against this detrimental poultry pathogen.
Keywords: Avibacterium paragallinarum, HPG-2 PCR, infectious coryza, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, India, 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing.

Saturday, 26 August 2017

Potential of pomegranate fruit extract (Punica granatum Linn.) to increase vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor expressions on the post-tooth extraction wound of Cavia cobaya

Research (Published online: 27-08-2017)
27. Potential of pomegranate fruit extract (Punica granatum Linn.) to increase vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor expressions on the post-tooth extraction wound of Cavia cobaya
Intan Nirwana, Priyawan Rachmadi and Devi Rianti
Veterinary World, 10(8): 999-1003

Background: Pomegranates fruit extracts have several activities, among others, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and antioxidants that have the main content punicalagin and ellagic acid. Pomegranate has the ability of various therapies through different mechanisms. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) function was to form new blood vessels produced by various cells one of them was macrophages. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) was a growth factor proven chemotactic, increased fibroblast proliferation and collagen matrix production. In addition, VEGF and PDGF synergize in their ability to vascularize tissues. The PDGF function was to stabilize and regulate maturation of new blood vessels. Activities of pomegranate fruit extract were observed by measuring the increased of VEGF and PDGF expression as a marker of wound healing process.

Aim: To investigate the potential of pomegranate extracts on the tooth extraction wound to increase the expression of VEGF and PDGF on the 4th day of wound healing process.

Materials and Methods: This study used 12 Cavia cobaya, which were divided into two groups, namely, the provision of 3% sodium carboxymethyl cellulose and pomegranate extract. The 12 C. cobaya would be executed on the 4th day, the lower jaw of experimental animals was taken, decalcified about 30 days. The expression of VEGF and PDGF was examined using immunohistochemical techniques. The differences of VEGF and PDGF expression were evaluated statistically using t-test.

Results: Statistically analysis showed that there were significant differences between control and treatment groups (p<0.05).

Conclusion: Pomegranate fruit extract administration increased VEGF and PDGF expression on post-tooth extraction wound.

Keywords: platelet-derived growth factor, Punica granatum Linn. fruit, tooth extraction wound, vascular endothelial growth factor.

β-defensins: An innate defense for bovine mastitis

Review (Published online: 26-08-2017)
26. β-defensins: An innate defense for bovine mastitis
Ankita Gurao, Sudhir Kumar Kashyap and Ravinder Singh
Veterinary World, 10(8): 990-998
Immune challenges are inevitable for livestock that are exposed to a varied range of adverse conditions ranging from environmental to pathogenic stresses. The β-defensins are antimicrobial peptides, belonging to "defensin" family and therefore acts as the first line of defense against the major infections occurring in dairy cattle including intramammary infections. The better resistance to mastitis displayed by Bos indicus is implicit in the fact that they have better adapted and also has more sequence variation with rare allele conserved due to lesser artificial selection pressure than that of Bos taurus. Among the 58 in silico predicted β-defensins, only a few have been studied in the aspect of intramammary infections. The data on polymorphisms occurring in various β-defensin genes is limited in B. indicus, indicating toward higher possibilities for exploring marker for mastitis resistance. The following review shall focus on concisely summarizing the up-to-date research on β-defensins in B. taurus and discuss the possible scope for research in B. indicus.
Keywords: Bos indicus, β-defensins, mastitis.

Thursday, 24 August 2017

Incidence of bovine clinical mastitis in Jammu region and antibiogram of isolated pathogens

Research (Published online: 25-08-2017)
25. Incidence of bovine clinical mastitis in Jammu region and antibiogram of isolated pathogens
Adil Majid Bhat, Jasvinder Singh Soodan, Rajiv Singh, Ishfaq Ahmad Dhobi, Tufail Hussain, Mohammad Yousuf Dar and Muheet Mir
Veterinary World, 10(8): 984-989
Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate the incidence of clinical mastitis in bovines of Jammu region, to identify the infectious organisms responsible for it, and the antimicrobial sensitivity of isolated pathogens.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on cases that were presented to the Medicine Division of Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex, Faculty of Veterinary Sciences and Animal Husbandry, R.S. Pura, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir. A total of 260 cases of bovines were presented from June 30, 2012, to July 01, 2013, out of which 30 cases were of clinical mastitis. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was made on the basis of history and clinical examination of affected animals.
Results: Animal and quarter-wise incidence of clinical mastitis were found to be 11.5% and 5.76%, respectively. Of the 23 isolates obtained, Staphylococcus aureus (60.87%) was the most frequently isolated organism, followed by coagulase negative Staphylococci (13.04%), Streptococcus uberis (4.35%), Streptococcus dysgalactiae (8.69%), and Escherichia coli (13.04%). The antimicrobial sensitivity of isolates revealed maximum sensitivity to enrofloxacin, gentamicin, amoxicillin/ sulbactam, ceftriaxone/tazobactam, ceftizoxime, ampicillin/sulbactam and least sensitivity for oxytetracycline and penicillin.
Conclusion: Staphylococcus spp. is the major causative agent of clinical mastitis in bovines of Jammu region. The causative agents of the clinical mastitis were most sensitive to enrofloxacin and gentamicin.
Keywords: antimicrobial sensitivity, bovines, clinical mastitis, incidence.