Saturday, 10 June 2017

Study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat

Research (Published online: 10-06-2017)
9. Study of morphology, chemical, and amino acid composition of red deer meat
Eleonora Okuskhanova, Bahytkul Assenova, Maksim Rebezov, Kumarbek Amirkhanov, Zhanibek Yessimbekov, 
Farida Smolnikova, Almagul Nurgazezova, Gulnur Nurymkhan and Marilyne Stuart
Veterinary World, 10(6): 623-629
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate red deer (maral) meat quality based on chemical composition, pH, water-binding capacity (WBC), and amino acid content.
Materials and Methods: Maral meat surface morphology measurements were obtained by scanning electron microscopy. Active acidity (pH) was determined by potentiometry. Samples were analyzed for WBC by exudation of moisture to a filter paper by the application of pressure. Chemical composition (moisture, protein, fat, and ash fractions) was obtained by drying at 150°C and by extraction, using ethylic ether, and ashing at 500-600°C. The amino acid composition was obtained by liquid chromatography.
Results: Maral meat, with a pH of 5.85 and an average moisture content of 76.82%, was found to be low in fat (2.26%). Its protein content was 18.71% while its ash content was 2.21%. The amino acid composition showed that lysine (9.85 g/100 g), threonine (5.38 g/100 g), and valine (5.84 g/100 g) predominated in maral meat, while phenylalanine (4.08 g/100 g), methionine (3.29 g/100 g), and tryptophan (0.94 g/100 g) were relatively low in maral meat compared to other meats. The average WBC was found to be 65.82% and WBC was found to inversely correlate with moisture content.
Conclusion: Low-fat content, high mineral content, and balanced amino-acid composition qualify maral meat as a worthy dietary and functional food.
Keywords: amino acid, composition, maral, red deer meat, quality, water-binding capacity.

Friday, 9 June 2017

Effect of high and low roughage total mixed ration diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles in crossbred cattle and buffaloes

Research (Published online: 09-06-2017)
8. Effect of high and low roughage total mixed ration diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles in crossbred cattle and buffaloes
S. K. Sinha, V. B. Chaturvedi, Putan Singh, L. C. Chaudhary, Mayukh Ghosh and Swati Shivani
Veterinary World, 10(6): 616-622

doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.616-622


Aim: A comparative study was conducted on crossbred cattle and buffaloes to investigate the effect of feeding high and low roughage total mixed ration (TMR) diets on rumen metabolites and enzymatic profiles.

Materials and Methods: Three rumen-fistulated crossbred cattle and buffalo were randomly assigned as per 3x3 switch over design for 21-days. Three TMR diets consisting of concentrate mixture, wheat straw and green maize fodder in the ratios of (T1) 60:20:20, (T2) 40:30:30, and (T3) 20:40:40, respectively, were fed to the animals ad libitum. Rumen liquor samples were collected at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h post feeding for the estimation of rumen biochemical parameters on 2 consecutive days in each trial.

Results: The lactic acid concentration and pH value were comparable in both species and treatments. Feed intake (99.77±2.51 g/kg body weight), ruminal ammonia nitrogen, and total nitrogen were significantly (p<0.05) higher in buffalo and in treatment group fed with high concentrate diet. Production of total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was non-significant (p>0.05) among treatments and significantly (p<0.05) greater in crossbred cattle than buffaloes. Molar proportions of individual VFAs propionate (C3), propionate:butyrate (C3:C4), and (acetate+butyrate):propionate ([C2+C4]:C3) ratio in both crossbred cattle and buffalo were not affected by high or low roughage diet, but percentage of acetate and butyrate varied significantly (p<0.05) among treatment groups. Activities of microbial enzymes were comparable among species and different treatment groups. A total number of rumen protozoa were significantly (p<0.05) higher in crossbred cattle than buffaloes along with significantly (p<0.05) higher population in animal fed with high concentrate diet (T1).

Conclusion: Rumen microbial population and fermentation depend on constituents of the treatment diet. However, microbial enzyme activity remains similar among species and different treatments. High concentrate diet increases number of rumen protozoa, and the number is higher in crossbred cattle than buffaloes.

Keywords: buffalo, crossbred cattle, rumen ecology, rumen metabolites.

Thursday, 8 June 2017

Using real-time polymerase chain reaction as an alternative rapid method for enumeration of colony count in live Brucella vaccines

Research (Published online: 08-06-2017)
7. Using real-time polymerase chain reaction as an alternative rapid method for enumeration 
of colony count in live Brucella vaccines
Waleed S. Shell, Mahmoud L. Sayed, A. A. Samy, Ghada Mohamed Al-Sadek, Gina Mohamed Mohamed 
Abd El-Hamid and Abde Hakam M. Ali
Veterinary World, 10(6): 610-615
Aim: Brucellosis is a major bacterial zoonosis of global importance affecting a range of animal species and man worldwide. It has economic, public health, and bio-risk importance. Control and prevention of animal brucellosis mainly depend on accurate diagnostic tools and implementation of effective and safe animal vaccination program. There are three types of animal Brucella live vaccines - Brucella melitensis Rev-1 vaccine, Brucella abortus S19, and B. abortus RB51. Evaluation of these vaccines depends mainly on enumeration of Brucella viable count. At present, used colony count method is time consuming, costly and requires especial skills. Hence, the aim of this study is to use and standardize real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) as an alternative, quantitative, sensitive, and rapid method to detect the colony count of Brucella in live Brucellavaccine.
Materials and Methods: Four batches of different live Brucella vaccines were evaluated using of conventional bacterial count and RT-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) using BSCP31 gene specific primers and probe. Standard curve was generated from DNA template extracted from 10-fold serial dilution of living B. abortus RB51 vaccine to evaluate the sensitivity of RT-qPCR.
Results: Results revealed that three batches of living Brucella vaccines were acceptable for Brucella colony count when traditional bacterial enumeration method was used. Results of RT-qPCR were identical to that of conventional bacterial count.
Conclusion: Results concluded that RT-qPCR was relatively sensitive compared to traditional bacterial colony count of these vaccines.
Keywords: Brucella, colony count, RB51, Rev-1, real-time polymerase chain reaction, S19, vaccines.

Tuesday, 6 June 2017

Cytological endometritis and its agreement with ultrasound examination in postpartum beef cows

Research (Published online: 07-06-2017)
6. Cytological endometritis and its agreement with ultrasound examination in postpartum beef cows
N. Salah and N. Yimer
Veterinary World, 10(6): 605-609

N. Salah: Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; Department of Obstetrics and Surgery, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Diyala, Baquba, 00964, Iraq.
N. Yimer: Department of Clinical Studies, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, UPM 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia.

doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2017.605-609

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Article history: Received: 18-02-2017, Accepted: 13-04-2017, Published online: 07-06-2017

Corresponding author: N. Yimer


Citation: Salah N, Yimer N (2017) Cytological endometritis and its agreement with ultrasound examination in postpartum beef cows, Veterinary World, 10(6): 605-609.


Background: Endometritis, which is one of the most common diseases in dairy cows postpartum, causes severe economic losses, including increased open days, calving intervals, and numbers of services to achieve conception.

Aim: This study aimed to evaluate the ultrasound method and its agreement with the endometrium cytology method, which is used to diagnose cytological endometritis in beef cows. Moreover, we determined which method has higher sensitivity and specificity at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum.

Materials and Methods: The study was conducted 20-35 days postpartum. A total of 53 clinically healthy beef cows (28 Brangus and 25 Kedah-Kelantan breeds) from three beef farms were obtained. All cows were evaluated at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum, using ultrasound and cytobrush endometrial examination methods to diagnose cytological endometritis.

Results: Endometrial cytology result showed that 11.3% (6/53) and 9.4% (5/53) of the cows exhibited cytological endometritis 4 and 5 weeks postpartum, respectively. A weak-to-moderate agreement found between the diagnostic methods (k=0.29 - 0.50; p<0.01 and k=0.38 - 0.49) at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum respectively.

Conclusion: The percentage of beef cows that were positive to cytological endometritis was low (polymorphonuclear cells, =8%) at 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. Results showed that the ultrasound method is useful and practical for diagnosing endometritis 4 and 5 weeks postpartum. This method exhibited 60% sensitivity, 93.8% specificity, and a 0.50 kappa value, especially when presence of intrauterine fluids and measurement of cervix diameter used in combination.

Keywords: beef cows, cytology, endometritis, polymorphonuclear cells, ultrasound.

Characterization of hemagglutination activity of emerging Newcastle disease virus in Bangladesh

Research (Published online: 06-06-2017)
5. Characterization of hemagglutination activity of emerging Newcastle disease virus in Bangladesh - Helal Uddin, Kamrul Islam, Mukti Barua, Shariful Islam and Abdul Ahad
International Journal of One Health, 3: 28-35

  doi: 10.14202/IJOH.2017.28-35


Aim: Newcastle disease (ND) is an important viral disease for poultry caused by avian paramyxovirus which can be identified by its nature of agglutination activity with red blood cell (RBC) of different species. The study was aimed to characterize the hemagglutinating (HA) activity of ND virus (NDV) at three different temperatures using RBC of five avian species, six mammalian species, and eight different human blood groups.
Materials and Methods: The study was conducted from January to December 2014 at Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University. Five avian and six different mammalian species were selected for the study. In each species, two blood samples were collected aseptically. Eight different blood groups (A+, A−, B+, B−, AB+, AB−, O+, and O−) were studied in human. HA test was performed using two virus strains ND lasota and field isolate of very virulent NDV (VVNDV) with mentioned species of RBC at chilling (4°C), incubating (37°C), and room temperature (24°C).
Results: Avian RBC requires less time for agglutination than mammalian RBC. Incubation temperature (37°C) requires lowest time and chilling temperature requires highest time for agglutination of RBC. Duck RBC requires lowest time (17.81 min) while chicken RBC needs highest (57.5 min) time for HA at incubation temperature and at chilling temperature, respectively, against ND lasota virus and with field strain. Goat RBC requires significantly higher time for HA (184.68 min) at chilling temperature than other mammalian species. Human RBC requires almost similar time but O+ and O− blood group do not show any HA activity.
Conclusion: ND is considered as an economically significant disease which is highly contagious in nature infecting many avian species. The threat of ND outbreak to poultry industry necessitates effective control measures to reduce the burden in commercial and backyard farming in Bangladesh.
Keywords: chilling temperature, hemagglutination, incubation temperature, Newcastle disease virus, Newcastle disease virus lasota strain, very virulent Newcastle disease virus strain.

Monday, 5 June 2017

Molecular characterization of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from livestock (bovine and swine)

Research (Published online: 05-06-2017)
5. Molecular characterization of antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from livestock 
(bovine and swine)
Asima Zehra, Randhir Singh, Simranpreet Kaur and J. P. S. Gill
Veterinary World, 10(6): 598-604

Aim: The aim of this study was to figure the prevalence, phenotypic and genotypic antibiotic resistance (AR) pattern of Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine and swine nares.

Materials and Methods: Colonies with typical morphology on Baird-Parker agar supplemented with egg-yolk tellurite emulsion were selected and biochemically/genotypically identified as S. aureus. These strains were further subjected to epsilometer test for their sensitivity to various clinically important antibiotics and antibiotic susceptibility testing for amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, and double-disk diffusion testing was performed by the standard disc diffusion method following CLSI guidelines. S. aureus strains were also tested for the presence of AR genes, viz., blaZ, mecA, aacA-aphD, 
erm (ermA, ermB, ermC), tet (efflux genes tetK and tetL, tetM and tetO of the ribosomal protection family), and vanA.

Results: The nasal cavities of 17 out of 47 randomly selected bovine and 20 out of 28 randomly selected swine were positive for S. aureus, representing the prevalence of 36.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 22.5-49.9) and 71.4% (95% CI: 54.7-88.1), respectively. Most of the S. aureus strains showed higher resistance to penicillin (94.6%, minimal inhibitory concentration [MIC] =1.5 μg/ml) followed by ciprofloxacin (56.7%, MIC =32 μg/ml) and tetracycline (18.9%, MIC =32 μg/ml). About 10-15% of the strains were resistant to gentamicin (MIC 16 μg/ml) and oxacillin (MIC 6-8 μg/ml). None of the strains were resistant to vancomycin (MIC 0.25-1.5 μg/ml). In this study, 32.4% strains were resistant to three or more than three antibiotics and prevalence of this multi-drug resistant S. aureus 
was 45% (95% CI: 26.6-63.4) and 17.6% (95% CI: 6.7- 28.5) in swine and bovine nasal samples, respectively. Four strains from pigs were borderline oxacillin-resistant S. aureus MIC 6-8 μg/ml, but none were mecA positive. Two of these strains were β-lactamase hyperproducers. Among the resistance genes blaZ, tetK, tetL, tetM, ermB, and aacA-aphD were found.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated the absence of mecA and pvl gene, but the presence of multi-drug resistant S. aureus in the nares of healthy animals which has a potential to spread in a community.

Keywords: antibiotic resistance genes, epsilometer test, livestock nasal swabs, multidrug resistance, Staphylococcus aureus.

Sunday, 4 June 2017

Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and nasal carriage isolates from bovines and its antibiogram

Research (Published online: 04-06-2017)
4. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus skin and nasal carriage 
isolates from bovines and its antibiogram
Alok Kumar, Purushottam Kaushik, Anjay, Pankaj Kumar and Manoj Kumar
Veterinary World, 10(6): 593-597
Aim: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of methicillin-resistant 
Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in cattle and buffalo and to study their antibiotic 
resistance pattern.

Materials and Methods: A total of 136 samples (skin and nasal swab) from cattle and buffalo 
were collected. MRSA was identified by conventional bacterial culture techniques which were 
further confirmed by amplification of S. aureus-specific 16S rRNA by polymerase chain reaction 
(PCR). The isolates were further analyzed for the presence of mecA gene by PCR. The 
antimicrobial susceptibility profiling was performed by disc diffusion method.

Results: The prevalence of MRSA in the current study was 28.57% and 34.28% in cattle nasal 
and skin swab, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 31.43% MRSA among cattle. Buffalo 
nasal and skin sample showed MRSA prevalence of 54.55% and 39.4%, respectively, with 46.9% 
overall prevalence. PCR could detect mecA gene in 36.4% and 58% MRSA isolates from cattle 
and buffalo, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility test found MRSA resistant to penicillin and 
oxytetracycline (88% each), cefoxitin (75%), cotrimoxazole (62%), and amoxyclav (50%). 
100% sensitivity was observed against ciprofloxacin, amikacin, chloramphenicol, and gentamicin. 
Three (16.7%) MRSA isolates from buffalo were found resistant to vancomycin.

Conclusion: Cattle and buffalo were identified as a potential carrier of MRSA in Bihar (India). 
The isolation of vancomycinresistant S. aureus (VRSA) in the current study indicates the 
emergence of VRSA in animal population which may be transmitted to the human beings 
working in close contact to the animals.

Keywords: antibiogram, bovine, mecA gene, methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus.