Thursday, 22 December 2016

Estrus induction and fertility response following different treatment protocols in Murrah buffaloes under field conditions

Research (Published online: 22-12-2016)
22. Estrus induction and fertility response following different treatment protocols in Murrah buffaloes under field conditions - L. Kumar, J. B. Phogat, A. K. Pandey, S. K. Phulia, S. Kumar and J. Dalal
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1466-1470

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1466-1470

Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of three different treatment protocols for estrus induction and conception rate in postpartum anestrus buffaloes during breeding season under field conditions.
Materials and Methods: The 47 postpartum anestrus buffaloes of the 2nd to 6th parity were divided into three groups. Group 1 (n=16): Buffaloes received cosynch treatment, that is, buserelin acetate 10 μg on day 0 and 9, cloprostenol 500 μg on day 7 followed by fixed-time artificial insemination (FTAI) at the time of second buserelin acetate and 24 h later. Group 2 (n=15): Buffaloes received norgestomet ear implant subcutaneously for 9 days, estradiol benzoate 2 mg on the day of implant insertion (day 0), pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) 400 IU and cloprostenol 500 μg on day 9 followed by AI at 48 and 72 h after implant removal. Group 3 (Cosynch-plus, n=16): Buffaloes received Cosynch protocol as per Group 1 except an additional injection of PMSG 400 IU (i.m.) was given 3 days before the start of protocol and FTAI done at the same time of Group 1. Pregnancy diagnosis was performed after 45 days of AI.
Results: The estrus induction response following the treatment was 81.3%, 100%, and 93.7% in Group 1, 2, and 3, respectively. The buffaloes of Group 1, 2, and 3 expressed intense (38.4%, 60% and 46.6%, respectively) and moderate estrus (46.1%, 26.6%, and 40%, respectively). The conception rates in Group 1, 2, and 3, at FTAI and overall including subsequent estrus were 37.5% and 62.5%, 53.3%, and 66.6%, 56.3%, and 75%, respectively.
Conclusion: All the three treatment protocols can be effectively used for induction of estrus with acceptable conception rate in postpartum anestrus buffaloes during breeding season under field conditions. However, Cosynch-plus (similar to Cosynch protocol except addition of PMSG, 400 IU 3 days before the start of first buserelin acetate administration) protocol results comparatively better pregnancy rate.
Keywords: anestrus, Cosynch-plus, estrus induction, norgestomet.

Wednesday, 21 December 2016

Survey on Sarcocystis in bovine carcasses slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt

Research (Published online: 21-12-2016)
21. Survey on Sarcocystis in bovine carcasses slaughtered at the municipal abattoir of El-Kharga, Egypt - Ali Meawad Ahmed, Nagwa Thabet Elshraway and Ahmed Ibrahim Youssef
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1461-1465

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1461-1465

Aim: The main objectives of this study were to determine the incidence of Sarcocystis sp. infection in cattle and buffalo carcasses slaughtered at El-Kharga abattoir, New Valley Governorate, Egypt.
Materials and Methods: The slaughtered animals were daily inspected for Sarcocystis macrocysts through a year (2015). Macroscopic Sarcocystis was detected from a total of 2120 cattle and buffalo carcasses. In addition, 100 meat samples were collected from female cattle and buffalo (50 each) and were examined microscopically for sarcocystosis.
Results: The overall incidence of Sarcocystis macrocyst among bovine carcasses was 159/2120 (7.5%). Total incidence in cattle was 149/2000 (7.45%), whereas it was 10/120 (8.33%) in buffalo carcasses. Concerning gender, the overall prevalence of Sarcocystis infection was 127/1790 (7.09%) in male and 32/330 (9.69%) in females bovine carcasses. The highest detection rate of Sarcocystis lesions was from the esophagus (76.3%) followed by throat muscles (35.3%), tongue (33.8%), and diaphragm muscles (18.71%). Macrocysts from cattle were identified to Sarcocystis hirsuta, whereas Sarcocystis fusiformis was identified from buffalo carcasses. By microscopic examination, 18 (36%) of 50 female cattle carcasses harbor Sarcocystis sp., whereas 11 (22%) of buffalo carcasses were harbored Sarcocystis microcysts.
Conclusion: A high incidence of Sarcocystis infection was detected among slaughtered bovines in El-Kharga abattoir, Egypt. Sarcocystis macrocysts were a higher incidence in female elder animals macrocysts were identified to S. hirsuta in cattle and S. fusiformis in buffaloes. Sarcocystosis constitute a major cause of economic losses at El-Kharga abattoir. Beef meat may carry health risks to consumers.
Keywords: bovine, meat, Sarcocystis fusiformisSarcocystis hirsutaSarcocystis.

Tuesday, 20 December 2016

Multiple infections of Anaplasma platys variants in Philippine dogs

Research (Published online: 20-12-2016)
20. Multiple infections of Anaplasma platys variants in Philippine dogs - Adrian Patalinghug Ybañez, Rochelle Haidee Daclan Ybañez, Naoaki Yokoyama and Hisashi Inokuma
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1456-1460

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1456-1460

Aim: Anaplasma platys, the causative agent of infectious canine cyclic thrombocytopenia, is a tick-borne pathogen that also has been implicated as potentially zoonotic. To provide molecular evidence on the multiple infections of A. platys variants in Philippine dogs.
Materials and Methods: DNA fragments of A. platys from infected dogs in the Philippines were molecularly characterized. For screening, 25 dogs suspected to have canine anaplasmosis were tested using a 16S rRNA-based nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Infection was confirmed by sequencing of positive amplicons. Second round PCR targeting a longer 16S rRNA fragment was subsequently performed on the first round PCR amplicons of the positive samples. Further characterization using the heat-shock operon (groEL) gene was also performed on the A. platys-positive samples.
Results: 10 16S rRNA sequences were obtained and found 99.6-100% identical to each other and 99.6-99.7% identical to the closest registered A. platys sequences. On the other hand, 36 groEL clone sequences were obtained and found to be 85.1-99.8% identical with each other and 85.0-88.9% identical to the closest previously registered A. platys sequences. Four dogs were found coinfected with 2-3 groEL variant sequences. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that the detected A. platys in the Philippines may represent unique variants.
Conclusion: A. platys variants were detected in Philippine dogs. Coinfection of different A. platys variants in dogs was also demonstrated. The present study may indicate the potential genetic diversity of A. platys in the country.
Keywords: Anaplasma platys, dogs, Philippines, variants.

Monday, 19 December 2016

Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels

Review (Published online: 19-12-2016)
19. Epidural analgesia in cattle, buffalo, and camels - Zuhair Bani Ismail
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1450-1455

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1450-1455

Epidural analgesia is commonly used in large animals. It is an easy, cheap, and effective technique used to prevent or control pain during surgeries involving the tail, anus, vulva, perineum, caudal udder, scrotum, and upper hind limbs. The objectives of this article were to comprehensively review and summarize all scientific data available in the literature on new techniques and drugs or drug combinations used for epidural anesthesia in cattle, camel, and buffalo. Only articles published between 2006 and 2016 were included in the review. The most common sites for epidural administration in cattle, camels, and buffalos were the sacrococcygeal intervertebral space (S5-Co1) and first intercoccygeal intervertebral space (Co1-Co2). The most frequently used drugs and dosages were lidocaine (0.22-0.5 mg/kg), bupivacaine (0.125 mg/kg), ropivacaine (0.11 mg/kg), xylazine (0.05 mg/kg), medetomidine (15 μg/kg), romifidine (30-50 μg/kg), ketamine (0.3-2.5 mg/kg), tramadol (1 mg/kg), and neostigmine (10 μg/kg), and the clinical applications, clinical effects, recommendations, and side effects were discussed.
Keywords: buffalo, camel, cattle, epidural analgesia, side effects.

Saturday, 17 December 2016

Detection, identification, and differentiation of sheep pox virus and goat pox virus from clinical cases in Giza Governorate, Egypt

Research (Published online: 18-12-2016)
18. Detection, identification, and differentiation of sheep pox virus and goat pox virus from clinical cases in Giza Governorate, Egypt - M. A. Mahmoud and M. H. Khafagi
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1445-1449

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1445-1449

Aim: To isolate, identify, and differentiate Capripoxviruses (CaPV) (sheep pox virus and goat pox virus) infections by egg inoculation, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and 30 kDa RNA polymerase subunit gene-based polymerase chain reaction (PCR) (RPO30) in clinically affected animals in Hawamdia township of Giza Governorate, Egypt.
Materials and Methods: A total of 37 scab samples were collected from clinically suspected field cases of sheep pox and goat pox. These samples were collected during (2014-2015) during different outbreaks of sheep pox and goat pox from Hawamdia township of Giza Governorate, Egypt. The samples were subjected to egg inoculation, TEM, and (RPO30) gene-based PCR. By using the egg inoculation: Previously prepared 37 scab samples (n=23 sheep and n=14 goats) were inoculated on the chorioallantoic membrane of specific pathogen free (SPF) embryonated chicken eggs (12 days old age). In the presence of the suitable percentage of humidity and candling, the inoculated eggs were incubated at 37°C. By using the TEM: Samples showed positive pock lesions on the chorioallantoic membranes, were fixed in glutaraldehyde, then processed and sectioned for TEM. Using the (RPO30) gene-based PCR assay, 30 of positive samples after egg inoculation (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats) were screened.
Results: Using the egg inoculation, a characteristic pock lesions for poxviruses were seen in 30/37 (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats) (81.08%). Using the TEM, examination of the positive samples after egg inoculation revealed positive result in 23/30 (n=15 sheep and n=8 goats) (76.66%). The positive results represented by the presence of negatively stained oval-shape virus particles. Using the (RPO30) gene-based PCR assay, out of 30 total of positive samples after egg inoculation (n=19 sheep and n=11 goats) were screened, 27 (90%) samples (n=17 sheep and n=10 goats) were positive. The given band sizes of sheep and goats were 172 and 152 bp, respectively.
Conclusion: PCR assay depended on RPO30 gene can be used lonely for the detection, identification, and differentiation of CaPVs. RPO30 gene-based PCR assay in combination with gene sequencing helps in molecular epidemiological studies of CaPV infection.
Keywords: Capripoxvirus, polymerase chain reaction, goat pox, isolation, RPO30 gene, sheep pox, transmission electron microscope.

Evaluation of sperm recovered after slaughter from cauda epididymides of red Sokoto bucks

Research (Published online: 18-12-2016)
17. Evaluation of sperm recovered after slaughter from cauda epididymides of red Sokoto bucks - A. H. Abu, A. I. Kisani and T. Ahemen
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1440-1444

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1440-1444

Aim: Viable spermatozoa could be recovered from the cauda epididymides for the purpose of preservation of genetic material of male animals with desirable traits and for use in reproductive biotechnology. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of storage time on testicular and epididymal biometry, sperm reserves and epididymal sperm characteristics of red Sokoto bucks post mortem.
Materials and Methods: Testes-epididymides were collected immediately after slaughter of mature red Sokoto bucks and transported in ice chest to the laboratory. The samples were either processed immediately or stored at 4°C in refrigerator for 24, 48 h and then processed. The testes and epididymides were measured and weighed. Sperm motility, concentration, livability, morphology, intact acrosome, and sperm reserves from different treatment groups including control were evaluated and means (±standard error of mean) were recorded.
Results: There was no significant difference (p>0.05) in the testicular and epididymal dimensions determined between the means of the groups. Percent sperm motility and viability decreased significantly (p<0.05) after 24 h from 69.00±0.46 and 71.27±0.50% to 50.60±0.48 and 60.47±0.70% at 48 h, respectively. Significant decreases (p<0.05) in epididymal sperm concentration and intact acrosome from 2.86±0.08 and 92.87±0.39 at 0 to 24 h of storage, respectively, were observed. Gonadal sperm reserves and sperm reserves in the cauda epididymides decreased significantly (p<0.05) from 0 to 48 h of cold storage. However, no significant decrease (p>0.05) in caput and corpus sperm reserves was observed from 0 to 48 h of storage.
Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that spermatozoa recovered from the epididymides of red Sokoto bucks were viable after storage for up to 48 h. Furthermore, this finding offers some hope that epididymal sperm recovered post-mortem can be used in assisted reproductive technologies.
Keywords: epididymides, goat bucks, spermatozoa, testes.

Friday, 16 December 2016

Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of locally isolated Salmonella strains used in preparation of Salmonella antigens in Egypt

Research (Published online: 17-12-2016)
16. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of locally isolated Salmonella strains used in preparation of Salmonella antigens in Egypt -Hazem Mohammed Ibrahim, Dalia Mohammed Adb-Elmoaty, Hanan Ali Ahmed and Mona Ibrahim El-Enbaawy
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1435-1439

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1435-1439

Aim: This work was conducted to study the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of locally isolated Salmonella strains (SalmonellaPullorum, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium) from poultry used in the preparation of Salmonella antigens in Egypt.
Materials and Methods: The phenotypic characterization of Salmonella strains was done using standard microbiological, biochemical, and serological techniques. Molecular identification was done using different sets of primers on different genes using different polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques.
Results: The phenotypic characterization of Salmonella strains was confirmed. Molecular identification revealed detection of 284 bp fragment of InvA gene in all studied Salmonella strains. Furthermore, multiplex PCR was used for more confirmation of being Salmonella spp., generally at 429 bp as well as genotyping of Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis at 559 and 312 bp, respectively, in one reaction.
Conclusion: The locally isolated field Salmonella strains were confirmed phenotypically and genotypically to be Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Typhimurium and could be used for the preparation of Salmonella antigens.
Keywords: characterization, duplex polymerase chain reaction, multiplex polymerase chain reaction, Salmonella spp.

Thursday, 15 December 2016

Intravenous administration of puppy deciduous teeth stem cells in degenerative valve disease

Research (Published online: 16-12-2016)
15. Intravenous administration of puppy deciduous teeth stem cells in degenerative valve disease - Soontaree Petchdee and Sarunya Sompeewong
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1429-1434

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1429-1434

Aim: The objective of this study is to investigate the improvement of heart function in dogs with chronic valvular heart disease after puppy deciduous teeth stem cells (pDSCs) administration.
Materials and Methods: 20 client-owned dogs with degenerative valvular heart disease underwent multiple intravenous injections of allogeneic pDSCs. Dogs were randomly assigned to two groups: (i) Control group (n=10) with standard treatment for heart failure and (ii) group with standard treatment and multiple administrations of pDSCs (n=10). Electrocardiography, complete transthoracic echocardiography, thoracic radiography, and blood pressure were recorded before and after pDSCs injections for 15, 30 and 60 days.
Results: Post pDSCs injection showed measurable improvement in left ventricular ejection fraction, American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM) functional class significantly improved and improved quality of life scores were observed. In the control group, there were no significant enhancements in heart function or ACVIM class.
Conclusions: This finding suggests that pDSCs could be a supplement for valvular heart disease treatment.
Keywords: dental pulp stem cells, dogs, heart failure.

Molecular characterization of field infectious bursal disease virus isolates from Nigeria

Research (Published online: 15-12-2016)
14. Molecular characterization of field infectious bursal disease virus isolates from Nigeria - Ijeoma O. Nwagbo, Ismaila Shittu, Chika I. Nwosuh, George O. Ezeifeka, Frederick J. C. Odibo, Linda O. Michel and Daral J. Jackwood
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1420-1428

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1420-1428

Aim: To characterize field isolates of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) from outbreaks in nine states in Nigeria through reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and sequence analysis of portions of the VP2 and VP1 genes and to determine the presence or absence of reassortant viruses.
Materials and Methods: A total of 377 bursa samples were collected from 201 suspected IBD outbreaks during 2009 to 2014 from nine states in Nigeria. Samples were subjected to RT-PCR using VP2 and VP1 gene specific primers, and the resulting PCR products were sequenced.
Results: A total of 143 samples were positive for IBDV by RT-PCR. These assays amplified a 743 bp fragment from nt 701 to 1444 in the IBDV VP2 hypervariable region (hvVP2) of segment A and a 722 bp fragment from nt 168 to 889 in the VP1 gene of segment B. RT-PCR products were sequenced, aligned and compared with reference IBDV sequences obtained from GenBank. All but one hvVP2 sequence showed similarity to very virulent IBDV (vvIBDV) reference strains, yet only 3 of the VP1 67 VP1 sequences showed similarity to the VP1 gene of vvIBDV. Phylogenetic analysis revealed a new lineage of Nigerian reassortant IBDV strains.
Conclusion: Phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of genome segment A and B of IBDV in Nigeria confirmed the existence of vvIBDV in Nigeria. In addition, we noted the existence of reassortant IBDV strains with novel triplet amino acid motifs at positions 145, 146 and 147 in the reassorted Nigerian IBDV.
Keywords: infectious bursal disease virus, Nigeria, novel, reassortant, very virulent.

Tuesday, 13 December 2016

Evidence of hemolysis in pigs infected with highly virulent African swine fever virus

Research (Published online: 14-12-2016)
13. Evidence of hemolysis in pigs infected with highly virulent African swine fever virus - Zaven Karalyan, Hovakim Zakaryan, Elina Arakelova, Violeta Aivazyan, Marina Tatoyan, Armen Kotsinyan, Roza Izmailyan and Elena Karalova
Veterinary World, 9(12): 1413-1419

   doi: 10.14202/vetworld.2016.1413-1419

Aim: The research was conducted to understand more profoundly the pathogenetic aspects of the acute form of the African swine fever (ASF).
Materials and Methods: A total of 10 pigs were inoculated with ASF virus (ASFV) (genotype II) in the study of the red blood cells (RBCs), blood and urine biochemistry in the dynamics of disease.
Results: The major hematological differences observed in ASFV infected pigs were that the mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and hematocrits were significantly decreased compared to controls, and the levels of erythropoietin were significantly increased. Also were detected the trends of decrease in RBC count at terminal stages of ASF. Analysis of blood biochemistry revealed that during ASF development, besides bilirubinemia significantly elevated levels of lactate dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase were detected. Analysis of urine biochemistry revealed the presence of bilirubinuria, proteinuria during ASF development. Proteinuria, especially at late stages of the disease reflects a severe kidney damage possible glomerulonefritis.
Conclusion: The results of this study indicate the characteristics of developing hemolytic anemia observed in acute ASF (genotype II).
Keywords: African swine fever virus, bilirubinemia, bilirubinuria, erythropoietin, hemolysis, proteinuria.