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2. Prevalence and diversity of gastrointestinal protozoa in Madura cattle at Bangkalan Regency, East Java, Indonesia
Poedji Hastutiek, Wiwik Misaco Yuniarti, Mufasirin Djaeri, Nunuk Dyah Retno Lastuti, Endang Suprihati and Lucia Tri Suwanti
Veterinary World, 12(2): 198-204
Aim: This study aimed to describe the gastrointestinal protozoa in Madura cattle at Bangkalan Regency, East Java, Indonesia.
Materials and Methods: A total of 500 samples of Madura cattle feces were collected from 10 districts at Bangkalan Regency. Those ten districts represent the lowland and upland areas, and each district was represented by one village. The collected feces were examined using native, sedimentation, and floating methods. The species identification was determined by their morphology.
Results: There were 357 (71.4%) samples positively infected with protozoan. The highest rate of sample with protozoan infection was at Kamal District (88.23%), and Bangkalan District (52.83%) was the lowest one. There were six species of protozoa that infected gastrointestinal tract; those are Eimeria spp., Balantidium spp., Isospora spp., Blastocystis spp., Entamoeba spp., and Cryptosporidium spp. The highest number of protozoa found in this research was Eimeria (53.42%) followed by Blastocystis (14.43%). In this study, we found that 295 samples (58.76%) infected by one kind of protozoa, 53 samples (10.56%) infected by two kinds of protozoa, and 11 samples (2.19%) infected by three kinds of protozoa. In addition, there were 65.54% of bulls infected with protozoa, considerably lower than cows (72.97%). Cattle aged 6 months-2 years old (73.39%) and >2 years old (71.25%) are known more prone to protozoan infections than cattle aged <6 months (66.15%).
Conclusion: The present study revealed that protozoan infection of cattle is common in Bangkalan Regency. Studies focused on determining that the prevalence of protozoan, risk factors for the parasitism, and the geographic distribution are needed and will be effective guide for prevention and control measures.
1. Foot-and-mouth disease outbreaks in Egypt during 2013-2014: Molecular characterization of serotypes A, O, and SAT2
Emad Diab, Abdel-Hamid I. Bazid, Mohamed Fawzy, Wagdy R. El-Ashmawy, Adel A. Fayed and Magdy M. El-Sayed
Veterinary World, 12(2): 190-197
Background and Aim: Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) serotypes A, O and South African Territories (SAT2) are endemic in Egypt; each is presented by a number of partially related topotypes and lineages, depending on their geographical origin. Continuous mutations and the emergence of new topotypes that lead to occasional vaccination failures were frequently recorded, so this study aimed to genetically characterize the circulating FMD virus strains in Egypt during 2013 and 2014 outbreaks, focusing on amino acids variations in VP1 region.
Materials and Methods: A total of 51 oral tissue samples were collected from cattle and buffaloes in 13 farms, and 38 individual cases showed clinical signs suspected to be FMD in six Egyptian Governorates (Cairo, Giza, Qaliubia, Fayoum, Sharquia, and Assiut). FMDV in collected samples was characterized by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) amplification of full VP1 region, sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis.
Results: Out of 51 samples, 44 (86.27%) were positive by RT-PCR using universal primers. Serotype O was predominant and detected in 31 samples (70.45%), serotype A was detected in 9 samples (20.45%), and then serotype SAT2 was identified in 4 samples (9.10%). Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of VP1 demonstrated clustering of serotype O, A, and SAT2 in EA-3 topotype, ASIA topotype, and topotype VII, respectively. Serotype O is closely related to O/SUD/8/2008 with 94.6% identity but showed 14.6% differences from vaccine strain (O/PanAsia-2) of ME-SA topotype. Furthermore, Serotype A and SAT2 were closely related to recent circulating Egyptian isolates and vaccine strains type A/EGY/1/2012 (Asia topotype, lineage Iran-05) with identity 96.4% and vaccine strain of SAT2/EGY/A/2012 (topotype VII, lineage SAT2/VII/ALX-12) with identity 95.3%, respectively.
Conclusion: The present study recommended further studies of serotype O to determine the immunogenic relationship between the vaccine strain and the new strains to attain maximum protection against circulating viruses.
27. First report and molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. in humans and animals in Khartoum state, Sudan
Kaltoum Yagoub Adam, A. A. Ismail, M. A. Masri and A. A. Gameel
Veterinary World, 12(1): 183-189
Background and Aim:Cryptosporidium is recognized to infect several mammalian species as well as humans, causing substantial economic losses and serious public health concern. Infected animals can be a source of environmental contamination and human infections. In general, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium species in animals and human in Sudan and zoonotic importance is not well documented. This study aimed to identify Cryptosporidium spp. infecting different animal species and humans and to compare between different isolates obtained.
Materials and Methods: To provide molecular information about Cryptosporidium in animals and humans, both modified Ziehl-Neelsen (MZN) specific stain and molecular assay were used. Concentration techniques followed by three protocols of DNA extraction were carried out. After microscopic screening of 263 fecal samples (goats [n=197], cattle [n=12], sheep [n=12], and human [n=42]), 61 positive and 30 negative, randomly selected samples were used in nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting part of the 18S RNA.
Results: Nested PCR amplification confirmed 91.8% (56/61) of microscopic-positive samples. 8.2% (5/61) of negative samples by PCR (positive by microscopy) were considered false negatives. Sequencing followed by alignment of the 14 isolates indicated that all samples were identical (100%) and belonged to Cryptosporidium parvum.
Conclusion: MZN staining procedure is reliable for the routine diagnosis of Cryptosporidium; cetyltrimethylammonium bromide extraction buffer and nested PCR targeting 18S rRNA gene are reliable and useful in epidemiological studies of this parasite.
26. Self-reported selected zoonotic diseases among animal handlers in Urban Ahmedabad, India
Krupali Patel and Deepak Saxena
Veterinary World, 12(1): 176-182
Background and Aim: Out of all global microbial pathogens, 61% are zoonoses. Zoonotic diseases (Z/D/S) are responsible for a large burden on the public health, livestock economies, and wildlife of India. Data on burden and knowledge about Z/D/S among animal handlers are limited for urban and peri-urban areas of India. The present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of self-reported selected Z/D/S and knowledge about those diseases among animal handlers in the urban area of Ahmedabad city, India.
Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 170 animal handlers from three zones of Ahmedabad city, India, from February to May 2017. Data were collected on sociodemographic, different exposure, knowledge, practices about animal handling, and self-reported Z/D/S condition.
Results: Majority of study participants were females. Participants had numbers of animals, and it ranged from 1 to 70. However, the majority of them were cattle. Average experience and hours/day spent for handling animal were reported 22±15 years and 5±2 h, respectively. From all participants, about one-third perceived that handling animal could be a cause of disease. Average knowledge on the mode of transmission of Z/D/S was found 4.1%. Most common high risk and preventive practices found consumption of raw milk (72%) and handwashing (83%). The proportion of self-reported Z/D/S in the past 5 years was found to be 23% among respondents and 17% among family members. However, the proportion of existing self-reported Z/D/S or symptomatic Z/D/S was 17% among respondents and 18% among family members. Most common self-reported Z/D/S were vector-borne, animal bite, and respiratory disorders.
Conclusion: The knowledge and prevalence of Z/D/S were found low as compared to other studies from India. Further awareness and screening of animal handlers can be useful to increase the reporting and prevention and control of Z/D/S among them.
Keywords: animal handlers, knowledge and practices, self-reported zoonotic diseases.
Aim: The study aimed to detect the invA gene in Salmonella isolated from milkfish in the Sidoarjo wet fish market.
Materials and Methods: A total of 84 samples were prepared in enrichment media and isolated on the surface of Salmonella Shigella Agar. Salmonella growth produces transparent colonies with blackish color in the middle due to H2S gas formation. Samples were identified as Salmonella based on macroscopic colony morphology. Presumptive Salmonella sp. was put on Bismuth Sulfite Agar media. Salmonella was determined based on the results of the biochemical test that has been carried out using Microbact identification kits from negative gram staining.
Results: The results of this study indicate that 32 of 84 samples (38.09%) were Salmonella bacteria. Furthermore, the invA gene detection was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction technique. Electrophoresis results showed four positive samples contained invA gene with a length of 284 bp.
Conclusion: Results in this study indicate that contamination of milkfish with Salmonella needs strict hygienic measures to prevent their transmission to human.
Keywords: human health, invA gene, milkfish, polymerase chain reaction, Salmonella.
Background and Aim:Streptococcus suis is an important zoonotic pathogen that can cause serious diseases in both swine and humans worldwide, especially in Asian countries. Since the majority of human cases reported in Thailand were infected by the consumption of a raw pork dish, the microbial food safety hazard associated with raw meat has been a matter of concern. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the contamination by S. suis in pork and edible pig organs sold in central Thailand.
Materials and Methods: In total, 88 raw pork and pig organ samples were purchased from markets, butcher shops, and supermarkets in central Thailand. The samples were examined using the loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) technique. LAMP reactions used for the detection of the DNA of S. suis (LAMPSS) and S. suis serotype 2 or 1/2 (LAMPSS2) were carried out according to previous studies.
Results: The percentage of LAMPSS-positive samples was as high as 85.23% (75/88) while the percentage of LAMPSS2- positive samples was 17.05% (15/88). The percentages of LAMPSS- and LAMPSS2-positive samples were relatively high in both pig organs (lung and heart) and meat (sliced pork and minced pork) compared with the previous report. Except one supermarket, LAMPSS-positive samples were found in all sources investigated in this study. The pork and pig organs obtained from the markets and the butcher shops additionally gave positive results for LAMPSS2.
Conclusion: Using LAMP techniques, high rate contamination of S. suis was found in raw pork and edible pig organs sold at different sources in central Thailand. The cross-contamination could have occurred through slaughtering, meat cutting, and meat handling processes. Therefore, consumers and people involved in the pig production industry should be aware of the potential hazards of S. suis infection; food safety education is crucial to prevent further infection.
23. Combined impacts of oregano extract and vacuum packaging on the quality changes of frigate tuna muscles stored at 3±1°C
Talal Lahreche, Yilmaz Ucar, Ali Riza Kosker, Taha-Mossadak Hamdi and Fatih Ozogul
Veterinary World, 12(1): 155-164
Aim: The combined effects of oregano extract with vacuum packing (VP) on the quality enhancement of dark and white muscles of frigate tuna (Auxis thazard) stored as intact fillet at refrigerated (3±1°C) conditions were studied.
Materials and Methods: About 35 kg of fish were filleted without skin removal and randomly divided into two groups. One group without treatment (control) and the remaining group were dipped in a sterilized oregano extract solution for 5 min. Chemical, microbiological, sensorial, and textural analyses were carried out in each of dark and white muscles of frigate tuna fillets during storage.
Results: Several quality indexes were higher in dark muscle than white muscle. The sensory assessment indicated that both muscles from control had a shelf life of 12 days. Quality parameters of both muscles had the same tendency and were significantly affected by time and also by the presence of plant extract in VP. Although VP alone was sufficient to delay lipid oxidation on fish fillets, especially on dark muscle but cannot enhance the textural deterioration in both muscles.
Conclusion: Consequently, the employment of such combination had a cumulative effect on preservation, resulting in prolonging the shelf life of both frigate tuna muscles.