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22. Hematological parameters and selected intestinal microbiota populations in the Indonesian indigenous crossbred chickens fed basal diet supplemented with multi-strain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals
Sugiharto Sugiharto, Turrini Yudiarti, Isroli Isroli, Endang Widiastuti and Hanny I. Wahyuni
Veterinary World, 11(6): 874-882
Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with multi-strain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals on the hematological parameters and selected intestinal microbiota populations in the Indonesian indigenous crossbred chickens.
Materials and Methods: A total of 240 one-day-old Indonesian indigenous crossbred chicks were raised for 10 weeks. The chicks were distributed to one of four groups, i.e., chicks receiving basal diet without any additive (CONT), chicks receiving basal diet with 0.04% of zinc bacitracin (AGP), chicks receiving basal diet with 0.01% of commercial probiotic Bacillus subtilis preparation (PROB1), and chicks receiving basal diet with 0.5% of multi-strain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals (PROB2). Blood was collected on the week 8, while the internal organs and eviscerated carcasses were collected on the week 10.
Results: PROB2 tended (p=0.09) to have a lower body weight (BW) compared to CONT chicks. Feed conversion ratio was higher (p<0.05) in PROB1 and PROB2 compared to CONT birds. The number of thrombocytes tended (p=0.09) to be higher in CONT than in other groups. Antibody titer against Newcastle disease virus vaccine was higher (p<0.05) in PROB1 and PROB2 than in CONT group. Serum triglyceride concentration was lower (p<0.05) in PROB2 than in other birds. AGP chicks had lower (p<0.05) serum total protein and globulin concentrations than CONT and PROB1 chicks. Serum albumin level was lower (p<0.05) in PROB2 than in CONT and PROB1 birds. Albumin to globulin ratio tended (p=0.06) to be higher in AGP than in other birds. Lactose-negative Enterobacteriaceae tended (p=0.07) to be lower in PROB1 and PROB2 than in CONT group. PROB1 and PROB2 tended (p=0.06) to have greater lactic acid bacteria (LAB) population than in CONT and AGP birds.
Conclusion: Multi-strain probiotic preparation in combination with vitamins and minerals was able to improve immune response and control the potentially pathogenic bacteria. However, the additive could not improve the growth performance of the Indonesian indigenous crossbred chickens.
21. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing multidrug resistance Escherichia coli, Salmonella and Klebsiella pneumoniae in pig population of Assam and Meghalaya, India
A. Lalruatdiki, T. K. Dutta, P. Roychoudhury and P. K. Subudhi
Veterinary World, 11(6): 868-873
Aim: The present study was conducted to record the prevalence of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) producing Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., and Klebsiella pneumoniae from pig population of Assam and Meghalaya and to record the ability of the resistant bacteria to transfer the resistance genes horizontally.
Materials and Methods: Fecal samples (n=228), collected from pigs of Assam (n=99) and Meghalaya (n=129), were processed for isolation and identification of E. coli and Salmonella spp. All the isolates were tested for ESBLs production by double disc synergy test (DDST) followed by screening for ESBLs producing genes (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX-M, and blaCMY) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Possible transfer of resistance encoding genes between enteric bacterial species was carried out by in vitro and in vivo horizontal gene transfer (HGT) method.
Results: A total of 897 enteric bacteria (867 E. coli and 30 Salmonella) were isolated and identified. Altogether 25.41% isolates were confirmed as ESBL producers by DDST method. Majority of the isolates were E. colifollowed by Salmonella. By PCR, 9.03% isolates were found positive for at least one of the target resistance genes. blaSHV was absent in all the isolates. blaCMY was the most prevalent gene. All the E. coli isolates from Assam were negative for blaTEM. A total of 2.76% isolates were positive for blaTEM + blaCMY. On the other hand, 0.67% isolates were positive for blaCTX-M + blaCMY genes. Only 0.33% isolates carried all the three genes. Altogether, 4.68% bacteria carried the resistance encoding genes in their plasmids. blaTEM gene could be successfully transferred from Salmonella (donor) to E. coli (recipient) by in vitro (5.5-5.7x10-5) and in vivo (6.5x10-5to 8.8x10-4) methods. In vivo method was more effective than in vitro in the transfer of resistance genes.
Conclusion: The pig population of Assam and Meghalaya are carrying multidrug resistance and ESBLs producing E. coli and Salmonella. The isolates are also capable to transfer their resistance trait to other bacterial species by HGT. The present finding could be considered as a serious public health concern as similar trait can also be transmitted to the human commensal bacteria as well as pathogens.
Keywords:Enterobacteriaceae, multidrug resistance, North East India, pigs.
20. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance patterns of avian fecal Escherichia coli from turkeys, geese, and ducks
Nokukhanya Dube and Joshua Mbanga
Veterinary World, 11(6): 859-867
Background and Aim: Avian fecal Escherichia coli (AFEC) are considered to be the natural reservoir of pathogenic strains in extraintestinal infections as such characterization of AFEC gives insight into the spread of the potential pathogenic lineage. The aim of the study was to investigate the reservoirs of avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC) from fecal samples of healthy ducks, geese, and turkeys by determining the antibiotic resistance patterns of AFEC isolates from turkeys, geese and ducks and characterization of the isolates using virulence genes, plasmid profiles, and phylogenetic grouping.
Materials and Methods: The disc diffusion method was used to determine antibiotic resistance of 100 AFEC isolates from turkeys (9), geese (29), and ducks (62) to 8 antibiotics. Molecular characterization of the isolates was done by multiplex polymerase chain reaction to investigate the presence of 12 virulence genes, plasmid profiling, and phylogenetic grouping based on the 16S rRNA sequences.
Results: Antibiogram profiles indicated maximum resistance to cloxacillin (100%) and bacitracin (100%) for all AFEC isolates and high sensitivity to ciprofloxacin; however, all isolates exhibited multi-drug resistance. The AFEC isolates from turkeys (6) and geese (12) did not contain virulence genes. The frz (3.7%), sitD (29.6%), and fimH (92.5%) were detected in the duck isolates. None of the isolates had the KpsM, iutA, vat, sitA, hlyF, pstB, ompT, uvrY, and sopB genes. Plasmid profiling gave four plasmid profiles with the plasmids ranging from 1.5 to 55 kb. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA sequences revealed similarities between AFEC isolates from the different poultry species, as the isolates did not cluster according to avian species.
Conclusion: AFEC isolates are potential reservoirs of APEC as they contain some of the virulence genes associated with APEC. Multidrug resistance is high in AFEC isolated from healthy birds. This is a public health concern.
Regulation of pH in spermatozoa is a complex and dynamic process as sperm cells encounter different pH gradients during their journey from testes to the site of fertilization in female genital tract. The precise regulations of pH in sperm cells regulate the sperm functions such as motility, hyperactivity, capacitation, and acrosome reaction. Electrophysiological, pharmacological, and molecular studies have revealed the presence of different ion channels and exchanger systems which regulate intracellular pH in sperm cells as well as regulate sperm functions. Recent studies also have shown the potential involvement of pH in the regulation of fertility competence of sperm cells, and alterations in pH have shown to impede sperm functions. This mini-review discusses the probable mechanisms involved in pH regulation in sperm cells and how pH is involved in regulation of various sperm functions.
18. Preliminary study on the tick population of Benin wildlife at the moment of its invasion by the Rhipicephalus microplus tick (Canestrini, 1888)
Kossi Justin Adinci, Yao Akpo, Camus Adoligbe, Safiou Bienvenu Adehan, Roland Eric Yessinou, Akoeugnigan Idelphonse Sode, Guy Appolinaire Mensah, Abdou Karim Issaka Youssao, Brice Sinsin and Souaibou Farougou
Veterinary World, 11(6): 845-851
Background and Aim:Rhipicephalus microplus (Rm) is one of the most problematic livestock tick species in the world. Its rapid propagation and resistance to acaricides make it control difficult in the sub-region and Benin particularly. The aim of this work was to check its presence in wildlife and to confirm the possible role of reservoir wildlife may play in the propagation of the parasite. This will help to design more efficient control strategy.
Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from February to March 2017 in the National Parks of Benin (Pendjari and W Park) and wildfowl's assembly and selling point in Benin. Ticks were manually picked with forceps from each animal after slaughtering by hunters then stored in 70° ethanol. Collected ticks were counted and identified in the laboratory using the identification key as described by Walker.
Results: Overall, seven species of ticks (Amblyomma variegatum, Boophilus decoloratus, Rm, Boophilus spp., Hyalomma spp., Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus spp.) were identified on nine wild animal species sampled (Cane rat, wildcat, Hare, Doe, Cricetoma, Buffalo, Buffon Cobe, and Bushbuck and Warthog). The average number of ticks varies from 3 to 6 between animal species, 3 to 7 between localities visited, and 2 to 5 between tick species. However, these differences are statistically significant only for localities. Considering tick species and animal species, the parasite load of Rm and Rhipicephalus spp. is higher; the buffalo being more infested. The analysis of deviance reveals that the abundance of ticks observed depends only on the observed localities (p>0.05). However, the interactions between animal species and localities on the one hand and between animal and tick species on the other hand, although not significant, have influenced the abundance of ticks as they reduce the residual deviance after their inclusion in the model.
Conclusion: This study reported the presence of Rm in wildlife of Benin and confirmed its role in the maintenance and spread of the parasites. It is, therefore, an important risk factor that we must not neglect in the epidemiological surveillance and ticks control strategies in the West African sub-region and particularly in Benin.
5. Brucella seropositivity in chicken and risk factors for Brucella infection at the animal-human interface in Anambra State, Nigeria
Joseph Ikechukwu Onunkwo, Emmanuel Okechukwu Njoga, Ugochinyere Juliet Njoga, Emmanuel Ezeokafor and Samuel Okezie Ekere
International Journal of One Health, 4: 28-34
Aim: Brucellosis is an important bacterial zoonosis devastating both animal and human populations in many parts of the world. A seroepidemiological study of avian Brucella infection was conducted to determine the disease prevalence, risk factors, and hence the role of chicken in the epidemiology of brucellosis in Anambra State, Nigeria.
Materials and Methods: Rose Bengal plate test was used to test for Brucella antibody in sera samples collected from 410 chickens surveyed. The interview schedule was used to elicit information on the socioeconomic status, awareness of brucellosis and predisposing practices of poultry farmers, live bird sellers, and poultry carcass processors in the study area.
Results: An overall seroprevalence of 3% was recorded. Sex (female), free-range management system, breed (indigenous breed), and mix farming were the determinants of avian brucellosis in the state. Risk factors that may enhance human Brucella infection at the animal-human interface are non-use of personal protective clothing; poor awareness on brucellosis and methods of the disease spread or control, cohabitation with animals, and eating while on duty.
Conclusion: Chicken may be among the reservoirs of Brucella infection in Anambra State. There is an urgent need for an effective control program against brucellosis in the study area, using a coordinated One Health approach bearing in mind the public health and economic consequences of brucellosis.
17. Leptospirosis seropositivity and its serovars among cattle in Northeastern Malaysia
Aziah Daud, Nik Mohd Hafiz Mohd Fuzi, Mohd Mokhtar Arshad, Suratan Kamarudin, Wan Mohd Zahiruddin Wan Mohammad, Fairuz Amran and Nabilah Ismail
Veterinary World, 11(6): 840-844
Background: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease that infects human and livestock which causes economic losses to the farmers. It has been reported as one of the causes of reproductive failure in cattle and other ruminants, determining abortions, stillbirth, weak newborns, and decrease in their growth rate and milk production.
Aim: The objectives of this study were to determine the leptospirosis seroprevalence and to identify the predominant infecting serovars among cattle.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study involving 420 cattle from six randomly selected districts in Kelantan was conducted. A serological test using the microscopic agglutination test was conducted in the Institute of Medical Research with a cutoff titer for seropositivity of ≥1:100.
Results: The overall prevalence of leptospirosis seropositivity among cattle in this study was 81.7% (95% confidence interval: 63.5, 80.1). The most common reaction obtained with the sera tested was from the serovar Sarawak with 78.8%.
Conclusion: A high seroprevalence of leptospiral antibodies was found among cattle in Northeastern Malaysia. These findings urge that more studies are required to determine the reasons for the high seroprevalence among the cattle along with its transmission and pathogenicity of the local serovar Sarawak.