Monday, 30 October 2017

Survivin expression in canine spontaneous cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors and its prognostic importance

Research (Published online: 31-10-2017)
20. Survivin expression in canine spontaneous cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors and its prognostic importance
N. Kavya, S. Rao, M. L. Sathyanarayana, H. D. Narayanaswamy, S. M. Byregowda, L. Ranganath, A. Kamaran, K. M. Purushotham and T. K. Kishore
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1286-1291

Aim: The present study was carried out to know the expression level of survivin, an inhibitor of apoptosis protein with an objective to determine its prognostic importance in cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue tumors of dogs.

Materials and Methods: Forty cases of canine cutaneous and subcutaneous tissue tumors on histopathological examination revealed various round cell, epithelial, and mesenchymal cell tumors. Survivin gene expression was detected in all tumors tested by TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction assay by comparative cycle threshold method.

Results: The mean survivin gene expression value of benign tumors was 0.94±0.63 folds and that of malignant tumors was 18.87±5.30 folds. Postsurgical follow up of 30 malignant tumor cases revealed death in 8, recurrence in 7, and neoplastic free alive status in 15 dogs with mean survivin fold difference values of 48.49±12.39, 14.63±6.37, and 5.034±2.27, respectively. The mean survivin gene expression value was significantly higher in malignant (30 cases, 18.87±5.30) compared to benign tumors (10 cases, 0.94±0.63), and it varied between various postsurgical follow-up groups (p<0.05). Survival analysis, using survivin gene expression median cutoff value of 3.74 in 30 malignant tumors, was performed to predict probable survival period in malignant cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors of dogs.

Conclusion: Results of the present study indicated that the expression of survivin in canine cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors has prognostic value, and survivin expression greater than median cutoff value of 3.74 has a poor prognosis.

Keywords: cutaneous and subcutaneous tumors, prognostic value, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, survivin.

Friday, 27 October 2017

Virulence and extended-spectrum β-lactamase encoding genes in Escherichia coli recovered from chicken meat intended for hospitalized human consumption

Research (Published online: 28-10-2017)
19. Virulence and extended-spectrum β-lactamase encoding genes in Escherichia coli recovered from chicken meat intended for hospitalized human consumption
Gamal A. Younis, Rasha M. Elkenany, Mohamed A. Fouda and Noura F. Mostafa
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1281-1285
Aim: This study describes the prevalence of Escherichia coli in frozen chicken meat intended for human consumption with emphasis on their virulence determinants through detection of the virulence genes and recognition of the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) encoding genes (blaOXA and blaTEM genes).
Materials and Methods: A total of 120 frozen chicken meat samples were investigated for isolation of E. coli. All isolates were subjected to biochemical and serological tests. Eight serotypes isolated from samples were analyzed for the presence of various virulence genes (stx1stx2, and eae A genes) using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. Moreover, the strains were evaluated for the ESBL encoding genes (blaTEMand blaOXA).
Results: Overall, 11.66% (14/120) chicken meat samples carried E. coli according to cultural and biochemical properties. The most predominant serotypes were O78 and O128: H2 (21.5%, each), followed by O121: H7 and O44: H18. Molecular method detected that 2 strains (25%) harbored stx1, 3 strains (37.5%) stx2, and 3 strains (37.5%) both stx1 and stx2, while 1 (12.5%) strain carried eae A gene. Particularly, only O26 serotype had all tested virulence genes (stx1stx2, and eae A). The results revealed that all examined 8 serotypes were Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). The ESBL encoding genes (blaTEM and blaOXA) of STEC were detected in 4 (50%) isolates by multiplex PCR. The overall incidence of blaTEM and blaOXA genes was 3 (37.5%) and 2 (25%) isolates.
Conclusion: The present study indicates the prevalence of virulent and ESBL-producing E. coli in frozen chicken meat intended for hospitalized human consumption due to poor hygienic measures and irregular use of antibiotics. Therefore, the basic instructions regarding good hygienic measures should be adapted to limit public health hazard.
Keywords: blaOXAblaTEMeaeAEscherichia coli, extended-spectrum β-lactamases, stx1stx2.

Thursday, 26 October 2017

Bovine origin Staphylococcus aureus: A new zoonotic agent?

Research (Published online: 26-10-2017)
18. Bovine origin Staphylococcus aureus: A new zoonotic agent?
Relangi Tulasi Rao, Kannan Jayakumar and Pavitra Kumar
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1275-1280
Aim: The study aimed to assess the nature of animal origin Staphylococcus aureus strains. The study has zoonotic importance and aimed to compare virulence between two different hosts, i.e., bovine and ovine origin.
Materials and Methods: Conventional polymerase chain reaction-based methods used for the characterization of S. aureus strains and chick embryo model employed for the assessment of virulence capacity of strains. All statistical tests carried on R program, version 3.0.4.
Results: After initial screening and molecular characterization of the prevalence of S. aureus found to be 42.62% in bovine origin samples and 28.35% among ovine origin samples. Meanwhile, the methicillin-resistant S. aureus prevalence is found to be meager in both the hosts. Among the samples, only 6.8% isolates tested positive for methicillin resistance. The biofilm formation quantified and the variation compared among the host. A Welch two-sample t-test found to be statistically significant, t=2.3179, df=28.103, and p=0.02795. Chicken embryo model found effective to test the pathogenicity of the strains.
Conclusion: The study helped to conclude healthy bovines can act as S. aureus reservoirs. Bovine origin S. aureus strains are more virulent than ovine origin strains. Bovine origin strains have high probability to become zoonotic pathogen. Further, gene knock out studies may be conducted to conclude zoonocity of the bovine origin strains.
Keywords: chicken embryo model, Staphylococcus aureus, virulence, zoonotic agent.

Wednesday, 25 October 2017

Biochemical analysis of some serum trace elements in donkeys and horses in Eastern region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Research (Published online: 25-10-2017)
17. Biochemical analysis of some serum trace elements in donkeys and horses in Eastern region of Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Turke Shawaf, Faisal Almathen, Ahmad Meligy, Wael El-Deeb and Shahab Al-Bulushi
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1269-1274
Aim: Little is known about the serum levels of trace elements in donkeys and horses in Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to investigate the levels of some trace elements in these two species in the eastern region of Saudi Arabia and to compare the obtained results with the reference values.
Materials and Methods: Seventeen Arabian horses and twenty eight Hassawi donkeys were randomly selected for this study. All of the studied healthy animals were kept under a uniform feeding protocol without any minerals supplementations. Atomic absorption spectrometer is used to estimate the serum concentrations of selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), and zinc (Zn) in the analyzed samples.
Results: Significant differences between horses and donkeys were observed in three of the studied elements (Se, Mn, and Cr). Statistically significant differences were found in serum Se and Cr between male and female horses. The male donkey showed higher Mn, Cu, and Zn levels than female animals.
Conclusion: The obtained results of trace element levels in serum of Hassawi donkeys and Arabian horses in Saudi Arabia are considered as the first values to be published for these breeds. When compared to other animals, the measured amounts of Se, Mn, Cr, Cu, Fe, and Zn in the serum of horses and donkey are often differed, possibly because of the varying living or feeding conditions. Moreover, there were some differences in some of the trace elements concentrations related to animal's gender and species (horses and donkeys), which will be considered in the interpretation of the laboratory data.
Keywords: donkey, horse, serum, trace elements.

Tuesday, 24 October 2017

Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli recovered from traditional milk products in Kashan, Iran

Research (Published online: 24-10-2017)
16. Molecular characterization of Escherichia coli recovered from traditional milk products in Kashan, Iran
Farhad Sharafati Chaleshtori, Navid Mazroii Arani, Esmat Aghadavod, Afshin Naseri and Reza Sharafati Chaleshtori
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1264-1268
Aim: Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) strains as emerging groups of foodborne pathogens are responsible for most foodborne illnesses. The aim of this study was to determine the antibiotic resistance pattern in STEC isolated from traditional milk products and their molecular characterization.
Materials and Methods: A total of 116 samples were randomly purchased from local markets in Kashan, Iran, and evaluated for the occurrence of STEC by culturing and molecular methods. The antibiotic resistance of obtained isolates was determined by Kirby Bauer method. Furthermore, isolates were assayed for the presence of Shiga toxins (stx1 and stx2) and intimin gene (eae).
Results: The incidence of E. coli in 60 ice cream, 30 yoghurt, and 26 cheese samples was 8.33%, 10%, and 11.54%, respectively. The findings showed that 11 out of 11 (100%) E. coli had both stx1 and stx2 while eae gene was not found in E. coli isolated of traditional milk products. For E. coli strains carrying stx1 and stx2, highest antibiotic sensitive levels were related to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, norfloxacin, chloramphenicol, and ciprofloxacin, respectively.
Conclusion: The results showed relationship between the presence of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance. These results can be used for further studies on STEC as an emerging foodborne pathogen.
Keywords: Escherichia coli, milk products, molecular characterization.

Monday, 23 October 2017

Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya

Research (Published online: 23-10-2017)
15. Occurrence, treatment protocols, and outcomes of colic in horses within Nairobi County, Kenya
Anderson Gitari, James Nguhiu, Vijay Varma and Eddy Mogoa
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1255-1263
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine the treatments and their outcomes in horses with colic in Nairobi County, Kenya.

Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study to determine the occurrence, treatments, pain management, and outcomes of colic in horses in Nairobi County. Association between pain management protocols and the outcomes of colic with regard to recovery or death was also determined. Data collected from four equine practitioners were organized manually and given numerical codes as appropriate to facilitate entry into the computer. The coded data were entered into Microsoft Excel 2010 and exported to StatPlus pro 5.9.8 statistical package for analysis. Simple association tests were done between various factors and occurrence of colic.

Results: The incidence of colic for the 11 years was 3.1%, which constituted 68.0% spasmodic colic, 27.8% impaction colic, and 4.2% displacement colic. Flunixin meglumine as a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) was used as the only pain management treatment in 85.3% of the cases, flunixin meglumine and butorphanol as NSAID-OPIOD combination in 6.4% of the cases, while buscopan as an antispasmodic was recorded in 5.9% of the cases mainly in spasmodic colic. Univariate analysis revealed simple association between various factors and the type of colic a horse was having. There was an association between the type of colic and the decision-making on the pain management protocol to use, whether single analgesic protocol (χ2=22.5, p<0.001) or use of analgesic combinations (χ2=18.3, p<0.001). The type of colic strongly influenced the decision for performing nasogastric intubation (χ2=265, p<0.001), but performing nasogastric intubation was weakly (χ2=4.9, p=0.03) associated with horse recovery from colic. Type of colic also strongly influenced the need for the use of metabolic stimulants, particularly vitamin B-complex (χ2=99.3, p<0.001). Recovery or death of the horse from colic was strongly associated with the type of colic (χ2=250, p<0.001). The possibility of recurrence of colic was weakly (χ2=4.6, p=0.04) determined by the type of colic, a horse had. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the main cause of death was intestinal displacement and the majority of the horses with intestinal displacement died (β-estimate 2.7, odds ratio=0.07, p=0.007) compared to horses that had impaction colic.

Conclusion: The incidence of colic is 3.1%, and the most common type of colic is spasmodic followed by impaction. The most common pain management protocol for colic is NSAIDs, mainly flunixin meglumine, followed by flunixin-butorphanol combination. Surgery for horses with colic in Nairobi County is not commonly done due to impeding poor prognoses. The horse owners tend to prefer euthanasia for such cases.

Keywords: pain management, colic, incidence, Nairobi, treatment.

Thursday, 19 October 2017

Factors influencing growth hormone levels of Bali cattle in Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa Islands, Indonesia

Research (Published online: 19-10-2017)
14. Factors influencing growth hormone levels of Bali cattle in Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa Islands, Indonesia
N. K. Suwiti, I N. K. Besung and G. N. Mahardika
Veterinary World, 10(10): 1250-1254
Aim: Bali cattle (Bos javanicus) are an Indonesian's native cattle breed that distributed in Asia to Australia. The scientific literature on these cattle is scarce. The growth hormone (GH) of Bali cattle is investigated from three separated islands, namely, Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa.
Materials and Methods: Forty plasma samples were collected from each island, and the GH was measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The data were analyzed based on the origin, sex, and cattle raising practices.
Results: We found that the GH level (bovine GH [BGH]) of animal kept in stall 1.72±0.70 μg/ml was higher than free-grazing animal 1.27±0.81 μg/ml. The GH level was lower in female (1.22±0.62 μg/ml) compared to male animals (1.77±0.83 μg/ml).
Conclusion: We conclude that the level of BGH in Bali cattle was low and statistically equal from all origins. The different level was related to sex and management practices. Further validation is needed through observing the growth rate following BGH administration and discovering the inbreeding coefficient of the animal in Indonesia.
Keywords: Bali cattle, growth hormone, Indonesia.