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25. Identification and characterization of a novel infectious bursal disease virus from outbreaks in Maharashtra Province of India
Sudhakar P. Awandkar, Prabhakar A. Tembhurne, Jeevan A. Kesharkar, Nitin V. Kurkure, Sandeep P. Chaudhari, Sachin W. Bonde and Vijay C. Ingle
Veterinary World, 11(10): 1516-1525
Aim: The study was undertaken to isolate infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) from clinical cases in broiler and cockerel flocks of Maharashtra state, India, and its molecular epidemiological investigation.
Materials and Methods: The morbid bursal tissues were collected from flocks suspected for IBD. The samples were subjected for virus adaptation in primary chicken embryo fibroblast (CEF) cells followed by confirmation by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for partial VP2 sequence and phylogenetic analysis.
Results: The isolation of IBDV from field samples took seven blind passages for adaptation in CEF. The cytopathic effects included rounding, aggregation, vacuolation, and detachment of the cells. The RT-PCR showed amplification of 627 bp amplicon specific to the primers for VP2 gene fragment which confirmed successful adaptation and isolation of IBDV using CEF. The nucleotide and deduced amino acids based on phylogeny clustered the current isolate in a distinct clade with classical virulent and antigenic variants. It showed divergence from very virulent (vv) and vaccine strains of Indian origin. The isolate showed unique amino acid substitution at A329V as compared to all other IBDVs. The variation in key amino acids was reported at A222, I242, Q249, Q253, A256, T270, N279, T284, I286, L294, N299, and V329. It shared conserved amino acids at position A222, I242, and Q253 as reported in vvIBDV isolates. However, the amino acids reported at position T270, N279, T284, L294, and N299 are conserved in classic, antigenic variant and attenuated strains of IBDV. The amino acids at positions N279 and T284 indicated that the isolate has key amino acids for cell culture replication.
Conclusion: The IBDV field isolate does not reveal the full nucleotide sequence signature of vvIBDV as well as vaccine strains. Hence, we can conclude that it might not belong to vvIBDVs of Indian origin and the vaccine strain used in the region. This may be suggestive of the evolution of the IBDV in the field due to the coexistence of circulating field strains and live attenuated hot strains, resulting into morbidity and mortality, warranting the need for safer protective vaccines, and implementation of stringent biosecurity measures to minimize loss to farmers.
24. Genetic resistance of eight native Egyptian chicken breeds having chicken B-cell marker 6 gene post-challenge with field strain of Marek's disease-induced tumor virus
Hala A. Shaheen, H. A. Hussein, M. M. Elsafty and M. A. Shalaby
Veterinary World, 11(10): 1510-1515
Aim: The aim of this work was to detect chicken B-cell marker 6 (ChB6) gene in some native breeds in Egypt and find the relationship between founded genes in these different breeds to determine the resistance of native Egyptian breeds of chicken to Marek's disease (MD).
Materials and Methods: A total of 14 different chicken breeds (30 each) including ten native breeds in addition to SPF Lohmann, High Line, Bovans, and Roodiland were used. Blood samples were collected for the detection of (ChB6,) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and sequenced to determine the presence or absence of ChB6 gene. Experimental infection was done using local field isolated MD virus (MDV) of 11 (1 day old) unvaccinated chick breeds having no maternal antibodies against MDV. Ten breeds of them carry ChB6 gene, eight breeds were native, and the rest two breeds were SPF Lohmann and High Line in addition to a group of ChB6 gene-lacking breed (Bovans) were infected. Spleen samples were collected from all infected breeds at 20th, 25th, 30th, 35th, and 40th weeks post-infection and tested by PCR assay for the detection of MDV. Furthermore, at 40th week post-infection, tumorized spleen sample of Bovans breed was collected and prepared for examination by transmission electron microscope (TEM) to confirm the presence of MDV.
Results: Our results revealed the positivity of 10 out of 14 breeds (Gimmizah , Sinai, Dandarawi, Fayoumi, Golden Montazah, Matrouh, Beheri, Dokki, SPF Lohmann, and High Line) to the presence of ChB6 gene and resistance to MDV infection, while the Bovans, Mandarah , Inshas and Roodiland breeds lack the ChB6 gene and are susceptible to MDV infection. The collected spleen samples revealed negative for the presence of challenged MDV by PCR in 10 breeds (Gimmizah, Sinai, Dandarawi, Fayoumi, Golden Montazah, Matrouh, Beheri, Dokki, SPF Lohmann, and High Line) and positive for Bovans breed. TEM is used to confirm MDV infection in Bovans group which demonstrated tumors.
Conclusion: The study confirms the relationship between the presence of ChB6 gene in our native breeds and the absence of tumors.
23. Bacteriological survey of bulk tank milk from dairy farms in Montero, Santa Cruz, Bolivia
Yu Michimuko-Nagahara, Yu Tamura and Masateru Koiwa
Veterinary World, 11(10): 1506-1509
Background and Aim: Recently, bacterial surveys for mastitis-causing pathogens in bulk tank milk (BTM) have been conducted in several countries worldwide. However, no such surveys have been reported from Bolivia. Therefore, the present study aimed to estimate the prevalence of mastitis pathogens in BTM from dairy farms in Montero, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
Materials and Methods: Between July 2016 and August 2017, a total of 43 BTM samples were collected from 3264 cows to determine bulk tank somatic cell counts (BTSCC) and identify mastitis-causing bacteria. BTSCC was classified as follows: = <100×103, 100-500×103, 500-1000×103, and >1000×103 cells/mL.
Results: Mastitis-causing pathogens identified by agar medium cultures included Bacillus spp., coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), coliforms, Staphylococcus aureus (SA), streptococci, and other species. The proportions of BTSCC of <100×103, 200-500×103, 500-1000×103, and >1000×103 cells/ml were 0%, 37%, 51%, and 12%, respectively. The proportions of coliforms, streptococci, CNS, Bacillus spp., SA, and others detected in BTM were 33%, 30%, 16%, 7%, 2%, and 16%, respectively.
Conclusion: Although the herd prevalence of contagious mastitis-causing pathogens, such as SA, in BTM was low, increased BTSCC were identified in Montero, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
Keywords: bacterial survey, Bolivia, bulk tank milk, dairy farm, mastitis.
22. The effect of Toxoplasma gondii on plasma serotonin concentration in sheep
Annamaria Castello, Giuseppe Bruschetta, Renato Paolo Giunta, Anna Maria Fausta Marino and Alida Maria Ferlazzo
Veterinary World, 11(10): 1500-1505
Background and Aim:Toxoplasma gondii is an intracellular parasite that commonly infects warm-blooded animals, including humans. Virtually all species can be infected, but a species-specific variability is evident, in terms of both type and severity of the symptoms encountered. As serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]) plays an important regulatory role in both physiological and immune responses, the aim of this research was to assess whether toxoplasmosis disease could affect plasma 5-HT concentration and/or hematochemical parameters in a particularly susceptible species to infection as sheep.
Materials and Methods: 5-HT plasma levels were analyzed in platelet-poor plasma fraction by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Blood count and hematochemical parameters were evaluated. Total proteins (TPs), glucose (Glu), and lactate dehydrogenase were determined by a spectrophotometer.
Results: Results showed significantly higher levels in plasma 5-HT, monocytes, and TP and significantly lower levels of Glu, in infected sheep compared to the control group.
Conclusion: Results could support the hypothesis of an effect of toxoplasmosis infection on plasma 5-HT concentrations in sheep. More research is needed to assess the function of 5-HT in the regulation of infected sheep's immune responses.
Aim: The composition and activity of honey depend on its floral origin. Honey collected from Tulkarm was evaluated for physicochemical property and antioxidant content as well as a diuretic and wound healing activity. Its effect on kidney function was evaluated and compared with furosemide.
Materials and Methods: Honey was collected in Tulkarm, Palestine, and its phenol, flavones, and flavonol content were assessed. The antioxidant activity was determined with the use of colorimetric assays, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and 2,2-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid). Two sets of experiments were conducted. First experiment: 18 rats were used for the evaluation of diuretic activity of honey. The rats received either honey or furosemide. Renal function test, uric acid, and serum and urine electrolytes assay were performed. Second experiment: 18 male mice were used to evaluate the wound healing property of honey. Wounds were created on mice skin and treated daily with honey or Madecassol. Measurements of wounds were performed over a period of 12 days.
Results: The physical and chemical parameters of Tulkarm honey are within the limits of the European legislation and fulfilling the criteria described in the standard codex for honey. It contains antioxidant compounds and shows antioxidant activity. Oral honey increased creatinine clearance and urine volume, sodium, and chloride without causing hypokalemia or affecting blood urea, uric acid, or serum creatinine level. The diuretic activity of furosemide was associated with hypokalemia. Topical honey application enhanced wound closure when compared with the Madecassol application.
Conclusion: The study is the first to report that honey collected from Tulkarm has a considerable diuretic effect without affecting serum electrolytes or kidney function test and exhibits strong antioxidant activity and wound healing property.
20. An analysis of common foodborne parasitic zoonoses in slaughtered sheep and cattle in Tehran, Iran, during 2015-2018
Ali Pezeshki, Hadi Aminfar and Majid Aminzare
Veterinary World, 11(10): 1486-1490
Background and Aim: Cystic echinococcosis, Echinococcus granulosus, and liver flukes, such as Fasciola spp. and Dicrocoelium dendriticum, are important parasitic zoonoses, where they able to cause significant veterinary, medical, and economic problems. The present study was carried out to obtain the updated knowledge on the frequency of hydatidosis, fasciolosis, and dicrocoeliosis in the slaughtered sheep and cattle.
Materials and Methods: Information were collected from meat inspection records using systematically visual inspection, palpation, and incision of the visceral organs in the industrial abattoir in Tehran, the capital of Iran, between February 1, 2015, and January 31, 2018. For an analysis of the data, SPSS version 16 was applied.
Results: The hydatidosis infection in sheep and cattle was 2.48% and 2.25%, respectively. With respect to liver flukes, 0.62% and 0.25% sheep and cattle were infected by Fasciola spp., respectively; furthermore, 2.86% sheep and 0.79% cattle were positive for D. dendriticum.
Conclusion: The findings will provide considerable awareness for the future monitoring and control of these potentially important infections.
Keywords: dicrocoeliasis, fascioliasis, hydatidosis, sheep and cattle, slaughterhouse.
19. Nutritional potentialities of some tree leaves based on polyphenols and rumen in vitro gas production
K. S. Giridhar, T. M. Prabhu, K. Chandrapal Singh, V. Nagabhushan, T. Thirumalesh, Y. B. Rajeshwari and B. C. Umashankar
Veterinary World, 11(10): 1479-1485
Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate eight tree leaves based on polyphenolic content and rumen in vitro incubation and gas production technique (RIVIGPT) for their nutritive potentiality.
Materials and Methods: Eight selected tree leaves, namely Sesbania grandiflora, Melia dubia, Dillenia spp., Artocarpus heterophyllus, Commiphora caudata, Moringa oleifera, Leucaena leucocephala, and Acacia auriculiformis, were selected for proximate composition, forage fiber fractions, total phenolics (TPs), non-tannin phenols (NTPs), total tannins (TTs), condensed tannins (CTs), and hydrolysable tannins (HTs); RIVIGP with and without polyethylene glycol (PEG); and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) (modified in vitro two stage) analysis was conducted. On the basis of RIVIGPT, the in vitro digestible organic matter (IVDOM) and dry matter intake (DMI) was calculated.
Results: Crude protein (CP) content of tree leaves ranged from 9.59 to 25.81%, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) 28.16 to 53.33%, acid detergent fiber (ADF) 21.26 to 41.7%, acid detergent lignin (ADL) 3.62 to 21.98%, TP 1.83 to 17.35%, TT 0.40 to 15.47%, and CTs 0.02 to 15.26%. IVDMD (%) was ranged from 64.95 to 88.12. The mean metabolizable energy (ME) (MJ/Kg) of tree leaves estimated with and without PEG was 7.75±0.56 and 8.75±0.39, in vitro gas production at 24 h (IVGP24) (ml) 31.06±4.14 and 37.09±2.64, initial gas production (a) (ml) 0.49±0.63 and 1.33±0.72, potential gas production (D) (ml) 38.74±4.27 and 43.79±2.44, rate of gas production (k) (h-1) 0.11±0.02 and 0.11±0.013, t1/2 (ml) 9.81±2.41 and 7.42±0.80, in vitro gas production at 96 h IVGP96 (ml) 39.50±4.430 and 45.14±2.65, the predicted IVDOM (%) 55.44±4.15 and 61.98±3.03, and DMI (g/Kg W0.75) 103.1±14.76 and 104.3±10.16, respectively. The addition of PEG showed an improvement in IVGP24, IVGP96, ME, predicted IVDOM, and predicted DMI. CP was positively correlated with ME, IVGP24, IVGP96, a+b, k (r=0.749, p<0.05), IVDMD, IVDOM, and DMI (r=0.838, p<0.05) and negatively correlated with a and t1/2. NDF, ADF, and ADL contents were negatively correlated with ME (r=0.899, p<0.05), IVGP24 (r=-0.867, p<0.05), IVGP96 (r=-0.858, p<0.05), a+b (p<0.05), k (r=-0.828, p<0.05), IVDMD, IVDOM (r=-0.853, p<0.05), and DMI and positively correlated with a and t1/2. TP, TT, and CT were negatively correlated with ME, IVGP, IVGP96, a+b, k, IVDMD, IVDOM, and DMI and positively correlated with a (r=0.808, p<0.05) and t1/2. ME (MJ/Kg) was positively correlated with IVGP24 (r=0.938, p<0.05), IVGP96 (r=0.875, p<0.05), a+b (r=0.813, p<0.05), k (r=0.731, p<0.05), IVDMD, IVDOM (r=0.985, p<0.05), and DMI (r=0.727, p<0.05) and negatively correlated with a and t1/2.
Conclusion: In the present study, the potentiality of tree leaves was assessed based on CP, ADF, ADL, TP, CT, IVGP, ME, IVDMD, predicted IVDOM, and predicted DMI. Based on this, it can be concluded that S. grandiflora, M. dubia, M. Oleifera, and L. leucocephala were graded as best; A. heterophyllus and C. caudata as moderate; and Dillenia spp. and A. auriculiformis as lowest potential ruminant feed.
Keywords: chemical composition, in vitro, in vitro dry matter digestibility, in vitro digestible organic matter, metabolizable energy, polyethylene glycol, rumen in vitro incubation and gas production, ruminants, tannins, tree leaves.