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24. Effects of secretome on cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction in rats
Surya Agus Prihatno, Irma Padeta, Arinda Devi Larasati, Betty Sundari, Annisa Hidayati, Yuda Heru Fibrianto and Teguh Budipitojo
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1349-1356
Background: Testicular dysfunction is a degenerative disorder characterized by failure in the synthesis of reproductive hormones and spermatogenesis. Secretome derived from the human umbilical mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) has been reported to repair some degenerative disorders.
Aim: This study aimed to investigate the effect of secretome derived from the human umbilical MSCs on cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction in rats.
Materials and Methods: Thirty-six male Wistar rats were divided into the control and secretome-treated groups. In the secretome-treated group, testicular dysfunction was induced by 3 mg/kg BW of cisplatin intraperitoneally 3 times with 3-day intervals. The secretome-treated group was divided according to dose: Low-dose (0.2 mL/kg BW) and high-dose (0.5 mL/kg BW) groups. Secretomes were injected intraperitoneally once a week for 3 weeks. 1 week after the injection of secretome, the cauda epididymis of the rats was removed for spermatozoa evaluation and histological examination.
Results: After the injection of secretome, the sperm motility of the high-dose group showed thin wave-like, rare, and slow movements. No abnormal sperm morphology was observed in all the treated groups. The number of spermatozoa increased gradually in the high-dose group after the injection of secretome. The developmental stages of the spermatogenic cells were complete in both spermatozoa groups after the injection of secretome. However, the spermatozoa in the seminiferous tubules of the high-dose group were denser. Vimentin and cytokeratin immunoreactivities were very strong in the high-dose group 1 week after the second secretome injection.
Conclusion: High-dose secretome derived from the human fetal umbilical cord could increase the number and motility of sperms in rats with cisplatin-induced testicular dysfunction. The administration of high-dose secretome was effective 1 week after the second dose, as indicated by very strong immunoreactivity for vimentin and cytokeratin. Moreover, secretome could promote the regeneration of the seminiferous tubules of both the groups.
23. Dietary encapsulated probiotic effect on broiler serum biochemical parameters
P. Yazhini, P. Visha, P. Selvaraj, P. Vasanthakumar and V. Chandran
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1344-1348
Aim: The study aimed to evaluate the effect of encapsulated probiotic bacteria (Lactobacillus lactis and Bifidobacterium bifidum) on broiler serum biochemical parameters.
Materials and Methods: Encapsulation protects the probiotics and increases their livability on exposure to unfavorable processing and storage temperatures and gastrointestinal pH. Hence, an in vitro study was undertaken to encapsulate the probiotic bacteria L. lactis and B. bifidum with sodium alginate and chitosan and evaluate the encapsulation efficiency. This experiment was conducted with 288-day-old broiler chicken; they were distributed randomly into eight treatments and six replicates in each treatment (six birds in each replicate) and given with standard feed.
Results: Supplementation of the encapsulated bacteria either alone or in combination (T4, T6, and T8) significantly (p<0.05) increased mean total serum protein, albumin, and globulin as compared to the birds that were not supplemented with any probiotic (T1 and T2) or supplemented with non-encapsulated bacteria (T3, T5, and T7). Supplementation of the encapsulated bacteria either alone or in combination (T4, T6, and T8) significantly (p<0.05) lowered mean total serum cholesterol, serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, and serum triglycerides, as compared to the birds that were not supplemented with any probiotic (T1 and T2) or supplemented with non-encapsulated bacteria (T3, T5, and T7).
Conclusion: It may be concluded that supplementation of the encapsulated probiotic bacteria either alone or in combination significantly increased total serum protein, albumin, and globulin and significantly lowered mean total serum cholesterol, serum LDL cholesterol, and serum triglycerides as compared to the birds that were not supplemented with any probiotic or supplemented with non-encapsulated bacteria.
22. Detection of Toxoplasma gondii copro-prevalence by polymerase chain reaction using repetitive 529 bp gene in feces of pet cats (Felis catus) in Yogyakarta, Indonesia
Muhammad Hanafiah, Joko Prastowo, Sri Hartati, Dwinna Aliza and Raden Wisnu Nurcahyo
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1338-1343
Aim: The aim of this research was to determine the copro-prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with repetitive 529 bp gene and to construct the phylogenetic tree of Toxoplasmaoocyst from pet cats in Yogyakarta.
Materials and Methods: 9 of 132 pet cat samples which serologically positive for Toxoplasma were used in this research. To determine the copro-prevalence of T. gondii in pet cat, 10 g of feces samples taken from practitioners and household cats in Yogyakarta were used in the PCR method utilizing repetitive 529 bp gene sequences.
Results: The result shows that copro-prevalence by PCR using repetitive 529 bp gene was 33.3% (3/9). The phylogenetic tree of Toxoplasma grouped into two clades, which clade 1 consists of Toxoplasma isolates collected from pet cats in Yogyakarta Indonesia and T. gondii isolates from China and in clade 2 consist of the T. gondii isolates from India.
Conclusion: Copro-prevalence of T. gondii in pet cats in Yogyakarta by means of PCR using repetitive 529 bp gene is around 33.3%.
Keywords: copro-prevalence, pet cat, polymerase chain reaction, Toxoplasma gondii.
21. Epidemiological surveillance of bovine viral diarrhea and rift valley fever infections in camel
Halla E. K. El Bahgy, Hala K. Abdelmegeed and Marawan A. Marawan
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1331-1337
Aim: This study was designed to investigate the current epidemiological situation of bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and rift valley fever virus (RVFV) infection of camels originating from Sudan "smuggler" and Egypt as part of our future plan for a national surveillance program in Egyptian provinces, which will aid in establishment of control strategy for animal diseases.
Materials and Methods: This investigation was accomplished using serological diagnostic and molecular biology techniques. A total number of 200 blood samples were collected from camel (120 originated from Sudan "smuggler" and 80 from local breed) and were subjected for testing both BVDV and RVFV occurrence with different age and sex.
Results: Sixty-six of the 200 camels (33%) were positive for BVDV antibodies, and 44 (22%) for BVDV antigen (Ag), and 27 of the 200 camels (13.5%) were positive for RVFV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies. On the other hand, the seroprevalence of BVDV for antibodies (47.5%), Ag (31.6%), and RVFV IgG antibodies (16.6%) was higher in camel originated from Sudan "smuggler" than of local breed which was 11.2% for BVDV antibodies and 7.5% for BVDV Ag, while it was 8.7% for RVFV IgG antibodies. The incidence of BVDV antibodies, Ag, and RVFV IgG antibodies was the highest in male, up to 9 years of age. The frequency of positive cases was significantly different according to the origin of samples and sex and age of camel for BVDV and RVFV. In addition, seven serologically positive samples for BVDV and five serologically positive samples for RVFV were submitted as a buffy coat for molecular detection by one-step - reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results demonstrated that three samples were positive for BVDV of camel originated from Sudan (smuggler), while no RVFV Ag was detected in all five samples. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of the amplicons obtained from positive RT-PCR samples (three samples) indicated 100% nucleotide homology with Sudan strain 2015 except only one (missense point mutation) by substitution of A to T at position 345 that changed the coded amino acids from T (Threonine) to S (Serine) at residue 115.
Conclusion: Camels act as risk animals for the introduction of many infectious diseases from Sudan to Egypt, especially transboundary animal diseases, so strict quarantine measures should be taken during importation of live animals from Sudan to prevent the spread of such diseases.
20. First-time serological and molecular detection of Helicobacter pylori in milk from Algerian local-breed cows
Meryem Guessoum, Zehor Guechi and Mounir Adnane
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1326-1330
Aim: The present study was conducted to detect and identify Helicobacter pylori within local cow breeds in the central region of Algeria.
Materials and Methods: Two hundred (n=200) cows from three provinces of the central region of Algeria were studied, between January 2016 and September 2017. Each cow was subject to stool, milk, and blood sampling. Milk and fecal samples were used to detect and identify H. pylori using bacteriology culture method. Blood and milk samples were used to detect H. pylori immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Polymerase chain reaction was used to confirm the abundance of H. pylori in milk by detecting glmM gene.
Results: Out of 200 sera and 200 milk samples, 12% (24) and 4% (8/200) were positive for the H. pylori IgG antibody. glmM gene was detected in the milk of 13% of cows and was confirmed in all cows presenting IgG in milk.
Conclusion: From the present study, we concluded that the glmM gene is an important marker for detecting H. pylori in milk. Moreover, Algerian local-breed cows are a source of H. pylori and could be responsible for serious zoonosis.
19. Prevalence of antibodies against visceralizing Leishmania spp. in brown rats from Grenada, West Indies
Alexa Rosypal von Dohlen, Nautica Cheathem, Keshaw Tiwari and Ravindra Nath Sharma
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1321-1325
Background and Aim:Leishmania spp. are known to cause disease in man and animals. Rats are considered important reservoir hosts and transmission takes place through the bite of female sand fly, Phlebotomusspp. To the best of our knowledge, there is no published information on Leishmania infection in rats in Grenada. This study was conducted to estimate the antibodies for visceralizing Leishmania spp. (VL) in rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Grenada.
Materials and Methods: A total of 146 brown rats (R. norvegicus) were trapped live from two parishes (St. George and St. David) in Grenada. Following anesthesia, blood was collected from the heart through thoracic puncture. The serum was collected after the centrifugation of blood. Serum was tested for antibodies to VL. with a commercially available immunochromatographic dipstick test which is licensed for use in animals and humans.
Results: The seroprevalence of antibodies against Leishmania spp. was found in 34 of 146 rats (23.3%; CI 95% from 16.70 to 30.99). No significant differences were found between sexes and young or adults. The prevalence between parishes (St. George and St. David) was also not significant.
Conclusion: The results show that rats (R. norvegicus) in Grenada are exposed to Leishmania spp. The rats could play an important role in the transmission of leishmaniasis to humans and other animals in Grenada.
Keywords: brown rats, Grenada, leishmaniasis, prevalence, serum antibodies.
18. Effect of Newcastle disease virus level of infection on embryonic length, embryonic death, and protein profile changes
Dahliatul Qosimah, Sri Murwani, Edhy Sudjarwo and M. Arfan Lesmana
Veterinary World, 11(9): 1316-1320
Background and Aim: Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an obligate intracellular parasite. Virus can only live on living cells. The embryonated chicken eggs (ECEs) are one of the growth media of virus that is a cheap, easy to do, and accurate for showing patterns of virus change in the host. Higher virus titers indicate the higher number of viruses and more virulent to infect host. This research aimed to investigate the effect of different level of NDV titer infection in ECEs on protein profile, embryonic length, mortality, and pathological change.
Materials and Methods: The study used a completely randomized design of six treatments and seven replications. The treatments were different level of NDV titer infection in allantoic fluid (AF) of 9-11 days ECEs, i.e., P1=20, P2=26, P3=27, P4=28, P5=29, and P6=210 hemagglutination unit (HAU). All samples were separated by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with p=0.05 for length of the embryo and descriptive analysis for embryo mortality, pathology change, and protein band.
Results: The result showed that protein profile of NDV-infected ECEs of all different levels is more complex than protein profile of no NDV-infected ECEs. NDV infected of all different levels showed longer size embryo, higher mortality embryo at the first 2 days, and higher occurrence of hemorrhagic in all part of bodies of embryo than those of no NDV infected.
Conclusion: It was concluded that NDV infection of all different level decreased health conditions of chicken embryo of ECEs of 9-11 days old. Different level of NDV infection of ECEs of 9-11 days old showed no significantly different embryo profiles. However, all of the NDV-infected embryos were shorter, death on the 2nd day, and suffered more hemorrhage on all body surfaces than uninfected NDV embryos.