Audience: Veterinary World readers represent education, industry and government, including research, teaching, administration, veterinary medicine and technical services in more than 150 countries. Veterinary World is of interest to those in veterinary medicine, infectious diseases, public health, parasitology, food science, epidemiology, immunology, virology, bacteriology, nutrition, pathology, physiology, gynaecology, wildlife.
6. Investigation of haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, and some biochemical parameters in calves with omphalitis
K. Bozukluhan, O. Merhan, M. Ogun, B. Kurt, M. Cihan, E. E. Erkilic, G. Gokce, U. Aydin and A. Ozcan
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1055-1058
Aim: In this study, it was aimed to determine the concentration of some important acute phase proteins (APPs) and some biochemical parameters pre-operative and post-operative in calves with omphalitis.
Materials and Methods: A total of 20 calves were used in the study and they consist of 10 clinically healthy calves that were used as a control and 10 calves with omphalitis were used as the treatment group. Blood samples were collected from Vena jugularis of animals to tubes with anticoagulant (sodium citrate) and without anticoagulants, pre-operative (day 0), and post-operative (day 7). Samples were used to determine the concentration of haptoglobin (Hp), serum amyloid A (SAA), ceruloplasmin (Cp), fibrinogen, glucose, total protein, albumin, urea, total bilirubin, creatinine, calcium, phosphorus, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) concentrations.
Results: While the Hp, SAA, Cp, fibrinogen, urea, creatinine, total bilirubin, ALP, and GGT concentrations were statistically and significantly increasing rather than the control group during the pre-operative period for calves with omphalitis, they decreased to the post-operative period. Moreover, an insignificant increase in the glucose, total protein, and AST concentrations and an insignificant decrease in the albumin, calcium, and phosphorus concentrations were statistically determined.
Conclusion: We have the opinion that the assessment of biochemical parameters and especially APP levels in calves with the omphalitis together with the clinical findings may be important in terms of the treatment and prognosis.
5. The effect of cashew leaf extract on small intestine morphology and growth performance of Jawa Super chicken
H. Setiawan, M. E. Jingga and H. T. Saragih
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1047-1054
Aim: This research aimed to study the effect of leaf extract of cashew as a bioactive compound in feed on the morphology of the small intestine in Jawa Super chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus).
Materials and Methods: This study used 72 1-day-old Jawa Super chicks reared for a further 16 days. We used a randomized complete design, in which basal feed was supplemented with ethanolic extract of cashew leaves at 0 g/kg feed (control), 1.25 g/kg feed (P1), 2.5 g/kg feed (P2), 5 g/kg feed (P3), 10 g/kg feed (P4), and 20 g/kg feed (P5). Parameters observed included growth performance, chicken morphometry, and morphology of the small intestine, comprising the length and width of the villi, the depth of the crypt, and the number and size of goblet cells in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Data analysis was conducted using one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan's test, with significance defined as p<0.05.
Results: Ethanolic extract of cashew leaf significantly increased body weight, feed efficiency, body morphometry, villus length, crypt depth, number of goblet cells, and extent of goblet cell area of the small intestine at 16 days. The morphological results from the small intestine showed that P4 and P5 were significantly better than control.
Conclusion: Cashew leaf ethanolic extract mixed with 10 g/kg basal feed is effective as a natural feed supplement for Jawa Super chickens.
Keywords: cashew leaf, feed supplement, growth performance, Jawa Super chicken, small intestine.
4. Red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum): From population genetics to functional genomics
Harshit Kumar, Manjit Panigrahi, Supriya Chhotaray, V. Bhanuprakash, Rahul Shandilya, Arvind Sonwane and Bharat Bhushan
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1043-1046
Tribolium castaneum is a small and low maintenance beetle that has emerged as a most suitable insect model for studying developmental biology and functional genetic analysis. Diverse population genetic studies have been conducted using Tribolium as the principal model to establish basic facts and principles of inbreeding experiments and response to the selection and other quantitative genetics fundamentals. The advanced molecular genetic studies presently focused on the use of Tribolium as a typical invertebrate model for higher diploid eukaryotes. After a whole genome sequencing of Tribolium, many areas of functional genomics were unraveled, which enabled the use of it in many technical approaches of genomics. The present text reviews the use of Tribolium in techniques such as RNAi, transgenic studies, immune priming, immunohistochemistry, in situ hybridization, gene sequencing for characterization of microRNAs, and gene editing using engineered endonuclease. In contrast to Drosophila, the T. castaneum holds a robust systemic RNAi response, which makes it an excellent model for comparative functional genetic studies.
3. Pathogens isolated from clinical cases of urinary tract infection in dogs and their antibiogram
Manisha Punia, Ashok Kumar, Gaurav Charaya and Tarun Kumar
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1037-1042
Aim: This study aims to determine the etiology of urinary tract infection (UTI) in dogs and to develop an antibiogram of organisms isolated.
Materials and Methods: Urine samples were collected either through catheterization or cystocentesis from 35 dogs suspected of UTI admitted to VCC, LUVAS, Hisar. Bacteria were identified on the basis of cultural characteristics in 22 samples, and all the isolates were subjected to in vitro antimicrobial sensitivity testing.
Results: The urine samples found positive for bacteria yielded pure colony growth in 77.27% and mixed growth in 22.73% samples, respectively. Escherichia coli (29.62%) and Streptococcus spp. (29.62%) were the most prevalent microorganisms followed by Staphylococcus spp. (22.22%), Klebsiella spp. (11.11%), Pseudomonas spp. (3.7%), and Bacillus spp. (3.7%). Overall, maximum sensitivity of isolates was found toward ceftriaxone/tazobactam (88.88%) and least toward amoxicillin and cloxacillin (29.62%).
Conclusion:E. coli and Streptococcus spp. were the most predominant bacteria isolated from UTI affected dogs. In vitro sensitivity revealed a significant proportion of bacteria to be multidrug resistant.
2. Seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants in organized and unorganized sectors of Gujarat state, India
A. Kanani, S. Dabhi, Y. Patel, V. Chandra, O. R. Vinodh Kumar and R. Shome
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1030-1036
Aim: The present study aimed to study the seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants of Gujarat state, India, using Rose Bengal Plate test (RBPT) and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (iELISA).
Materials and Methods: A total of 2444 sera samples (675 sheep and 1769 goat) from unorganized sector and 1310 sera samples (861 sheep and 449 goat) from seven organized farms were collected for brucellosis screening.
Results: In unorganized sector, 23.70% sheep (160/675) and 15.99% goat (283/1769) were positive by RBPT and 24.44% sheep (165/675) and 17.24% goat (305/1769) by iELISA. The organized sector samples showed higher seroprevalence in goat (7.79 %, 35/449) than sheep (4.06 %, 35/861) by RBPT. Similarly, in iELISA, goat samples showed a higher seroprevalence (9.35%, 42/449) compared to sheep (7.50%, 65/861). The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of RBPT with ELISA were 88.69% and 99.65%, respectively, and showed a significant difference (p≤0.0001). The Chi-square analysis revealed a significant difference in seroprevalence between sectors (p≤0.01) and species (p≤0.01).
Conclusion: The seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants of Gujarat was investigated and showed a higher prevalence of brucellosis and warrants the implementation of proper preventive measures.
Keywords: brucellosis, Gujarat, indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Rose Bengal Plate test, seroprevalence, small ruminants.
1. Genetic and phylogenetic analysis of the outer capsid protein genes of Indian isolates of bluetongue virus serotype-16
Arpit Saxena, Sanchay K. Biswas, Karam Chand, Jishnu Naskar, Ankita Chauhan, Gulam Mohd, Neha Tewari, Kurat-ul-Ain, Muthannan A. Ramakrishnan and Awadh Bihari Pandey
Veterinary World, 11(8): 1025-1029
Aim: The aim of the study was to characterize bluetongue virus serotype 16 (BTV-16), recently isolated from different states of India. The evolutionary relationship of newly isolated BTV-16 and previously reported Indian and global BTV-16 isolates were compared using molecular analysis.
Materials and Methods: In the present study, five (n=5) BTV-16 isolates were used to amplify gene segment-2 and segment-6 encoding the outer capsid proteins VP2 and VP5, respectively. The amplified products were purified and sequenced by the Sanger sequencing method. The phylogenetic relationship and nucleotide identity of all five BTV-16 isolates were compared with previously reported Indian and global BTV-16 isolates. Nucleotide sequence data were aligned using the CLUSTAL W algorithm implemented in the MegAlign of DNASTAR program package (MegAlign 5.00, DNASTAR Inc., Madison, USA). Phylogenetic analyses were carried out using MEGA version 6.0 software with the best nucleotide substitution model.
Results: Phylogenetic analysis based on the VP2 and VP5 encoding genes, segregates Indian BTV-16 isolates in a distinct cluster with proximity to the Eastern topotype. Indian isolates make a monophyletic cluster with Eastern topotypes with Western topotype BTV-16 (BTV-16/NIG/AJ586694) occupying a separate cluster. Indian isolates were found to share 91.5%- 97.5% and 96.5%-98.9% identity at the nucleotide and deduced amino acid (aa) level, respectively, to the global BTV-16 isolates. There is a high degree of variation with the Nigerian isolate with 27.0-27.7% and 26.0-26.9% at the nucleotide and aa sequence level, respectively. These data suggest that Indian BTV-16 isolates might have evolved separately within the Eastern BTV topotype.
Conclusion: Phylogenetic analyses and nucleotide identity of BTV-16 isolates at the VP2 and VP5 gene encoded level indicate that isolates used in the present study might have evolved from a common Eastern topotype ancestor. The data presented in this study will be helpful for future selection of reference strains in a serological and molecular epidemiology study.
21. Blood biochemical profiles of Brahman crossbred cattle supplemented with different protein and energy sources
Nguyen Hong Xuan, Huynh Tan Loc and Nguyen Trong Ngu
Veterinary World, 11(7): 1021-1024
Aim: The experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of supplementing different levels of protein and energy sources on blood biochemical profiles of Brahman crossbred cattle.
Materials and Methods: The study consisted of two experiments in Brahman crossbred cattle in An Giang Province. In trial 1, 28 cattle of 178±12.5 kg were arranged in a completely randomized block design. In the second trial, another 24 cattle of 182±14.3 kg were allocated in a 2 × 3 factorial design. The experiments lasted for 90 days. Blood samples were taken at the end of the experiments, and plasma concentrations of metabolites and enzymes were analyzed by an automated biochemical analyzer (Humalyzer 3000, USA).
Results: The glucose concentration was highest at 1.83 mmol/L when supplemented with urea (60 g/head/d). Urea and creatinine content was not significantly different between treatments when cattle were supplemented with different protein and energy sources. In the treatment with 360 g/head/d soybean meal supplementation, cholesterol concentration was lowest (2.50 mmol/L), compared with the highest concentration (3.86 mmol/L) in the treatment with soybean meal at 720 g/head/ day. The total protein concentration showed the highest values at 94.5 g/L and 96.3 g/L when supplemented with soybean meal (720 g/head/day) and fish oil, respectively.
Conclusion: There were slightly altered blood biochemical profiles among cattle at different protein and energy source supplements.